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to 


of 


of  Toronto 


^rofessor  John  Satterly 
Department  of  ^hysics 
University  of  Toronto 


IUIDE  TO  DARTMOOR 


SOUTHERN    AND    WESTERN    SECTION 
comprising : 

PRINCETOWN,    TWO   BRIDGES, 

Hexworthy  &  Post  Bridge  Districts, 

ASHBURTON,  BRENT,  IVYBRIDGE 

and  Cornwood  Districts, 

AND 

PLYMPTON,  SH AUGH,  YELVERTON 

and  Dousland  Districts. 


By 
W.  CROSSING. 


A.   WHEATON    &   Co.,    Ltd., 

Booksellers  and  Stationers, 
223  High  Street,  EXETER,  and  EXMOUTH, 


FOREWORD. 


Having  purchased  the  remaining  stock  of  Mr.  Crossing's  "  GUIDE 
TO  DARTMOOR,"  we  have  pleasure  in  offering  the  same  to  the  lovers  of 
Dartmoor  in  a  more  convenient  form  than  previously  issued,  and  it  is 
hoped  in  the  amended  form  it  will  prove  much  more  practicable  to  the 
Rambler  and  the  Tourist. 

This  volume  comprises  Parts  1,  4  and  5,  which  covers  the  Southern 
and  Western  sections  of  the  Moor.  The  Northern  and  Eastern  portions, 
containing  Parts  2  and  3,  can  be  obtained  in  a  uniform,  volume  which 
describes  Tavistock,  Lydford,  Okehampton,  Sticklepath,  Chagford, 
Moreton,  Lustleigh,  Bovey  Tracey,  Cranmere  Pool  and  Antiquities  of 
the  Moor,  which  are  not  to  be  found  in  other  Guides. 

Visitors  to  the  West  will  find  our  moorland  country  a  source  of 
interest  and  delight,  and  during  their  perambulations  will  no  doubt  be 
glad  to  become  acquainted  with  other  works  relating  to  Glorious 
Devon.  We  therefore  invite  enquiries,  which  shall  receive  prompt  and 
careful  attention. 

A.  WHEATON    &   Co.,  LTD. 
223  HIGH  STREET,  EXETER. 


GUIDE  TO  DARTMOOR: 

A  Topographical  Description 
of  the  Forest  and  Commons 


WILLIAM    CROSSING, 

AUTHOR    OF 

''he  Ancient  Stone  Crosses  of  Dartmoor  and  Its  Borderland,  Amid  Devonia's  Alps 

Tales  of  the  Dartmoor  Pixies,  Gems  in  a  Granite  Setting,  A  Hundred 

Years  on  Dartmoor,  Folk  Rhymes  of  Devon, 

From  a  Dartmoor  Cot,  &c. 


WITH     MAPS     AND     SKETCHES. 

A  NEW  EDITION   IN  FIVE   PARTS. 


PART    I. 

Princetown,    Two    Bridges,    Hexworthy, 
And 

Post   Bridge   Districts. 


"If  you  want  sternness  and  loneliness  you  may  pass  into  Dartmoor.  There 
are  wastes  and  wilds,  crags  of  granite,  views  into  far-off  districts,  and  the  sound 
of  waters  hurrying  awav  over  their  rocky  beds,  enough  to  satisfy  the  largest 
hungering  and  thirsting  after  poetical  delight.'1 

WILLIAM  HOWITT:    Knr.il  Life  <>(  Kn^lmi.i 


JEieter: 

A.    WHEATON   &  Co.,   Ltd.,  Booksellers  and  Stationers, 
223   High  Street. 


OUT  OF  THE  LAND  OF  GORSE  AND  HEATHER 

TO 

THE   RIGHT   WORSHIPFUL 

THB   MAYOR   AND   MAYORESS   OF   PLYMOUTH, 
A.    EDMUND   SPENDER,    B.A., 

AND 

HELEN    FRANCES   SPENDER, 
GREETING. 


871797. 


PREFACE  TO  THIRD  EDITION. 


THE  favourable  reception  accorded  to  the  former  editions  of  this  Guide 
has  rendered  a  further  issue  necessary.  In  this  some  considerable 
alterations  in  the  arrangement  have  been  made.  While  a  description 
of  Dartmoor  in  one  volume  had  much  to  recommend  it,  the  plan  was 
also  not  without  its  disadvantages.  The  ground  covered  being 
extensive  it  was  impossible  to  produce  such  a  book  as  the  author 
considered  the  subject  demanded  without  its  becoming  rather  bulky, 
and  this  was  inconvenient  from  the  tourist's  point  of  view.  It  is  now 
divided  into  five  parts,  but  there  has  been  no  abridgement  of  matter. 
The  few  alterations  in  the  text  are  chiefly  of  the  nature  of  additions 
which  were  needed  in  order  to  bring  the  book  up  to  date. 

The  author  is  much  gratified  at  knowing  that  the  Guide  has  been 
found  helpful  by  the  tourist  in  the  past,  and  ventures  to  believe  that 
in  its  present  form  it  will  prove  of  still  greater  value  in  the  future. 

BI.ACK  DOWN,  DARTMOOR, 
April,   1914. 


DARTMOOR   GUIDE. 


EXETER 


POPLE'S 


NEW    LONDON    HOTEL 

(Visited  by  their  Majesties  The  King  and  Queen,  King  Edward  VII. 
and  Queen  Victoria.) 

Officially    appointed    by    the    "Royal    Automobile    Club," 
and   the    "Automobile   Association." 


A  charming  i8th  Century  Hotel,  with  every  modern  comfort 
and  luxury.  Beautiful  covered  Courtyard  as  Lounge.  Near  the 
Cathedral  and  Railway  Stations.  Electric  Light.  Night  Porter. 

SPLENDID    MOTOR    GARAGE 

Adjoining  the  Hotel,  with   Lock-up   Private   Boxes  and 
Inspection   Pits. 


Telegrams:  "  Fople,  Exeter.' 


Telephone :  146,  Exeter. 
R.     POPLE,    Proprietor. 


Houses 


Let 

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Repaired 

Painted 

Decorated. 


For  anything  to  do 
with  Houses  or 
Building 
Land  in 


Communicate 
with 


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Contractor 


and  House  Agent 

ROCKVALE,  YELVERTON.     'Phone  ia 


PREFACE. 


DURING  recent  years  the  claims  of  Dartmoor  as  a  holiday  and  health 
resort  have  become  widely  recognized.  Those  to  whom  an  old  world 
region  is  an  attraction  will  find  in  it  a  field  of  surpassing  interest.  No 
district  in  England  of  similiar  extent  is  so  rich  in  pre- historic  remains, 
and  in  none  does  Nature  wear  a  wilder  aspect. 

To  this  elevated  tract  of  land  no  guide  book,  in  the  true  sense  of 
the  term,  has  hitherto  appeared.  It  has,  of  course,  been  noticed  in 
county  guides,  and  there  are  also  topographical  works  and  handbooks 
descriptive  of  it,  but  in  the  former  the  accounts  are  necessarily  super- 
ficial, while  in  the  latter  the  visitor  is  not  given  any  directions  for 
finding  his  way  over  those  parts  of  the  waste  remote  from  roads.  To 
enable  him  to  learn  what  Dartmoor  really  is  he  needs  something  beyond 
notices  of  the  more  celebrated,  because  more  readily  accessible,  places 
and  objects  of  interest.  He  should  be  led  from  the  beaten  track,  and 
wander  among  the  hills  where  signs  of  man's  occupancy  are  not,  where 
silence  broods  over  the  sea  of  fen,  and  the  pasture  grounds  of  the 
cattle  that  range  at  will  are  as  they  were  when  the  Norman  herdsman 
drove  his  beasts  there  ;  or  he  should  stray  into  solitary  combes 
encumbered  with  the  ruined  huts  and  fallen  rock-pillars  of  the  people 
who  once  made  this  wild  land  their  home.  As  my  acquaintance  with 
Dartmoor  is  a  life-long  one,  and  as  it  has  been  with  me  a  subject  of 
study  and  of  systematic  investigation  during  many  years,  it  is  with 
some  degree  of  confidence  that  I  take  upon  myself  the  task  of  con- 
ducting the  visitor  over  it,  and  leading  him  into  its  remoter  parts. 

This  book  is  the  first  to  give  a  complete  topographical  description 
of  Dartmoor,  and  the  reader  may  depend  upon  its  being  correct.  Its 
aim  is  to  furnish  the  visitor  with  an  account  of  all  that  is  to  be  found 
on  the  moor  worthy  of  note,  and  to  acquaint  him  with  the  best  means 
of  reaching  the  various  objects  from  any  point.  The  districts  into 
which  the  moor  has  been  divided  are  described  in  the  excursions,  and 


viii.  PREFACE. 

at  the  end  of  these  are  given  routes  to  each  of  the  other  districts.  By 
this  arrangement  the  moor  is  crossed  in  every  conceivable  direction, 
so  that  it  is  not  possible  to  find  any  part  of  it  that  is  not  noticed  some- 
where in  the  book.  For  the  sake  of  convenience  the  terms  used  in 
connection  with  the  forest  and  commons  are  given,  with  their  mean- 
ings, in  glossarial  form,  some  archaeological  terms  being  also  included. 

I  desire  to  express  my  thanks  to  Mr.  PHILIP  GUY  STEVENS,  of 
Princetown,  for  the  series  of  pen-and-ink  sketches  he  has  been  at  such 
pains  to  furnish,  and  which  were  executed  on  the  spot.  It  is  hoped 
they  will  be  found  useful  as  a  means  of  helping  the  visitor  to  identify 
the  principal  tors  and  hills. 

If  I  gain  the  confidence  of  the  rambler  who  uses  this  book  my 
satisfaction  will  be  complete.  There  is  some  reason  for  me  to  hope 
that  I  shall  do  so,  as  I  venture  to  believe  that  he  will  discover  ere  we 
have  gone  far  on  our  wanderings  together  that  I  am  really  and  truly  a 
Dartmoor  man. 


CONTENTS. 
PART  I. 

PACK 

'Situation  and  Extent  of  Dartmoor i 

Hints  to  the  Dartmoor  Rambler  3 

Road  and  Rail  Distances  to  Princetown  10 

Road  Distances  to  Hexworthy 82 

,,  ,,  Post  Bridge  94 

Important  Points  round  Princetown  10 

,,  ,,  Hexworthy  82 

,,  Post  Bridge  Q4 

By  Road  and  Rail  to  the  Capital  of  the  Moor 1 1 

North  Hisworthy  Tor 16 

Excursion  i .  From  Princetown  and  Two  Bridges  21 

2  „                  „                  30 

3  „                  „                  38 

4  „                  „                  43 

3         „                  „                 47 

6         „                  „                  57 

Crockern  Tor          63 

Shorter  Excursions  from  Princetown  and  Two  Bridges,  i  to  14    . .  66 

Princetown    to  Dartmeet,  Route  5 72 

,,                    Hexworthy,  Route  5          73 

„                    Post  Bridge,  Route  4       72 

(Return  Routes,  42,   35  Part  III). 

Hexworthy  Hamlet       82 

Excursion  41.     From  Hexworthy      83 

Gorge  of  the  Dart         84 

Excursion  42.     From  Hexworthy       88 

43         .,                  „                9i 

Village  of  Post  Bridge 94 

Excursion  44.     From  Post  Bridge 96 

45         ,.                  „              102 

,,           46         ,,                  ,,              105 


r.  CONTENTS.     PART   I. 

PAGE 
Route  i .     Princetown  and  Two  Bridges  to  Tavistock         . .      . .     68 

„     2  „                     „         Lydford         68 

„      3  ,,                     ,,         Okehampton         70 

,,     4  „                      ,,         Chagford       72 

,,      5  ,,                      ,,         Bovey  Tracey      72 

,,     6  ,.  ,,         Ashburton  and  Buckfastleigh    ..  74 

,,      7  ,,                      ,,         Brent  and  Ivybridge 75 

,,8  „  ,,         Shaugh  and  Plympton      .  .      .  .  77 

Routes  to  Cranmere  from  Princetown  and  Two  Bridges    .  .      .  .  79 

,,  ,,  Hexworthy  and  Post  Bridge      .  .     93,  107 


MAPS. 

Sketch  Map  of  the  Moor          . .          . .          . .          . .        facing  page  i 

Surroundings  of  Cranmere         . .          . .          . .          . .         ,,         „       80 

ONE  INCH  MAPS. 

I,  2.     Princetown  District        ..          ..          ..       facing  pages     22,  48 


The  numbers  of  the  Routes  and  Excursions  as  given  in  the  first 
edition  of  the  Guide  are  retained  throughout.  T.  signifies  Track ; 
Ex.  or  S.  Ex.,  Excursion  or  Shorter  Excursion  ;  R.,  Route  ;  and  C.  R., 
Cranmere  Route.  The  entire  length  of  each  Excursion  is  given ; 
Route  distances  are  given  one  way  only. 


zii.  DARTMOOR   GUIDE. 


SIDMOUTH    (Devon). 


The 

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having  two  full-sized  Croquet  Lawns. 
Handsomely  furnished  by  Maple  &  Co. 
Complete  with  every  luxury  and  con- 
venience. Near  to  Brine  Baths  and 
convenient  to  Golf  Links.  Sanitary 
arrangements  perfect.  Large  and  com- 
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Suites  of  Apartments,  either  on  ground 
floor,  first  or  second  floors  with  Bath- 
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heated.  Spacious  Public  Rooms. 
Billiards.  High-class  Cuisine.  Selected 
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NO.  39.  1  anfr  on  application  to  r  ropnetor. 


GUIDE  TO  DARTMOOR. 

IN  FIVE  PARTS. 


Part  I.    PRINCETOWN,  Two  BRIDGES,  HEXWORTHY,  AND  POST  BRIDGE 
DISTRICTS. 

Deals  with  the  whole  of  the  central  part  of  the  Moor,  and 
contains  notices  of  Crazy  Well  Pool,  Siward's  Cross,  Childe's  Tomb, 
the  Merivale  Antiquities,  Mis  Tor,  Wistman's  Wood,  Dartmeet,  etc. 

Excursions  i  to  6  ;  41  to  46.  Shorter  Exs.  i  to  14.  Routes 
i  to  8.  Cranmere  Routes  i,  2,  15,  16,  17. 

Part   II.    TAVISTOCK,    LYDFORD,    OKEHAMPTON,    AND   STICKLEPATH 
DISTRICTS. 

Describes  Northern  Dartmoor,  extending  from  Sampford 
Spiney  on  the  West  to  Throwleigh  on  the  East :  Notices  Brent 
Tor,  Lydford  Gorge,  Hill  Bridge,  Tavy  Cleave,  Fur  Tor,  the 
Island  of  Rocks,  Yes  Tor,  the  Belstone  Range,  Cosdon,  etc. 

Excursions  7  to  18.  S.  Exs.  15  to  47.  Routes  9  to  30. 
C.R.  3  to  ii. 

Part  III.    CHAGFORD,  MORETON,   IAJSTLEIGH,  AND   BOVEY  TRACEY 
DISTRICTS. 

A  Description  of  Eastern  Dartmoor  :  This  part  contains  a 
notice  of  Cranmere  Pool,  and  among  other  places  and  objects 
included  in  the  Excursions  are  the  Scorhill  and  Kes  Tor  Antiquities, 
Teign  Head,  Fernworthy,  Grim's  Pound,  Drewsteignton  Dolmen, 
Fingle  Bridge,  Lustleigh  Cleave,  Hey  Tor,  etc. 

Excursions  19  to  25.  S.  Exs.  48  to  87.  Routes  31  to  46. 
C.  R.  12,  13,  14. 


ziv.  DARTMOOR    GUIDE. 

Part     IV.      ASHBURTON,      BRENT,      IVYBRIDGE,      AND     CORNWOOD 
DISTRICTS. 

The  whole  of  Southern  Dartmoor,  so  rich  in  antiquities  and 
charming  border  scenery,  is  described  in  this  part.  Among  other 
places  noticed  are  Rippon  Tor,  Widecombe-in-the-Moor,  the 
Buckland  Woods,  Holne  Chase,  Brent  Moor,  Shipley,  the  Valley 
of  the  Ernie,  Stowford  Cleave,  Hawns  and  Dendles,  etc. 

Excursions  26  to  34.  S.  Exs.  88  to  121.  Routes  47  to  66. 
Prom  the  southern  part  of  the  moor  the  starting  points  of  the 
Cranmere  Routes  are  Princetown,  Two  Bridges,  and  Post  Bridge, 
C.R.  i,  2,  16,  17.  These  are  given  in  Part  I. 

Part     V.      PI.YMPTON,     SHAUGH,      YEI.VERTON,      AND      DOUSLAND 
DISTRICTS. 

Describes  Western  Dartmoor  from  Cornwood  to  the  Walkham  : 
Shaugh  Bridge,  the  Dewer  Stone,  the  Plym  Valley,  Meavy,  Sheeps 
Tor,  and  the  Burrator  Lake.  This  part  also  contains  a  brief 
description  of  the  old  pack-horse  tracks  on  the  Moor,  to  which 
reference  is  frequently  made  in  the  book,  as  well  as  a  Dictionary 
of  Terms  used  in  connection  with  the  Forest  and  Commons. 

Excursions  35  to  40.  Routes  67  to  76.  For  Cranmere  Routes 
see  Princetown,  Two  Bridges,  and  Post  Bridge,  C.R.  i,  2,  1 6,  17,  in 
Part  I. 


Each  Part  contains  directions  for  reacliing  Cranmere  Pool  from 
the  Districts  described  in  it. 


Where  reference  is  made  to  other  of  the  Author's 
books  the  titles  are  thus  abbreviated. 

1 A  Hundred  Years  on  Dartmoor"      ..          ..          ,.  100  Years. 

'Gems  in  a  Granite  Setting "  . .          . .          . .  Gems. 

'  The  Ancient  Stone  Crosses  of  Dartmoor   and   Its 

Borderland"          ..          ..          ..          ..          ..  Crosses^ 

'  Amid  Devonia's  Alps "  ..          ..          ..          ..  Dev.  Alps., 

'  Tales  of  the  Dartmoor  Pixies"  Pixies 


SKETCH     MAP 


BOUND'ACIES  OF  DARTMOOR"** 


GUIDE  TO  DARTMOOR. 


Situation  and  Extent  of  Dartmoor. 

DARTMOOR  is  situated  in  South  Devonshire,  and  towards  the 
Western  part  of  the  county.  At  its  nearest  approach  to  the 
Tamar  at  Plaster  Down,  it  is  about  five  or  six  miles  from  that 
river,  but  it  is  not  so  many  years  since  that  commons  stretched  from 
it  almost  to  the  Morwell  Rocks,  and  even  now  the  breaks  of  cultivated 
land  between  the  two  are  not  extensive.  Wigford  Down  is  part  of 
Dartmoor,  and  this  is  separated  from  Roborough  Down  only  by  the 
farms  in  the  narrow  valley  of  the  Mew,  while  adjoining  the  last-named 
common  is  Buckland  Down,  which  extends  to  the  Tavy  where  it  flows 
under  Blackmoorham  Wood.  From  that  point  to  the  Tamar  at  New- 
quay  the  distance,  measured  in  a  straight  line,  is  not  much  over  a  mile, 
or  to  the  Morwell  Rocks  about  two  miles,  and  far  into  the  nineteenth 
century  much  of  this  intervening  tract,  now  cultivated  and  planted, 
was  open  common'.  The  eastern  verge  of  Dartmoor  is  about  sixteen 
miles  from  Bxeter,  but  there  are  outlying  commons,  once  no  doubt 
forming  part  of  it,  that  approach  much  nearer  to  that  city.  The 
district  in  which  these  are  situated,  and  the  moor  itself,  constitute  the 
granite  area  of  Devon.  The  part  of  the  moor  nearest  to  Plymouth  is 
Crownhill  Down,  in  the  parish  of  Plympton  St.  Mary,  the  gate  of 
which,  near  Bottle  Hill  Mine,  is  only  seven  miles  from  it. 

On  the  northern  verge  of  Dartmoor  is  situated  the  town  of  Oke- 
hampton,  the  suburbs  and  the  railway  station  being  quite  close  to  the 
commons.  On  the  south  is  the  large  village  of  Ivybridge,  which  is 
rather  over  half-a-mile  from  the  edge  of  the  down  below  the  Western 
Beacon.  The  distance  between  these  two  places,  as  shown  on  the 
recent  Ordnance  Map,  is  rather  over  twenty-three  miles,  the  extreme 
length  of  the  moor  being  a  little  less  than  this.  Its  breadth  varies. 
At  its  widest  part  it  is  seventeen  miles  across  ;  this  is  from  the  edge  of 
Black  Down,  near  Brent  Tor,  to  the  border  of  Ilsington  Common 
under  Hey  Tor,  but  its  average  breadth  is  about  ten  or  twelve  miles. 
It  covers  an  area  of  about  two  hundred  square  miles,  but  this  does  not 
include  the  borderland,  which  is  usually  regarded  as  Dartmoor 
country,  and  in  which  are  a  number  of  outlying  commons.  Its  highest 
hill  attains  an  elevation  of  2,039  feet,  but  its  mean  altitude  is  about 
1,400  feet.  [100  Years,  Intro.  ;  Crosses,  Chap.  I.] 

The  principal  market  towns  and  holiday  centres  surrounding  the 
moor  are  Okehampton,  Belstone,  Sticklepath,  on  the  north  ;  Chagford, 
Moretonhampstead,  L,ustleigh,  and  Bovey  Tracey,  on  the  east ;  Ash- 
burton,  Buckfastleigh,  Brent,  Ivybridge,  and  Plympton,  on  the  south  ; 
and  Yelverton,  Horrabridge,  Tavistock,  Mary  Tavy,  Brent  Tor, 
I,ydford,  and  Bridestowe,  on  the  west. 


2  NATURAL   DIVISIONS   OF    DARTMOOR. 

Although  the  whole  of  the  moorland  region  was  in  all  probability 
once  known  as  Dartmoor,  or  perhaps  as  the  Dartmoors,  the  name  has 
for  several  centuries  been  supposed  to  belong  only  to  the  ancient 
forest,  which  forms  the  central  part  of  the  great  waste,  and  which  is 
at  some  considerable  distance  from  'the  towns  and  villages  of  the 
borderland.  But  for  many  years  what  seems  to  have  been  the  earlier 
order  of  things  has  been  reverted  to,  and  the  forest  and  the  broad  belt 
of  commons  surrounding  this  old-time  royal  hunting-ground,  have 
together  borne  the  name  of  Dartmoor,  though  many  of  the  dwellers 
in  the  district  do  not  recognize  this  general  term.  [100  Years,  Chap. 
VII.  I 

Each  of  these  border  commons  belongs  to  a  different  parish,  the 
name  of  which  it  usually  bears.  They  are  of  the  same  general  character 
as  the  forest,  except  that  some  parts  of  the  latter  are  much  more 
desolate,  the  depth  of  the  peat  greater,  and  the  surface  more  uneven. 
The  boundary  between  the  forest  and  these  purlieus  is  marked,  with 
a  few  exceptions,  by  natural  objects,  and  there  is  nothing  to  show 
the  stranger  when  he  passes  from  one  to  the  other.  The  bounds  of 
the  commons  are  viewed  at  certain  times,  and  copies  of  perambulations 
and  surveys  exist  showing  the  bounds  of  the  forest,  which  lies  wholly 
within  the  parish  of  L,ydford. 

Dartmoor  thus  consists  of  an  ancient  forest  and  its  purlieus,  but 
jt  is  also  naturally  divided  into  five  districts. 

I.  The  great  central  depression  extending  from  near  Prince- 
town  to  the  West  Webburn,  below  Hameldon,  and 
comprising  the  lands  of  the  early  forest  settlers  lying 
near  the  East  Dart,  the  West  Dart,  and  the  Walla 
Brook. 

This  is  noticed  in  the  Excursions  from  Princetown, 
Post  Bridge,  and  Hexworthy. 

II.  That  part  of  the  moor  to  the  north  of  this  depression, 
and  extending  to  Okehampton,  but  not  including  the 
Tavy  Valley  below  the  Cleave. 

Noticed  in  the  Excursions  from  Princetown,  Tavis- 
tock,  I/ydford,  Okehampton,  Belstone,  and  Chagford, 
and  in  the  routes  to  Cranmere. 

III.     That  part  of  the  moor  to  the  south  of  the  .  depression, 
and  extending  to  Ivybridge. 

Noticed  in  the  Excursions  from  Princetown,   Hex- 
worthy,  Brent,  Ivybridge,  Plympton,  and  Yelverton, 
IV.     The  Tavy  Valley  below  the  Cleave. 

Described  in  the  Excursions  from  Tavistock  and 
I/ydford. 

V.  Hameldon,  the  Widecombe  Valley,  and  the  commons  to 
the  east  of  it. 

This  district,  which  extends  from  Manaton  and  L,ust- 
leigh  to  Ashburton,  is  described  in  the  Excursions 
from  Moreton,  Bovey  Tracey,  and  Ashburton. 

All  these  districts  are  also  crossed  by  the  different 
routes. 


BOGS          THE    FEN.         PEAT 


Hints  to  the  Dartmoor  Rambler. 

THE  explorer  of  the  moor  who  is  a  stranger  to  the  locality,  will 
naturally  desire  to  know  something  of  the  nature  of  the  ground 
he  will  have  to  traverse  in  his  rambles,  and  it  may,  therefore,  be 
well  to  offer  a  few  remarks  on  this  and  one  or  two  other  kindred 
subjects.  He  will  probably  have  read  of  the  dangers  of  Dartmoor,  and 
may  have  formed  the  idea  that  it  is  a  land  of  mists  and  bog.  It  certainly 
cannot  be  denied  that  the  moor  is  often  enveloped  in  a  mist  in  the 
winter,  but  such  will  not  be  found  to  be  frequently  the  case  during  the 
season  usually  chosen  by  the  visitor  to  make  acquaintance  with  it. 
And  it  must  also  be  confessed  that  bogs  are  by  no  means  rare.  But  to 
be  overtaken  by  the  former,  though  sometimes  proving  rather 
awkward,  is  never  dangerous,  while  the  latter  are  only  so  to  the  rider 
to  hounds  who  may  be  a  stranger  to  the  district.  The  cautious  pedes- 
trian will  come  to  no  harm,  unless  he  should  be  benighted,  and  in  the 
darkness  walk  into  a  swamp,  or  plunge  into  what  is  known  as  a 
"  feather  bed."  But  even  at  such  a  time  these  may  generally  be 
avoided,  while  by  day  there  is,  of  course,  no  difficulty  whatever  in 
doing  so. 

My  own  experience  is  that  the  worst  obstacles  on  Dartmoor  are 
not  such  as  Nature  has  placed  there,  but  those  that  owe  their  existence 
to  man.  It  is  usually  much  easier  to  pass  over  the  worst  parts  of  the 
fen  than  to  make  headway  across  a  tract  covered  with  old  turf-ties. 
Such  a  hillside,  for  instance,  as  that  down  which  Outer  Redlake  runs 
to  fall  into  the  Tavy,  where  peat  has  been  cut  for  generations,  presents 
greater  difficulties  to  the  pedestrian  than  the  boggy  ground  near  by, 
which  the  peat-cutters  have  left  untouched.  The  bogs  are  not  a  source 
of  danger  to  the  rambler  who  will  exercise  judgment  and  proceed  with 
care. ' 

The  fen,  or  "  vain,"  as  the  moormen  calls  it,  and  which  covers  so 
much  of  the  more  remote  parts  of  the  forest,  consists  entirely  of  peat, 
•on  which  bog-grasses  grow,  in  certain  spots  to  a  great  height.  There 
is  no  top-soil,  and  consequently  no  herbage  suitable  for  cattle.  Often 
this  ground  will  be  found  seamed  in  every  direction,  the  rains  having 
worn  channels  in  the  peaty  surface,  and  these  gradually  widening 
and  deepening,  the  whole  tract  is  broken  up  into  innumerable  hum- 
mocks. The  fissures  are  frequently  so  wide  that  it  is  impossible  to 
leap  across  them,  and  progress  can  then  only  be  made  by  descending 
into  them  and  wading  to  the  next  hummock.  In  a  dry  season  one  may 
indeed  pass  through  the  fissures,  for  although  the  peat  is  soft  he  will 
not  sink  very  far  into  it.  I  have  many  a  time  walked  for  a  considerable 
distance  through  these  channels,  my  head  being  occasionally  two  or 
three  feet  below  the  surface  of  the  ground.  When  they  are  found  of 
.such  a  depth  the  gravel  is  often  exposed,  the  whole  of  the  peat  having 


4  HINTS     TO     THE     RAMBLER. 

been  washed  away.  Northward  of  Cut  Hill  there  is  an  extensive  tract 
of  ground  of  this  character. 

Sometimes  a  considerable  area  will  be  met  with  where  the  hum- 
mocks are  very  few,  and  dotted  about  the  bare  peat  like  small  islands 
in  a  sea  of  mud.  In  these  cases  they  are  invariably  low. 

When  the  season  is  wet  the  peat  is  very  soft  and  yielding,  and  it 
would  then  be  exceedingly  unwise  to  attempt  to  cross  the  worst  parts 
of  the  fen,  for  though  the  adventurous  explorer  would  hardly  be  in 
danger  of  sinking  so  far  into  it  as  the  man  who,  according  to  the  story, 
was  discovered  by  his  hat,  which,  while  on  his  head,  yet  appeared  to- 
rest  upon  the  surface,  he  would  certainly  be  what  is  locally  termed 
"  stugged." 

Very  little  ground  of  this  nature  is  to  be  found  on  the  commons 
surrounding  the  forest,  for  there  the  peat  is  usually  not  deep,  and  is 
covered  with  turf.  It  is  only  when  the  central  and  higher  parts  of 
the  moor  are  reached  that  the  true  fen,  or  bog,  is  seen.  Of  this  two 
tracts  exist ;  one,  which  is  very  extensive,  in  the  north  quarter  of  the 
forest,  and  the  other  in  the  south  quarter.  In  the  latter  there  are,, 
however,  no  deep  channels  in  the  peat  similar  to  those  just  described. 
The  surface  of  the  other  parts  of  the  forest  resembles  that  of  its  purlieus. 

A  mire  is  of  a  totally  different  character  from  the  fen  ;  it  is  really 
a  swamp,  and  is  usually  found  at  the  heads  of  streams.  Should  the 
rambler  inadvertently  walk  into  one,  he  must  at  once  retrace  his  steps, 
and  on  no  account  seek  to  go  forward.  Tussocks  of  rushes  often  grow 
on  the  edges  of  the  mires,  and  these  will  afford  a  secure,  foothold. 
Where  such  are  plentiful  a  mire  may  even  be  crossed  by  means  of  them, 
though  it  is  not  advisable  for  those  unaccustomed  to  the  moor  to- 
attempt  it.  To  these  mires  the  name  of  Dartmoor  Stables  has  been 
given,  but  it  is  not  often  heard  now.  This  was  in  playful  allusion  to 
the  belief  that  ponies  often  found  a  "  resting  place  "  in  them,  one, 
however,  we  can  well  believe,  they  would  not  have  been  loth  to  quit 
could  they  have  done  so.  I  have  certainly  known  instances  of  these 
animals,  and  of  cattle  and  sheep,  being  lost  in  the  mires,  but  speaking 
generally  such  accidents  are  by  no  means  of  frequent  occurrence.  In 
the  northern  part  of  the  moor,  among  other  places,  there  are  mires  at 
Dart  Head,  at  Broad  Marsh,  on  the  Walla  Brook,  and  at  Raybarrow 
Pool ;  and  in  the  southern  at  Aune  Head,  and  in  the  vallev  below  Fox: 
Tor. 

The  weary  wanderer  on  Dartmoor  is  probably  not  sorry  when  he 
is  able  to  seek  his  couch,  but  however  tired  he  may  be  he  would  hardly 
care  to  avail  himself  of  the  kind  of  "  feather-bed  ;>  he  will  sometimes 
meet  with  there,  notwithstanding  its  inviting  look.  What  is  known  as 
such  is  a  deep  hole,  usually  not  more  than  ten  or  twelve  feet  in  diameter, 
rilled  with  ooze,  hidden  beneath  a  covering  of  moss  of  a  beautiful  bright 
green  colour.  Should  this  matted  surface,  or  raim  (that  is,  ream)  as  the 
moorman  calls  it,  be  broken  by  anyone  unwittingly  crossing  it,  there 
would  be  nothing  to  prevent  him  from  plunging  into  the  slush.  No 
one  would  set  foot  on  such  spots  intentionally,  for  in  spite  of  their 
attractive  appearance  their  real  nature  betrays  itself  on  a  very  slight 
examination,  and  it  is  therefore  only  by  night  that  the  "  feather-bed  " 
is  likely  to  have  an  occupant.  I  have  walked  across  them  in  the 
darkness,  but  never  came  to  any  harm.  Animals,  with  an  apparent 
perception  of  the  fitness  of  things,  shun  the  "  feather-bed." 


MISTS   ON   THE    MOOR.  5 

Quaker  is  another  not  inappropriate  name  for  these.  It  is  derived 
from  their  tremulous  motion  when  trodden  upon. 

Mists  sometimes  suddenly  envelop  the  moor  in  an  impenetrable 
shroud.  I  have  known  my  surroundings  to  be  entirely  obscured,  and 
objects  twenty  or  thirty  yards  distant  rendered  invisible,  where  ten 
minutes  before  there  was  not  a  sign  of  what  was  coming,  and  the  mist 
has  continued  for  several  days.  If  a  stranger  be  overtaken  by  one, 
he  should,  when  not  certain  ot  his  bearings,  endeavour  to  find  a  stream, 
and  having  done  so,  follow  it  till  he  reaches  the  borders  of  the  moor, 
or  some  road.  Attempts  to  strike  a  straight  course  over  the  moor 
will  assuredly  fail ;  he  will  only  wander  in  a  circle.  It  is  obvious  that 
the  stream  may  lead  him  away  from  the  point  he  is  desirous  of  reaching, 
but  it  will,  nevertheless,  act  as  a  guide  to  the  enclosed  country,  which 
to  those  unacquainted  with  the  locality  is  in  such  circumstances  "  a 
consummation  devoutedly  to  be  wished."  When  the  mist  comes  on 
the  rambler  should  take  particular  care  to  keep  descending  ;  immediately 
he  finds  an  ascent  before  him  he  must  turn,  and  unless  he  should  be 
unfortunate  enough  to  be  pixy-led,  it  cannot  be  long  before  running 
water  will  be  reached.  Should  it  be  suspected  that  the  little  elves  of 
the  moor  are  playing  pranks,  let  him  take  off  his  outer  garment,  turn 
it  inside  out,  and  put  it  on  again.  The  pixies  will  then  have  no  further 
power  over  him.  This  is  a  potent  charm  that  has  never  yet  been  known 
to  fail.  [Pixies,  Chap.  I.] 

But  this  plan  of  following  a  stream,  though  effective  enough  in 
enabling  the  rambler  to  reach  the  borders  of  the  moor,  leaves  much 
to  be  desired.  It  is  far  better  to  be  able  to  go  in  the  direction  he 
wishes,  and  this  he  may,  of  course,  do  if  he  has  taken  the  precaution 
to  provide  himself  with  a  pocket  compass.  I  would  strongly  advise  all 
who  are  unacquainted  with  the  moor  to  carry  one  when  they  penetrate 
into  those  parts  of  it  that  are  far  removed  from  the  beaten  tracks. 
In  describing  the  various  routes  in  the  pages  that  follow  I  have  pre- 
sumed that  the  rambler  is  so  provided.  With  this,  and  the  maps 
and  directions  here  furnished,  he  may  mark  out  his  course,  and  the 
mist  will  prove  but  little  hindrance  to  his  progress.  At  the  same  time, 
if  his  knowledge  of  Dartmoor  is  slight,  it  will  not  be  unwise  for  him  to 
make  his  way  to  a  stream,  provided  there  is  one  near  him  running 
towards  his  destination.  But  in  all  such  cases  his  judgment  must  be 
his  guide. 

It  is  also  possible  to  steer  by  the  wind.  I  have  done  this  on  many 
occasions,  and  do  not  remember  that  I  have  ever  gone  wrong,  though 
such  a  plan  is  not  altogether  satisfactory,  for  there  is  always  the  con- 
tingency of  the  wind  changing.  But  many  years  of  Dartmoor  ram- 
bling have  made  me  so  familiar  with  every  part  of  the  district,  that  I 
never  think  about  steering  for  any  particular  point ;  even  in  the  most 
dense  mist  the  nature  of  the  ground  passed  over  is  usually  sufficient 
to  assure  me  of  my  situation.  Nevertheless,  I  have  invariably  carried 
a  compass.  Then  when  the  moor  has  hidden  itself,  and  my  way  has 
lain,  as  it  were,  through  cloudland,  I  have  been  able,  by  consulting 
it  occasionally,  to  satisfy  myself  that  I  was  not  straying  from  the 
course.  It  must  not  be  forgotten  that  objects  appear  so  distorted  in  a 
Dartmoor  mist  that  the  most  familiar  scenes  when  come  upon  suddenly 
are  hardly  recognizable.  [Dev.  Alps.,  Chap.  VIII.] 


6  HINTS   TO   THE    RAMBLER. 

To  cross  the  moor  on  a  dark  night  is  a  much  more  difficult  matter 
than  to  make  one's  way  over  it  through  the  mist.  The  latter,  it  is 
true,  is  sometimes  confusing,  and  one  is  apt  to  be  led  astray  by  the 
strange  appearance  worn  by  those  objects,  which  from  their  nearness, 
happen  to  be  visible,  but  it  is  at  all  events  possible  to  see  the  ground 
around  one.  In  the  darkness,  however,  every  inequality — and  these 
are  not  usually  slight  on  Dartmoor — becomes  a  stumbling  block. 
When  you  have  mist  and  darkness  combined,  and  it  is  raining  in 
addition,  you  may  justly  consider  that  you  are  being  treated  to  about 
the  worst  that  Dartmoor  has  to  offer.  But  this  is  an  experience  that 
the  ordinary  rambler  on  the  moor  is  not  likely  to  meet  with,  since  he 
will  probably  prefer  to  visit  it  in  the  summer  and  confine  his  wanderings 
to  the  day-time. 

There  is  one  matter  to  which  attention  has  been  called  by  the  late 
Rev.  E.  Spencer,  of  Tavistock,  that  it  may  be  well  to  mention,  though 
as  it  is  so  seldom  known  to  occur,  it  can  scarcely  be  regarded  as  a 
danger.  Should  by  any  chance  the  peat  become  ignited  by  the  heather 
being  set  on  fire,  it  might  possibly  continue  to  smoulder  for  some  time, 
that  is,  if  the  weather  be  very  dry.  As  it  gives  out  carbonic  acid  it 
would,  of  course,  be  dangerous  for  anyone  to  pass  near  such  a  spot, 
unless  he  kept  to  the  windward  side  of  it.  This,  however,  could  never 
arise  from  any  action  of  a  Dartmoor  man,  for  swaling,  as  the  practice  of 
burning  the  heather  and  furze  is  termed,  is  confined  to  the  spring,  at 
which  season  the  peat  is  never  sufficiently  dry  to  ignite.  Only  after 
a  period  of  exceptionally  dry  and  hot  summer  weather  could  such  a 
thing  be  possible. 

During  recent  years  Scotch  cattle  have  been  introduced  on  Dart- 
moor, and  their  wild,  and  sometimes  rather  fierce  appearance,  has 
caused  some  to  dread  encountering  them.  I  do  not  think  there  is 
any  real  ground  for  alarm.  The  general  opinion  among  the  moor  folk 
seems  to  be  that  these  animals  are  no  more  dangerous  than  our  own 
Devon  cattle  ;  that  if  they  are  not  worried  they  will  take  no  notice  of 
the  passer-by.  The  rambler  becomes  the  centre  of  attraction  to  all 
cattle  that  he  approaches  on  the  moor,  which  is  not  to  be  wondered  at 
when  it  is  remembered  that  they  see  so  few  people.  They  will  generally 
stop  grazing,  and  watch  him  till  he  has  gone  by,  and  then  quietly  go 
on  feeding  as  before.  If  he  has  a  dog  with  him  he  should  keep  it  under 
control,  and  not  allow  it  to  disturb  the  animals.  Speaking  generally,, 
it  is  just  as  well  to  avoid  passing  too  near  to  cattle  on  the  moor, 
particularly  during  hot  weather,  when  they  are  teased  by  the  flies. 

Among  my  Dartmoor  experiences  I  can  number  most  of  the  things 
that  may  happen  to  a  man  there,  and  I  can  recollect  one  or  two 
adventures  with  Scotch  cattle.  About  the  year  1882,  when  cross- 
ing a  part  of  Ugborough  Moor  in  company  with  my  wife,  a  whole 
herd  came  down  upon  us.  The  first  intimation  we  had  of  it  was  the 
thundering  of  hoofs  upon  the  turf,  and  then  we  were  suddenly  aware 
that  a  large  number  of  black  Scotch  bullocks  were  rushing  down  the 
slope  in  pursuit  of  my  dog,  which  was  coming  straight  towards  us. 
Fortunately,  we  were  at  no  great  distance  from  the  wall  of  Glascombe 
Newtake,  and  seizing  my  wife's  hand,  I  ran  towards  it  with  all  speed. 
When  we  got  to  it  I  almost  threw  her  on  the  top  of  the  wall,  which  I 
knew  was  banked  with  turf  on  the  inner  side,  and  then  pitching  my 
dog  after  her,  clambered  over  myself,  just  as  the  cattle  came  up.  But 


SCOTCH    CATTLE.  7 

they  were  not  so  infuriated  as  I  had  imagined  ;  in  fact,  no  longer  seeing 
the  dog,  they  looked  at  us  with  an  indifferent  air.  This  I  was  able  to 
return,  though  had  they  been  so  near  to  us  two  minutes  previously  my 
face  would  probably  have  worn  another  expression. 

About  1901  I  was  going  over  the  moor  from  Okehampton 
to  Chagford,  and  when  descending  from  Little  Hound  Tor  towards 
Ruelake  Pit,  I  saw  some  way  hi  advance  a  herd  of  Scotch  cattle  crossing 
my  path.  They  were  going  at  a  rapid  pace,  being  evidently  much 
tormented  by  flies.  I  halted  for  a  few  minutes  to  allow  them  to  go 
on  their  way,  and  leave  mine  clear  for  me.  When  the  main  herd  had 
passed  I  resumed  my  walk,  not  caring  to  wait  until  the  stragglers, 
of  which  there  were  several,  had  gone  by.  I  had  just  crossed  their 
track  when  one  of  the  latter,  detaching  himself  from  two  or  three 
companions,  came  in  a  very  threatening  manner  towards  me.  I  did 
not  wait  for  him,  but  continued  on  my  way  at  a  quicker  pace  than 
before.  I  deemed  it  possible  that  he  might  attribute  to  my  influence 
some  of  the  pain  the  flies  were  inflicting  upon  him,  and  had  no  wish 
to  meet  him.  But  casting  a  look  backwards  I  saw  that  he  also  had 
increased  his  pace,  and  was  whisking  his  tail  in  a  very  excited  manner. 
Not  far  off  was  a  mire  from  which  a  little  feeder  of  the  Walla  Brook 
drains,  and  this  I  lost  no  time  in  gaining,  for  I  saw  it  would  prove  a 
haven  of  safety.  Planting  my  feet  upon  the  tussocks  of  rushes  I  made 
my  way  out  upon  it,  knowing  that  the  animal  could  not  follow  me. 
And  he  knew  it,  too,  for  he  did  not  attempt  to  do  so.  But  he  was 
nevertheless  quite  aware  that  a  means  existed  of  crossing  the  mire, 
for  he  set  off,  without  even  so  much  as  bestowing  a  look  upon  me, 
for  a  ford  lower  down.  At  first  I  thought  that  he  intended  to  come 
up  on  the  other  side  ;  but  he  did  not,  choosing  instead  to  mount  the 
hill  towards  Wild  Tor.  My  last  view  of  him  showed  me  only  the  part 
corresponding  to  that  which  Washington  Irving' s  Stranger  concealed 
beneath  a  broad  disc  of  corduroy. 

Readers  of  Eden  Phillpotts'  story  The  River  will  remember  that 
it  was  a  Scotch  beast  that  attacked  Nicholas  Edgecombe  in  the  lonely 
region  round  Devil's  Tor,  but  though  there  is  nothing  improbable  in 
the  incident,  they  need  be  under  little  apprehension  of  meeting  with 
a  similar  experience  to  the  warrener.  The  animal  in  question  was  a 
bull,  and  had  he  been  of  Devonshire  breed  instead  of  Scotch,  would 
have  rushed  upon  Edgecombe  all  the  same,  as  I  can  testify,  having 
once  had  to  run  at  topmost  speed  across  Brown  Heath,  near  the  Erme, 
to  escape  from  one  of  them.  But  the  rambler's  chief  safeguard  against 
such  an  occurrence  lies  in  the  fact  that  bulls  are  not  now  allowed  to 
be  placed  on  the  moor. 

To  these  few  inconveniences — I  will  not  call  them  dangers — I  will 
add  that  of  losing  one's  way  in  a  solitary  part  of  the  moor.  It  is 
fortunately  one  that  can  easily  be  avoided.  If  the  reader  will  allow 
me  to  become  his  guide  I  promise  him  that  he  shall  not  stray  from 
his  path.  If  he  follows  my  instructions  he  will  learn  enough  about 
the  district  to  enable  him  to  reach  all  the  important  objects  in  it  with 
ease  and  safety. 

All  that  the  visitor  needs  to  take  with  him  on  his  rambles  over  the 
moor  is  a  stout  stick,  a  sandwich  case,  and — as  before  named — a  pocket 
compass.  If  when  he  reaches  his  destination  at  night  his  boots  are  wet, 
let  him  fill  them  with  oats.  These,  which  are  usually  procurable  at 


8  HINTS   TO   THE    RAMBLER. 

the  farm-houses,  answer  the  purpose  of  boot-trees.  The  grain  absorbs 
the  moisture  and  swells,  and  when  shaken  out  in  the  morning  the  boots 
will  be  found  to  have  preserved  their  shape.  L,et  him,  however,  be 
sure  that  he  shakes  out  every  grain.  Should  he  neglect  to  do  so  it 
will  probably  not  be  long  before  he  finds  himself  able  to  form  a  very 
correct  idea  of  the  feelings  of  the  man  who  omitted  to  take  the  pre- 
caution to  boil  his  peas.  But  having  exercised  proper  care  he  may 
set  out  over  the  moor  again  ;  and  if  he  is  fond  of  a  long  tramp,  he  may 
go  from  one  end  of  it  to  the  other.  I  have  left  Okehampton  in 
the  morning,  passed  over  Yes  Tor  and  Willes,  also  Cranmere,  and 
lunched  at  East  Dart  Head  ;  made  my  way  to  Fox  Tor,  thence  by 
Black  Lane  and  Green  Hill  to  Western  Whitaburrow,  and  so  down  to 
Shipley,  reaching  Brent  in  the  evening. 

When  we  consider  how  much  Dartmoor  has  to  offer,  what  scenes 
of  wild  grandeur  meet  the  eye  of  those  who  penetrate  into  it,  and  what 
interest  attaches  to  its  memorials  of  other  days,  the  few  inconveniences 
inseparable  from  a  long  ramble  in  a  hilly  region  that  gives  birth  to 
many  rivers  are  as  nothing.  They  have  been  magnified  into  dangers 
by  those  whose  knowledge  of  the  moor  is  slight ;  when  one  becomes 
familiar  with  it  they  take  their  proper  place,  and  are  unheeded. 

I  would  particularly  request  the  visitor's  attention  to  one  point. 
Never  omit  to  fasten  a  gate  after  passing  through  it.  Much  trouble 
is  often  caused  to  the  farmers  when  these  are  left  open.  Cattle  may 
stray  from  the  field  or  newtake,  or  other  cattle  turned  loose  on  the 
forest  may  enter,  and  much  inconvenience  ensue.  The  Dartmoor 
farmer  will  always  willingly  allow  strangers  to  pass  through  his  ground, 
and  it  is  surely  a  small  thing  to  ask  in  return  that  they  should  not 
forget  to  shut  his  gates. 

The  latest  Ordnance  Survey  maps,  and  maps  that  have  been 
made  from  them,  are  the  only  ones  that  are  reliable.  Those  published 
previous  to  about  1884  are  of  very  little  use,  being  full  of  inaccuracies. 

At  the  time  Dartmoor  was  being  surveyed  a  list  of  the  place- 
names  from  the  old  map  was  sent  to  me  for  revision  ;  I  also  added 
fresh  ones,  and  supplied  other  information.  There  are  a  large  number 
of  objects  on  the  moor  the  names  of  which,  often  purely  local,  are  not 
generally  known,  and  these  are,  of  course,  not  given  on  the  Ordnance 
map  ;  but  all  the  more  important  ones  are  there  shown. 

In  calculating  distances  on  Dartmoor  I  have  found  it  a  safe  plan 
to  add  one  fourth  to  those  shown  on  the  map.  What  the  moorman 
calls  the  "  ups  and  downs,  and  ins  and  outs  "  may  not  make  a  journey 
across  the  moor  quite  so  much  as  a  fourth  longer  than  the  crow's  would 
be,  supposing  that  bird  to  be  in  the  habit  of  indulging  in  straight  and 
extended  flights  ;  but  the  rambler  will  nevertheless  not  be  far  wrong 
if  he  regards  a  tramp  of  eight  miles  as  measured  on  the  map  as  being 
nearer  one  of  ten. 

The  excursions  in  this  Guide  have  been  so  planned  as  to  embrace 
everything  worthy  of  notice  on  the  moor  within  about  three  or  four 
miles  of  the  centre  of  each  district  into  which  it  has  been  divided  ; 
objects  outside  that  radius  are  described  in  the  routes.  These  are 
given  from  each  district  to  all  the  others,  with  the  exception  of 
Yelverton,  Hexworthy,  and  Post  Bridge.  In  these  cases  they  were 
not  required,  those  from  Princetown  or  Shaugh,  serving  for  the  first- 
named,  while  the  latter  two  are  crossed  by  routes  between  other  places. 


THE    MOORLAND    ROUTES.  9 

The  visitor  can  begin  his  moorland  rambles  at  any  point.  He  should 
first  read  the  paragraphs  giving  the  important  landmarks  around  the 
district  from  which  he  starts,  as  by  so  doing  he  will  learn  what  there 
is  in  his  locality  that  he  should  see.  It  is  also  advisable  before  setting 
out  across  the  moor  to  read  the  route  and  its  reverse,  as  the  objects 
met  with  on  it  will  be  found  to  be  noticed  in  the  latter  should  that 
have  been  first  described.  This  is  also  necessary  as  in  many  cases  an 
alternate  route  is  given.  All  places  and  objects  of  importance 
mentioned  in  the  routes,  but  not  described,  will  be  found  more  fully 
noticed  in  one  or  other  of  the  excursions,  these  being  always  indicated. 
The  compass  bearings  are  sufficiently  accurate  for  the  purpose  for  which 
they  are  intended  ;  they  have,  of  course,  not  been  reduced  to  points. 

At  the  head  of  each  district  a  table  of  road  distances  is  given. 
If  the  name  of  a  required  place  should  not  be  found  in  a  particular 
table,  it  must  be  looked  for  in  the  district  in  which  the  place  is  situated, 
and  the  distance  can  then  be  calculated.  Thus,  if  it  should  be  desired 
to  find  the  distance  between  Lydford  and  Sticklepath,  the  Okehampton 
district,  which  is  between  the  two,  should  be  consulted.  This  will 
give  the  distance  to  both  places. 

By  studying  the  routes,  with  the  aid  of  the  map,  the  visitor  will 
find  that  he  can  connect  one  with  another,  and  plan  rambles  for  himself. 
Thus,  the  route  from  Princetown  to  Lydford  is  given  direct.  But 
should  he  desire,  for  instance,  to  visit  Great  Kneeset  (which  is 
altogether  out  of  his  way)  en  route,  he  may  readily  do  so  by  following 
the  Princetown  and  Okehampton  route  as  far  as  that  hill,  and  return 
to  Lydford  by  the  route  to  that  place  from  Chagford,  or  from  Cranmere. 
He  can,  in  fact,  by  means  of  this  Guide,  reach  any  part  of  the  moor 
from  whatever  point  upon  it  he  may  happen  to  be. 


io  ROAD    AND    RAIL    DISTANCES   TO    PRINCETOWN. 

PRINCETOWN   AND   TWO    BRIDGES 
DISTRICT. 

DISTANCES.  BY  ROAD.  ASHBURTON,  via  Dartmeet,  P.T. 
14!  m.,  T.B.  13;  via  Hexworthy,  P.T.  16,  T.B.  14*.  BOVEY 
TRACEY,  via  Dartmeet,  Widecombe,  and  Hemsworthy  Gate,  P.T.  19, 
T.B.  \ft.  BUCKFASTLEIGH,  via  Hexworthy,  P.T.  15$,  T.B.  14. 
CHAGFORD,  P.T.  12,  T.B.  loj.  CORN  WOOD,  via  Dousland  and 
Cadaford  Bridge,  P.T.  I2f,  T.B.  14 J.  DARTMEET,  P.T.  6|,  T.B.  5. 
DOUSLAND,  P.T.  4^,  T.B.  6.  EXETER,  via  Moreton,  P.T.  25-*-, 
T.B.  24.  HEXWORTHY,  P.T.  6f ,  T.B.  5 J.  HOLNE,  via  Hexworthy 
P.T.  n|,  T.B.  io.  IVYBRIDGE,  via  Dousland,  Cadaford  Bridge 
and  Cornwood,  P.T.  isf,  T.B.  i;£.  LYDFORD,  via  Moor  Shop, 
Harford  Bridge,  and  Skit,  P.T.  13$,  T.B.  14.  MERIVALE,  P.T.  3$, 
T.B.  3f.  MORETON,  P.T.  13*,  T.B.  12.  OKEHAMPTON,  via 
Moor  Shop  and  Harford  Bridge,  P.T.  2i|,  T.B.  22.  PLYMOUTH, 
via  Roborough,  P.T.  14^,  T.B.  i6£.  P'LYMPTON,  via  Dousland, 
Cadaford  Bridge,  and  Niel  Gate,  P.T.  14,  T.B.  15^.  POST  BRIDGE, 
P.T.s,  T.B.  3|.  POUND'S  GATE,  via  Dartmeet,  P.T.  pf,  T.B  .8£. 
RUNDLE  STONE,  P.T.  1$,  T.B.  2.  SHAUGH,  via  Dousland  and 
Cadaford  Bridge,  P.T.  9^,  T.B.  n.  SHEEPSTOR,  via  Lowery  Cross 
and  Burrator  Dam,  P.T.  sJ,  T.B.  ^\.  SOUTH  BRENT,  via  Hex- 
worthy  and  Buckfastleigh,  P.T.  20^,  T.B.  19  ;  via  Dousland,  Cadaford 
Bridge,  Cornwood  and  Ivybridge,  P.T.  21,  T.B.  22^.  TAVISTOCK. 
P.T.  7|,  T.B.  8.  WARREN  HOUSE  INN,  P.T.  ;£,  T.B.  sf. 
WIDECOMBE,  via  Dartmeet  and  Ponsworthy,  P.T.  ii|,  T.B.  io  ; 
via  Post  Bridge  and  Grendon  Cot,  P.T.  13,  T.B.  n\.  YELVERTON 
STATION,  P.T.  6,  T.B.  ;|. 

BY  RAII,  (FROM  PRINCETOWN).  EXETER,  via  Plymouth  (G.W.) 
74  m.  ;  via  Tavistock  (G.W.  to  Tavistock,  thence  by  L.S.W.)  58. 
PLYMOUTH  (G.W.)  2i|.  TAVISTOCK  (G.W.)  16.  YELVER- 
TON (G.W.)  io|. 


Important  Points  and  Landmarks, 

Important  Points.  Bear  Down  Man — Bellaford  Tor — Dartmeet — 
Merivale  Bridge — Mis  Tor — North  Hisworthy  Tor — Nosworthy  Bridge 
— Plym  Steps — Rundle  Stone — Siward's,  or  Nun's  Cross.  Other  Places 
of  Interest.  Childe's  Tomb — Cowsic  Valley,  under  Bear  Down — Crazy 
Well  Pool — Crockern  Tor — Dean  Combe — Dunnabridge  Pound — 
Fitz's  Well— Prince  Hall—Tor  Royal— Valley  of  the  Walkham— 
Wistman's  Wood.  Prehistoric  Antiquities.  Conies'  Down:  hut 
circles  and  stone  row — Crock  of  Gold,  and  other  kistvaens  in  Tor  Royal 
Newtake — Down  Tor  :  row,  menhir,  and  circle,  on  Kingston  Hill — 
East  Tor  Bottom  :  hut  circles — Hart  Tor  :  hut  circles  and  stone  row, 
and  remains  on  Raddick  Hill — Roundy  Farm  :  hut  circles — Lower 


DARTMOOR   SETTLEMENTS.  n 

Watern  Newtake  :  kists  and  cairns — Merivale  :  rows,  huts,  and  menhir 
on  Long  Ash  Hill — Thrushel  Combe  (on  the  Plym)  :  rows,  cairns,  and 
menhirs.  Mining  Remains.  Hart  Tor  :  blowing  houses  and  stream 
works — Dean  Combe  Head  :  tinners'  excavations  —  Newleycombe 
Lake :  extensive  stream  workings — Plym :  workings  near  Eyles- 
barrow — Riddipit :  mould  stones — Walkham  :  blowing  houses  above 
Merivale  Bridge. 


By  Road  and  Rail  to  the  Capital 
of  the  Moor. 

Within  the  confines  of  Dartmoor  there  are  several  small  settle- 
ments, two  of  which,  Post  Bridge  and  Hexworthy,  have  grown  up 
around  some  of  the  ancient  tenements.  Foggin  Tor  owes  its  origin, 
and  Merivale  its  expansion,  to  the  granite  quarrying  industry,  while 
White  Works  was  called  into  being  by  mining  enterprise,  which  has 
also  helped  to  promote  the  growth  of  the  two  first-named.  There  are 
a  few  others  consisting  of  groups  of  farmhouses,  and  there  is  also  the 
old  village  of  Widecombe.  Cultivation  has  so  spread  itself  throughout 
the  valley  in  which  this  settlement  is  placed,  that  pastures  and  wood- 
lands now  link  it  with  the  in-country,  and  it  appears  less  deserving  of 
its  adjunct  than  in  the  days  when  it  was  known  as  Widecombe-in-the- 
Moor.  Still,  although  it  is  possible  to  approach  it  without  actually 
entering  on  the  commons,  it  belongs  as  much  to  Dartmoor  as  ever  it 
did.  The  parish  is  conterminous  with  the  forest  for  a  distance  of 
nearly  four  miles,  and  there  has  always  been  a  connection  between 
them.  A  larger  settlement  than  any  of  those  named  is  that  of  Lee 
Moor,  in  the  parish  of  Shaugh,  the  seat  of  an  extensive  china  clay 
industry,  and  a  larger  and  more  important  still  is  Princetown,  which 
is  justly  regarded  as  the  capital  of  the  moor.  Time  was  when  Lydford 
held  that  distinction.  There  the  mother  church  was  situated,  and 
there  was  the  castle  in  which  the  forest  courts  were  held,  and  in  later 
days  the  Duchy  courts.  But  when  Princetown  sprang  into  being 
these  were  removed  to  it,  and  a  church  being  built,  journeys  to  Lydford 
or  to  Widecombe  became  less  frequent.  Interest  centered  round 
the  new  town,  which  speedily  became  the  largest  settlement  on  the 
moor. 

In  the  section  dealing  with  the  tracks  we  have  stated  that  the 
roads  on  the  moor  were  formed  on  the  lines  of  ancient  ways  (T.  44) 
One  ran  from  Tavistock  to  Moreton  and  Chagford,  and  from  this  there 
were  branches  to  Ashburton  and  Widecombe,  and  it  was  also  joined 
by  one  from  Plymouth.  The  latter  is  now  the  present  Plymouth  and 
Princetowu  road.  It  enters  on  Roborough  Down  at  the  sixth  milestone 
from  the  first-named  town,  and  leaves  it  just  beyond  the  ninth.  All  the 
way  across  this  fine  open  common  there  is  a  good  view  of  the  Western 
frontier  of  Dartmoor,  the  grouping  of  the  tors  above  the  Walkham 
Valley,  and  Sheeps  Tor,  above  the  valley  of  the  Mew,  being  particularly 
noticeable.  Yelverton  is  delightfully  placed  between  the  eighth  and 
ninth  milestone,  the  residences  being  situated  on  the  verge  of  the  down. 
One  mile  beyond  it  is  Dousland,  where  the  road  is  crossed  by  another 
running  from  Plympton  and  Ivybridge  to  Tavistock.  About  a  mile 


12  PRINCETOWN    AND   TWO   BRIDGES   DISTRICT. 

from  Dousland  the  road  passes  under  the  Princetown  Railway,  and 
shortly  after  enters  Dartmoor.  It  climbs  the  shoulder  of  Peak  Hill, 
a  grand  prospect  opening  towards  the  west  as  the  higher  ground  is 
reached.  For  the  next  3-^  miles  it  runs  over  Walkhampton  Common, 
passing  near  to  Leedon  Tor,  which  rises  on  the  I,.,  and  Black  Tor,  which 
is  seen  on  the  R.,  with  Hart  Tor  just  across  the  shallow  valley  below  it. 
Crossing  Devil's  Bridge  the  road  climbs  the  steep  ascent  from  the  hollow, 
and  soon  after  reaches  the  limits  of  the  common  in  this  direction  and 
enters  the  forest.  A  granite  post  on  the  right  of  the  way  serves  as  a 
bondmark  of  the  latter.  Princetown  is  only  a  little  way  beyond,  being 
situated  just  within  the  forest  bounds. 

The  Tavistock  road  leaves  the  town  by  way  of  Vigo  Bridge,  or 
by  the  Abbey  Bridge  and  Dolvin  road,  and  passing  the  entrance  to 
Mount  Tavy,  runs  on  to  Moor  Shop,  where  it  is  crossed  by  a  road  from 
Horrabridge  to  Harford  Bridge  and  Peter  Tavy.  Here  the  avscent  of 
Pork  Hill  commences,  the  commons  being  entered  before  the  top  of  it 
is  reached,  and  at  about  2f-  miles  from  Tavistock.  The  road  now  runs 
across  the  common  belonging  to  the  parish  of  Whitchurch,  with  Cocks 
Tor  and  the  Staple  Tors  to  the  L.,  and  Vixen  Tor  R.  The  Walkham 
is  crossed  at  Merivale  Bridge,  4^  miles,  and  Walkhampton  Common 
is  entered.  Here  a  long  ascent  to  the  Rundle  Stone  commences,  the 
dominant  object  in  the  view  being  Great  Mis  Tor,  which  rises  grandly 
above  the  river  valley  to  the  L.  At  Rundle  Stone,  6  miles,  the  road 
enters  the  forest,  and  turning  R.  runs  past  the  prison  to  Princetown. 
The  church  is  7  miles  from  Tavistock. 

The  Moretonhampstead  road  crosses  the  Bovey  river  a  little  over 
two  miles  from  the  town,  and  then  ascends  Worm  Hill,  after  passing 
over  which  it  reaches  Beetor  Cross,  3  miles.  Here  it  is  crossed  by  the 
Ashburton  and  Chagford  road.  Exactly  a  mile  further  on  is  Moor 
Gate,  where  the  commons  are  entered.  Its  former  presence  is  indicated 
by  the  name  only,  for  no  gate  is  now  to  be  seen  there.  A  little  further 
on  a  branch  of  the  Bovey  is  crossed,  and  at  the  top  of  the  hill  beyond 
it  the  road  is  joined  by  one  coming  from  Chagford,  and  which  enters 
the  moor  about  three  quarters  of  a  mile  from  the  junction.  For  the 
next  mile  or  more  the  road  runs  over  a  fairly  level  piece  of  common, 
and  enters  the  forest  shortly  belore  the  Warren  House  Inn  is  reached. 
Further  on  it  crosses  Stats  Brook,  passes  over  Meripit  Hill,  and  descends 
to  Post  Bridge,  where  the  East  Dart  is  crossed,  8|  miles  from  Moreton. 
From  the  river  the  road  runs  up  between  Archerton  R.,  and  Lakehead 
Hill  L.,  and  after  crossing  the  Cherry  Brook,  passes  in  succession  the 
Powder  Mills  Cottages,  Cherry  Brook  Farm,  and  Crockern  Tor,  and 
descends  to  Two  Bridges.  Here  the  Princetown  road  branches  I/., 
the  one  to  the  R.  leading  to  Tavistock. 

The  road  from  Ashburton  to  Two  Bridges  runs  by  way  of  North 
Street  to  Holne  Bridge,  which  is  two  miles  from  the  town.  It  then 
ascends  Holne  Chase  Hill,  having  the  chase  and  the  Buckland  Woods 
to  the  right.  At  the  top  of  the  hill  a  road  branches  left,  being  joined 
a  little  further  on  by  one  from  Buckfastleigh.  This  runs  through  the 
village  of  Holne  to  the  moor  gate,  about  a  mile  distant,  and  crosses 
Holne  Moor  to  the  forest,  which  it  enters  at  Saddle  Bridge,  on  the 
Wo  Brook.  The  view  is  particularly  fine,  the  tors  above  the  gorge  of 
the  Dart  here  showing  to  great  advantage.  Not  far  from  the  gate  is 
the  Paignton  storage  reservoir,  the  formation  of  which  has  turned  the 


THE    PRINCETOWN    RAILWAY.  13 

Wennaford  Valley  into  a  lake.  Further  on  the  hollow  known  as 
Hangman's  Pit  is  passed,  and  afterwards  Combestone  Tor,  to  the  R., 
a  very  steep  hill  following.  At  its  foot  flows  the  Wo  Brook,  and  about 
a  mile  further  on  is  Hexworthy,  where,  at  the  Forest  Inn,  the  road 
turns  down  the  hill  to  the  R.,  being  here  known  as  Jolly  Lane.  Cross- 
ing the  West  Dart  at  Hexworthy  Bridge  it  runs  by  the  little  chapel  of 
St.  Raphael's  at  Huccaby,  and  ascending  the  hill  joins  the  road  from 
Ashburton  to  Two  Bridges  more  usually  followed. 

The  last-named  road  having  climbed  Holne  Chase  Hill,  two  miles 
from  Ashburton,  descends  to  the  Dart,  which  it  crosses  at  New  Bridge, 
and  enters  the  commons.  Here  there  is  a  steep  ascent  to  the  hamlet 
of  Pound's  Gate,  where  the  enclosed  country  is  reached,  to  be  left  again 
however,  about  a  mile  further  on,  when  the  road  skirts  Sherberton 
Common.  Turning  L/.  at  Ouldsbroom  Cross  it  passes  between  Yar 
Tor  Down  and  Dartmeet  Hill,  and  descends  to  Dartmeet  Bridge,  on 
crossing  which  it  enters  the  forest.  Climbing  the  hill  with  the  estate 
of  Brimpts  on  the  R.,  it  reaches  the  gate  where  the  road  previously 
mentioned  comes  up  from  Huccaby,  and  then  runs  above  the  valley 
of  the  West  Dart  to  Dunnabridge.  A  mile  further  on  it  crosses  Cherry 
Brook,  and  in  another  mile  and  a  half  reaches  Two  Bridges,  being 
joined  by  the  Moreton  road  on  the  brow  of  the  hill  above  that  place. 

The  objects  passed  on  these  roads,  and  on  others  in  different  parts 
of  the  moor,  are  noticed  more  fully  in  the  Excursions. 

The  Princetown  Railway  branches  from  Yelverton,  on  the  Ply- 
mouth and  Launceston  line.  It  was  opened  in  1882,  and  from  a  point 
about  midway  between  Yelverton  and  Dousland  Stations  follows  very 
nearly  the  route  taken  by  a  tramroad  constructed  in  the  earlier  part 
of  the  nineteenth  century. 

On  leaving  Dousland  the  railway  is  carried  over  Yennadon  Down, 
which  it  nearly  encircles  in  order  to  reach  a  point  on  the  hill  leading 
to  Walkhampton  Common  by  an  easy  gradient.  Soon  after  the  train 
enters  on  the  down  a  good  view  of  the  valley  of  the  Mew  is  presented, 
one  object  in  it  that  will  not  fail  to  catch  the  eye  being  the  tower 
of  the  little  church  of  Heavy.  On  the  further  side  of  the  valley  is 
Calisham  Down,  with  Wigford  Down,  the  common  above  the  Dewer 
Stone,  beyond  it.  To  the  L,.  of  the  first-named  is  Lynch  Down,  backed 
by  Shaugh  Moor,  and  then  the  bold  sweep  of  Ringmoor  Down  comes 
into  view.  To  the  I,,  is  the  giant  mass  of  Sheeps  Tor,  with  the  village 
nestling  at  its  foot,  and  at  the  further  end  of  the  opening  between  the 
down  and  the  tor,  is  seen  Gutter  Tor,  with  a  green  path  running  up 
the  common  towards  it.  Below  is  the  narrow  Burrator  Gorge,  with 
the  dam  thrown  across  it  for  the  purpose  of  storing  the  waters  of  the 
Mew,  which,  filling  the  valley  between  Peak  Hill  and  Sheeps  Tor, 
present  the  appearance  of  a  true  lake.  This  fine  sheet  of  water,  the 
storage  reservoir  for  the  town  of  Plymouth,  is  noticed  in  our  Excur- 
sions from  Yelverton.  At  its  head  is  seen  Down  Tor,  and  the  more 
distant  Cramber  Tor,  while,  rising  above  it  to  the  L.,  are  Lether  Tor* 
and  Sharp  Tor,  the  first-mentioned  being  particularly  striking.  After 

*  The  th  has  the  heavy  sound,  the  name  being  pronounced  like 
the  word  leather.  Indeed,  in  its  earlier  form  it  appears  as  Ledder,  the 
true  sound  of  which  would  be  the  same  as  leather,  dd  being  actually 
the  heavy  th. 


14  PRINCETOWN    AND   TWO   BRIDGES   DISTRICT. 

passing  a  small  plantation  the  upper  valley  of  the  Mew,  and  the  Newley- 
combe  Valley  to  the  R.  of  it,  are  seen,  with  another  fine  tor  near  Down 
Tor.  This  is  Combe  Tor,  and  behind  it  rises  the  lofty  height  of  Eyles- 
barrow.  On  Lowery  Siding  being  passed  the  view  is  lost,  but  another 
speedily  discloses  itself.  After  crossing  the  Plymouth  and  Prince- 
town  road  a  wide  stretch  of  hill  and  dale,  farm  lands  and  woods,  with 
distant  heights,  is  seen  to  the  L.  of  the  railway  as  the  train  advances. 
A  conspicuous  object  in  the  near  view  is  Walkhampton  Church,  situated 
on  a  hill  near  the  village.  This  is  seen  from  many  points  on  the  rail- 
way as  the  train  proceeds,  and  from  both  sides  of  it,  consequent  upon 
the  windings  of  the  line.  Just  here,  although  the  train  has  to  attain 
an  elevation  of  about  1,400  feet,  there  is  a  down  gradient.  This  was 
planned  with  a  view  to  the  more  easily  bringing  up  the  train  when 
running  from  Princetown  to  Dousland,  or  stopping  a  carriage,  or  truck, 
should  such  happen  to  become  detached  from  a  train  proceeding  to 
the  first-named  place.  At  this  point  the  line  draws  nearer  to  Walk- 
hampton Church,  then  all  at  once  turns  away  from  it,  and  the  train 
passes  out  on  to  the  open  moor. 

The  beautiful  valley  of  the  Walkham  now  partially  reveals  itself, 
the  glimpses  obtained  from  certain  points  to  which  the  winding  of  the 
line  bring  the  visitor  speaking  eloquently  of  its  hidden  beauties.  Far 
down  below  is  a  wealth  of  trees,  and  where  these  cease  to  climb  from 
the  wooded  depths,  the  granite-strewn  commons  are  seen.  On  the 
down  above  its  further  side  is  Pu  Tor,  here  a  very  prominent  object, 
and  far  away  beyond  it  the  church- crowned  summit  of  Brent  Tor. 
Further  up,  and  overhanging  a  small  lateral  valley  not  far  from 
Merivale,  is  the  curiously-shaped  mass  of  Vixen  Tor,  with  Cocks'  Tor 
and  the  Staple  Tors  behind  it,  and  to  the  R.  the  lofty  Mis  Tor,  the 
monarch  of  this  part  of  the  moor,  while  much  nearer  to  us  is  King  Tor. 
Passing  Routrendle  the  line  sweeps  out  around  Inga  Tor,  below  which 
the  ground  is  rather  marshy,  and  then  making  a  great  bend  to  the  right 
runs  up  to  Yes  Tor  Green.  Here,  at  the  turn,  the  old  tramroad,  which 
made  a  rather  longer  sweep,  will  be  noticed,  with  the  little  bridge  that 
carried  it  over  the  brook.  This  is  just  below  the  pile  known  as  Fur 
Tor.  On  the  slope  above,  to  the  N.E.,  and  exactly  a  quarter  of  a 
mile  distant,  the  visitor  may  see  the  railway  on  which  he  is  travelling. 
But  that  portion  of  it  is  more  than  200  feet  above  him,  and  it  is 
necessary  for  the  train  to  make  a  journey  of  two  and  a  half  miles  to 
attain  that  elevation.  The  line  runs  out  under  the  granite  quarries 
of  the  Messrs.  Pethick  Bros.,  and  from  here  Inga  Tor  is  again  seen, 
also  Walkhampton  Church,  and  there  is  a  fine  view  of  the  Cornish  hills. 
Near  King  Tor,  around  which  the  railway  runs,  doubling  back  upon 
itself,  the  tram  road  is  seen  in  several  places  where  the  line  has  left 
it  a  few  yards  on  one  side.  Here  the  valley  near  Merivale  and  Mis 
Tor  Moor  is  in  full  view,  and  the  menhir  on  Long  Ash  Hill,  near  the 
double  stone  rows,  can  be  plainly  discerned. 

The  Red  Cottages — a  misnomer  since  their  colour  has  been  changed 
to  black — the  cottages  at  Rundle  Stone,  with  Hollow  Tor  on  the  hill  to 
the  right,  are  also  in  sight.  Passing  the  Royal  Oak  siding  and  the 
Foggin  Tor  Quarries,  the  line  is  carried  by  White  Rock  along  the  slope 
seen  from  below,  and  now  the  visitor  looks  down  upon  it  as  it  winds 
round  Yes  Tor  Green.  Inga  Tor  is  also  seen  once  more,  and  to  the 
it.  of  it  the  upper  part  of  the  tower  of  Walkhampton  Church. 


PRINCETOWN.     THE    WAR    PRISON.  15 

And  now  quite  another  part  of  the  moor  is  opened  up,  although 
many  tors  seen  during  the  first  stage  of  the  journey  again  become 
visible.  But  they  are  looked  at  from  a  different  side,  and  in  many 
instances  their  outlines  are  not  the  same.  Sheeps  Tor  and  Down 
Tor,  Lether,  Sharp,  and  Cramber  are  all  in  sight,  as  well  as  Gutter 
Tor.  Further  away  is  Trowles worthy  Tor,  on  Lee  Moor.  In  the 
direction  of  Walkhampton  Leedon  Tor  is  seen,  and  not  very  far  from 
the  railway  is  Black  Tor,  with  Hart  Tor  just  beyond  it.  Soon  the 
Plymouth  road  is  noticed  where  it  crosses  the  hollow  at  Devil's  Bridge, 
and  a  short  distance  further  on  the  station,  close  to  which  is  one  of 
the  stones  marking  the  forest  boundary,  is  reached. 

Princetown  was  called  into  existence  by  the  building  of  a  war 
prison  below  North  Hisworthy,  the  foundation  stone  being  laid  on  the 
2oth  March,  1806,  by  Sir  Thomas  Tyrwhitt,  who  had  suggested  its 
location  here.  Sir  Thomas  built  Tor  Royal,  and  had  great  hopes  of 
reclaiming  Dartmoor.  After  1816  the  prison  was  untenanted  for  some 
time,  but  was  subsequently  used  as  a  naphtha  factory,  for  the  pro- 
duction of  which  large  quantities  of  peat  were  cut  on  Holming  Beam 
In  the  meanwhile  the  little  town  fell  into  decay,  and  it  was  only  when 
the  prison  was  turned  into  a  depot  for  convicts  that  its  fortunes  began 
to  revive.  This  was  in  1850.  Since  that  date  it  has  gradually  im- 
proved, and  now  fully  justifies  its  title  of  the  capital  of  the  moor.  The 
church  was  built  and  fitted  up  by  the  French  and  American  prisoners. 
At  a  meeting  of  the  U.S.  Daughters  of  1812,  held  in  New  York  in 
January,  1909,  it  was  voted  that  the  Society  place  a  Memorial  Window 
in  the  Church  at  Princetown.  This  was  done,  the  window  being  un- 
veiled on  June  3rd,  1910,  by  Mrs.  Gerry  Slade,  the  President.  In  the 
Church  is  also  a  Memorial  Tablet  to  the  soldiers  who  perished  in  the 
snow  as  related  further  on. 

In  1912  a  granite  cross  was  erected  in  the  western  part  of  the 
churchyard  which  is  set  aside  for  the  burial  of  convicts. 

In  The  Story  of  Dartmoor  Prison,  by  Mr.  Basil  Thomson,  formerly 
Governor  of  the  depot,  much  interesting  information  will  be  found. 
The  stirring  times  of  the  French  and  American  prisoners  are  vividly 
pictured,  and  the  account  is  brought  down  to  the  present  day. 

Princetown  was  created  an  ecclesiastical  parish  in  1913. 

The  hamlet  of  Two  Bridges  is  pleasantly  situated  in  the  valley  of 
the  West  Dart,  a  mile  and  a  half  from  Princetown.  The  trees  under 
Bear  Down  near  by  were  planted  by  Mr.  Edward  Bray,  a  solicitor,  of 
Tavistock,  who  began  operations  here  about  1780.  Bear  Down  is 
probably  bear  dun,  the  promontory  hill.  The  semi-circular  belt  at  the 
foot  of  the  hill  is  known  as  the  Cowsic  Horse  Shoe.  The  inn,  the 
forerunner  of  the  present  hotel,  was  built  by  Judge  Buller,  of  Prince 
Hall.] 


16  PRINCETOWN    AND   TWO   BRIDGES    DISTRICT. 


Excursions  from  Princetown  and 
Two  Bridges. 

[The  Excursions  are  mostly  within  a  radius  of  three  miles  of 
Princetown.  The  commons  westward  of  the  Walkham  are  noticed  in 
the  Tavistock  District,  and  the  neighbourhood  of  Sheeps  Tor  and 
Walkhampton  in  the  Yelverton  District.] 

Tracks  in  the  vicinity,  Nos.  i  to  15,  18,  ^6,  75,  80  (see  the 
Section  in  Part  V). 


North  Hisworthy  Tor. 

Before  setting  out  on  our  Excursions  from  Princetown  and 
Two  Bridges  we  shall  ascend  the  hill  rising  above  the  first-named 
place  to  the  tor  locally  known  as  North  Hessary,  as  an  excellent 
view  of  the  district  over  which  our  rambles  are  to  extend  is  to  be 
obtained  from  that  breezy  height.  We  therefore  leave  the  main 
street  by  the  turning  opposite  to  the  school,  and  passing  through  a 
gate,  make  our  way  up  the  hill,  keeping  close  to  the  wall  of  the  en- 
closures on  the  right.  This  will  lead  us  directly  to  the  tor,  just  before 
reaching  which  we  find  ourselves  walking  over  the  ground  traversed  by 
the  perambulators  who  viewed  the  bounds  of  the  forest  in  1240.  The 
boundary  line  is  drawn  from  South  Hisworthy  to  North  Hisworthy, 
and  here  is  marked  by  some  granite  posts  of  comparatively  recent 
erection,  which  may  be  seen  from  the  point  we  have  now  attained. 
The  tor  is  by  no  means  striking  in  appearance,  but  as  a  forest  bond- 
mark  mentioned  in  the  return  to  the  perambulation  made  in  the 
thirteenth  century,  it  is  not  altogether  devoid  of  interest.  The  visitor 
will,  however,  find  his  chief  reward  in  the  wonderful  view  commanded 
from  its  summit.  No  less  than  about  sixty  tors  are  to  be  seen,  besides 
a  number  of  important  hills.  As  Simon  Renard  read  from  the  battle- 
ments of  the  White  Tower  the  history  of  England,  so  one  may  look 
down  from  the  crest  of  Hisworthy  and  read  the  history  of  modern 
Dartmoor.  Northward  and  southward  are  the  untamed  hills,  rising 
grim  and  bare  ;  vast  solitudes  where  nothing  of  man's  work  is  seen. 
Between  these  wild  tracts  is  the  more  sheltered  part,  where  the  settler 
has  formed  his  enclosures,  and  planted  his  few  trees  and  made  his 
roads.  Immediately  below,  the  prison  and  the  town  that  grew  up 
around  it,  and  on  the  other  side  the  iron  way  that  has  penetrated  to 
the  verge  of  the  forest.  Man  has  done  something  here,  but  when  the 
beholder  again  looks  upon  the  dusky  sweeps  that  roll  away  into  the 
blue  distance,  he  realises  how  little  it  is. 


VIEW   FROM    NORTH    HISWORTHY.  17 

In  order  to  enumerate  the  tors  seen  from  this  hill,  and  at  the 
same  time  to  indicate  their  situations,  it  will  be  most  convenient  to 
commence  with  those  on  the  common  north  of  the  road  leading  to 
Tavistock.  If,  therefore,  we  look  in  a  W.N.W.  direction  we  shall  see 
this  road  winding  up  the  side  of  the  Walkham  Valley.  Immediately 
to  the  R.  of  it  is  Little  Staple  Tor,  a  small  group  of  rocks,  and  R.  of 
that  again  Mid  Staple  Tor,  with  Cocks'  Tor  rising  behind  it,  the  latter 
being  situated  at  the  southern  extremity  of  a  long  hill  with  a  rounded 
outline.*  In  a  line  with  these  tors,  on  the  slope  of  Hisworthy  and 
not  far  from  us,  is  Hollow  Tor.  The  fine  tor  to  the  R.  of  Mid  Staple 
Tor  is  Great  Staple  Tor,  and  R.  of  this  is  Roose  Tor.  Between  these 
two  is  seen  the  distant  Brent  Tor,  with  the  little  church  on  its  summit. 
Beyond  the  dip  R.  of  Roose  Tor  is  Black  Down,  a  fine  common  mostly 
in  the  parish  of  Mary  Tavy,  and  R.  of  that  is  White  Tor,  or  Whittor, 
as  it  is  always  called.  The  line  of  junction  between  the  granite  and 
the  altered  rocks  runs  through  the  shallow  valley  beyond  the  ridge 
on  which  rise  the  Staple  Tors  and  Roose  Tor.  Cocks'  Tor  and  White 
Tor  are  therefore  not  within  the  granite  area  ;  they  are  composed  of 
trap  rock,  and  the  difference  in  form  between  them  and  the  granite 
hills  is  very  striking,  particularly  when  they  are  seen  from  Black 
Down.  Right  of  Roose  Tor,  and  on  the  nearer  side  of  the  Walkham 
Valley,  is  Great  Mis  Tor,  one  of  the  finest  of  the  rock-piles  on  Dartmoor. 
Just  below  is  Little  Mis  Tor,  a  square  mass  of  granite,  and  quite  near 
to  us.  at  the  foot  of  Hisworthy,  is  Rundle  Stone  Tor. 

To  the  R.  of  Mis  Tor,  and  in  a  direction  a  little  W.  of  N.  we  look 
away  to  the  ridge  above  the  Rattle  Brook,  from  which  Hare  Tor, 
Sharp  Tor,  and  Great  Links  Tor  rise  in  succession.  The  first-named  is 
of  a  pyramidal  form,  and  will  be  easily  recognised,  as  also  will  Links 
Tor,  the  rocks  of  which  rise  to  a  considerable  height  above  the  turf. 
The  rounded  hill  below  it,  and  three  miles  nearer  to  us,  is  Standon, 
or  Stannon,  as  it  is  usually  called  ;  on  its  summit  is  a  cairn  presenting 
from  this  distance  the  appearance  of  a  small  mound.  A  little  to  the 
R.  of  Links  Tor,  the  Dunnagoat  Tors  are  seen,  and  R.  of  these  is 
Amicombe  Hill.  From  Links  Tor  the  ground  dips  towards  the  north, 
where  there  is  a  great  opening  in  the  hills.  This  marks  the  deep  gorge 
of  the  West  Ockment,  and  above  it  to  the  R.  is  High  Willes,  the  most 
elevated  of  the  Dartmoor  eminences.  This  height  is  exactly  nine  miles 
from  the  point  on  which  we  stand  as  measured  on  the  map. 

In  a  line  with  Amicombe  Hill,  but  much  nearer  to  us,  being  in  fact 
only  four  miles  distant,  is  Walkham  Head,  and  if  we  look  beyond 
this,  and  to  the  R.  of  it,  we  shall  see  the  rocks  of  Fur  Tor,  with  Cut 
Hill  rising  still  further  R.  Peeping  over  its  shoulder,  far  away  in  a 
direction  N.N.E.,  is  Newtake,  the  hill  near  Cranmere  and  East  Dart 
Head.  Less  than  two  miles  south  of  the  summit  of  Cut  Hill,  and  hi  a 
line  with  it  and  our  standpoint,  is  Cowsic  Head.  On  one  side  of  this, 
the  L.,  we  may  see  Conies  Down  Tor,  and  on  the  other  side  Devil's  Tor. 
Quite  close  to  the  latter  is  Bear  Down  Man,  but  this  can  only  be  made 
out  with  the  aid  of  a  glass. 

Rising  against  the  sky  to  the  R.  of  Devil's  Tor  is  Row  Tor,  and 
under  it,  but  more  than  a  mile  nearer  to  us,  is  Lydford  Tor,  at  the 


*This  is  known  as  Cocks'  Tor  Hill. 


i8  PRINCETOWN    AND    TWO    BRIDGES    DISTRICT. 

northern  end  of  Bear  Down.  To  the  R.,  but  further  away,  is  Crow 
Tor,  and  then  the  Bear  Down  Tors,  with  White  or  Whitten  Tor,  seen 
between.  It  should  be  noticed  that  in  Row  Tor  and  Crow  Tor  the 
"  ow  "  has  the  same  sound  as  in  crowd.  One  form  of  spelling  the 
latter  is  Crough.  To  the  R.  of  the  Bear  Down  Tors,  and  on  the  ridge 
above  the  West  Dart,  we  see  Longaford  and  L,ittaford  Tors,  the  former 
rising  like  a  pyramid  from  the  down. 

Beyond  these  tors,  and  some  four  miles  further  away,  is  White 
Ridge,  with  Waters  Down  to  the  right  of  it.  Near  the  latter  the 
Moreton  road  is  seen  climbing  the  shoulder  of  Meripit  Hill.  Below  us, 
and  only  two  and  a  half  miles  distant,  is  Crockern  Tor,  close  to  which 
the  Moreton  road  is  also  seen,  as  well  as  the  Ashburton  road  between 
Two  Bridges  and  Prince  Hall.  Further  distant,  E.  by  N.,  is  Bellaford 
Tor,  and  bounding  the  view  in  this  direction  is  the  huge  ridge  of 
Hameldon. 

Three  quarters  of  a  mile  from  Bellaford  Tor  is  L,ough  Tor — Lafter 
Tor,  as  it  is  generally  called — and  this  is  in  full  view  to  the  R.  of  the 
former.  Far  away  beyond  these  is  seen  Chinkwell  Tor  and  Hey  Tor, 
with  the  steep  road  leading  up  from  the  village  of  Widecombe.  To 
the  R.  of  Hey  Tor  is  Saddle  Tor,  and  R.  of  that  Rippon  Tor. 

Much  nearer  than  Rippon  Tor,  but  seen  a  little  to  the  R.  of  it,  is 
Corn  Down,  with  Yar  Tor,  the  fine  height  that  rises  above  Dartmeet ; 
and  in  the  distance  above  the  hanging  woods  that  line  the  valley  of  the 
Dart,  the  granite  boss  of  Buckland  Beacon,  and  amid  the  trees  below, 
the  crag  called  Auswell  Rock.*  The  road  winding  up  the  hill  from 
Dartmeet  is  plainly  visible,  and  above  it  Sharp  Tor,  and  the  crest  of 
its  neighbour,  Mil  Tor. 

And  now  we  look  upon  a  part  of  the  moor  westward  of  the  Dart. 
Four  and  a  half  miles  away  in  a  direction  E.  by  S.  the  road  running 
from  Sherburton  Bridge  to  Gobbet  Plain  is  seen,  and  in  a  line  with  it 
and  nearly  three  miles  further  distant,  Bench  Tor,  on  Holne  Moor. 
Right  of  this  we  see  the  Holne  road,  where  it  climbs  the  steep  hill 
above  the  eastern  bank  of  the  Wo  Brook.  The  hill  to  the  right  of  this 
is  Down  Ridge,  above  Hexworthy,  and  the  next  the  swelling  eminence 
of  Cater's  Beam,  rising  from  the  fen  beyond  Fox  Tor,  the  piles  of  which 
are  placed  about  midway  up  the  hill-side.  The  direction  of  the  tor  is 
about  S.E. 

Peeping  over  the  hill  that  bounds  the  view  to  the  R.  of  Fox  Tor 
are  some  distant  heights.  The  first  of  these  is  Eastern  Whitaburrow, 
and  the  next  Western  Whitaburrow,  the  high  land  between  them  being 
the  summit  of  Bush  Meads,  at  the  foot  of  which  the  Avon  runs.  A 
little  further  to  the  R.  is  the  prominent  hill  known  as  Three  Barrows, 
•eight  and  a  half  miles  distant. 

Less  than  two  miles  from  our  standpoint  is  South  Hisworthy  Tor. 
Its  direction  is  S.E.,  and  it  is  in  a  line  with  Eastern  Whitaburrow. 

Looking  in  a  direction  S.S.E.  we  notice  a  combe  on  the  hillside 
beyond  the  first  ridge.  This  is  Langcombe  Bottom,  through  which 
runs  a  tributary  of  the  Plym  ;  it  falls  into  that  stream  at  Plym  Steps. 
The  high  land  on  this  side  of  the  combe  is  Eylesbarrow,  and  the  distant 
point  to  the  right  of  it  is  Shell  Top,  a  fine  height  overlooking  the  in- 
country  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Cornwood.  On  the  side  of  the  hill 

*  This  is  sometimes  known  as  Hazel  Tor. 


VIEW    FROM    NORTH    HISWORTHY.  19 

under  Shell  Top,  and  a  mile  nearer  to  us,  is  Hen  Tor.  This  rises  above 
the  Plym,  and  gives  name  to  one  of  the  warrens  in  the  valley  through 
which  that  stream  runs.  Rather  over  two  miles  nearer,  and  in  a  line 
with  it,  is  Combeshead  Tor,  so  named  from  its  situation  at  the  head  of 
the  Dean  Combe  valley. 

To  the  right  of  Combeshead  Tor  is  Down  Tor,  and  a  mile  and  a 
half  beyond,  with  same  bearings,  is  Gutter  Tor,  a  pile  at  the  eastern  end 
of  Ringmoor  Down,  and  overlooking  Ditsworthy  Warren.  The  same 
distance  beyond  Gutter  Tor,  and  in  a  line  with  it,  are  Great  and  I/ittle 
Trowlesworthy  Tors,  which  are  situated  on  the  common  lands  belong- 
ing to  the  parish  of  Shaugh.  The  name  of  these  tors  is  pronounced 
as  though  it  were  spelt  without  the  first  "  w,"  and  with  the  "  o  "  long. 
The  high  land  to  the  R.  of  these  tors  is  that  part  of  Shaugh  Moor  known 
as  Saddlesborough. 

But  the  most  striking  tor  in  this  direction  is  Sheeps  Tor,  whose 
giant  mass  is  only  three  and  a  half  miles  distant.  It  rises  boldly 
S.  by  W.  Below  it,  to  the  R.,  is  the  Heavy  Valley,  above  the  western 
side  of  which  we  see  Lether  Tor,  and  close  to  it  one  of  the  numerous 
Sharp  Tors  on  the  moor. 

Now  we  must  let  our  eyes  wander  a  little  to  the  L.,  and  on  the 
common  below  us  we  shall  observe  three  tors.  The  first,  which  lies 
S.  by  E.,  is  Cr amber  Tor  ;  the  next,  and  nearer  to  us,  is  Hart  Tor, 
always  called  Harter  Tor,  which,  however,  is  probably  only  a  duplica^ 
tion  of  the  final  syllable  ;  and  the  other  is  Black  Tor,  which  is  quite 
near  to  the  Plymouth  road.  The  latter  is  at  the  same  point  of  the 
compass  as  Sheeps  Tor. 

Once  more  we  look  towards  Sharp  Tor,  and  on  the  common  to  the 
R.  of  this  shall  notice  another  pile.  This  is  Leedon  Tor,  and  below  it 
to  the  R.  is  Inga  Tor,  close  to  which  is  the  Princetown  Railway. 
Nearer  to  us,  to  the  R.,  is  Swell  Tor,  and  further  in  that  direction,  and 
less  than  a  mile  and  a  half  from  where  we  stand,  the  fine  pile  of  King 
Tor. 

Below  King  Tor  is  the  beautiful  valley  of  the  Walkham,  and 
beyond  this,  and  nearly  in  a  line  with  the  pile  named,  we  see  Pu  Tor, 
conspicuously  placed  on  the  common  near  Sampford  Spiney.  Right 
-of  this  is  Feather  Tor,  and  then  the  curiously-shaped  mass  of  Vixen 
Tor,  and  near  it  the  Tavistock  road,  where  we  began  our  survey. 

Although  many  of  the  Dartmoor  hills  attain  an  elevation  of  1,700 
or  i, 800  feet,  and  some  an  even  greater  height,  there  is  not  one  from 
which  an  uninterrupted  view  of  half-a-dozen  miles  in  every  direction 
can  be  obtained.  There  is  always  another  hill  rising  within  that 
distance  to  obstruct  the  range  of  vision.  Even  High  Willes  and  Cut 
Hill  are  not  exceptions. 

The  view  from  North  Hisworthy — or  Ysfother,  as  the  perambu- 
lators of  1 240  have  it* — cannot  fail  to  impress,  on  account  of  its  extent. 
But  while  it  reveals  so  much  of  the  moor  it  does  not  convey  that  idea  of 
it  which  is  obtained  from  High  Willes,  or  Great  Links.  Tor,  and  a  few 
other  prominent  hills.  The  wilder  parts  of  the  moor  are  hidden  from 
the  beholder  on  Hisworthy,  or  when  glimpses  of  such  are  afforded  it  is 

*  By  the  jury  who  surveyed  the  bounds  of  the  forest  in  1609  the 
tor  is  mentioned  as  Hisworthie.  In  1786  another  jury  refer  to  it  by 
the  same  name,  but  with  the  modern  terminal  "  y." 


20  PRINCETOWN    AND   TWO    BRIDGES   DISTRICT. 

of  spots  too  far  off  for  the  nature  of  them  to  be  properly  estimated. 
He  cannot  look  down  as  from  the  heights  mentioned,  or  as  he  may 
from  Three  Barrows  and  from  Ryders"  Hill,  upon  a  scene  of  wildness 
and  desolation  ;  the  eye  has  to  range  over  the  enclosed  parts  of  the 
moor  before  it  can  rest  upon  the  heathery  slopes  that  cultivation  has 
not  disturbed.  He  sees,  indeed,  scarcely  anything  of  the  remote  parts 
of  the  south  quarter  of  the  forest,  and  not  much  of  the  recesses  of  the 
north. 

Westward  of  Hisworthy,  beyond  the  commons,  is  a  wonderful 
riew  of  the  south-western  part  of  Devon,  with  the  Channel  off  Ply- 
mouth, and  of  East  Cornwall.  Pasture  lands  and  woods,  towns  and 
villages,  make  up  the  picture  over  which  the  eye  wanders  till  it  lights 
upon  the  Cornish  hills  that  rise  up  against  the  western  sky. 

On  the  slope  of  Hisworthy,  and  not  far  from  the  tor,  is  a  rain- 
guage,  placed  on  the  line  bounding  the  water-collecting  area  of  the 
Burrator  Lake.  This  suggests  the  question  of  rainfall,  one  into  which 
it  will  perhaps  be  wise  not  to  enter.  A  town  cannot  very  well  occupy 
so  elevated  a  site  as  Princetown,  which  is  placed  about  i  ,400  feet  above 
sea  level,  without  receiving  its  full  share  of  moisture,  but  it  may 
perhaps  be  some  consolation  to  the  visitor  if  we  assure  him  that  by  far 
the  greater  proportion  of  the  rain  is  reserved  for  the  inhabitants  : 
during  the  holiday  season  blue  skies  are  usually  above  it. 

And  now,  having  looked  upon  so  many  of  the  Dartmoor  tors,  we 
will  bid  adieu  to  Hisworthy,  with  its  overhanging  rock,  and  set  out  on 
our  way  to  make  closer  acquaintance  with  them,  or  at  least  with  such 
of  them  as  present  features  more  than  ordinarily  interesting,  as  well 
as  to  examine  others  not  seen  from  its  crest.  But,  though  we  bid  the 
tor  good-bye,  we  shall  not  readily  forget  it,  for  much  that  we  see  will 
recall  our  visit  to  it.  Often,  too,  our  eyes  will  rest  upon  it  when  we 
are  in  distant  parts  of  the  moor,  so  that  it  will  be  neither  out  of  sight 
nor  out  of  mind. 

(It  was  thought  that  to  burden  this  description  with  references 
would  be  inconvenient  to  the  reader  ;  the  Indexes  will  show  where  a 
notice  of  each  tor  named  is  to  be  found). 

[Prom  Two  Bridges  the  visitor  will  take  the  left  hand  road  to 
Princetown,  passing  the  Ockery  on  his  way,  but  he  will  find  it  a  good 
plan  to  return  by  the  Tavistock  road.  To  do  this  he  will  descend  the 
northern  slope  of  Hisworthy,  keeping  near  to  the  wall,  to  Rundle  Stone 
(Ex.  i),  whence  the  highway  from  Tavistock  runs  due  E.  to  Two 
Bridges  (2  m.)  Just  before  reaching  the  road  Rundle  Stone  Tor  is 
passed  ;  the  tor  seen  to  the  left,  and  not  far  off,  in  descending  the  side 
of  Hisworthy,  is  Hollow  Tor.] 


EXCURSION    I.       WALKHAMPTON    COMMON. 


Ex.  i.  The  Soldiers'  Pond — Devil's  Bridge — Stone  Rows  near 
Sharp  Tor — Routrendle — Yes  Tor  Bottom — Ward  Bridge — Okel  Tor — 
Merivale  Bridge — Mining  Houses  on  the  Walkham — Merivale  Antiqui- 
ties— Rundle  Stone.  About  12  miles  from  Princetown.  Add  3-^  m. 
if  from  Two  Bridges. 

Among  the  interesting  objects  in  the  vicinity  of  Princetown  not 
a  few  are  to  be  found  on  Walkhampton  Common,  and  to  a  brief 
examination  of  some  of  the  more  striking  of  these  we  shall  first  devote 
our  attention.  For  the  present  our  ramble  will  extend  only  over  that 
part  of  the  common  lying  between  the  Plymouth  road,  the  Tavistock 
road,  and  the  Walkham  river.  Other  divisions  of  it  will  be  noticed 
in  future  excursions.  We  leave  Princetown  by  the  first-named  high- 
way, and  shortly  after  passing  the  corner  of  the  enclosures  R.,  where 
the  old  path  known  as  the  Frenchmen's  Road  branches  (T.  5),  shall 
reach  one  of  the  row  of  stones  marking  the  forest  boundary  where  it 
runs  from  South  Hisworthy  to  North  Hisworthy  Tor.  Here  we  leave 
the  ancient  royal  hunting-ground  and  enter  upon  Walkhampton 
Common.  About  200  yards  further  on,  and  L.  of  the  road,  is  an 
object  associated  with  one  of  Dartmoor's  sad  memories.  It  is  a  small 
hollow  filled  with  water,  and  surrounded  by  a  bank  rising  above  the 
level  of  the  common,  which  goes  by  the  name  of  the  Soldier's  Pond, 
and  marks  the  spot  where  a  corporal  of  the  7th  Royal  Fusiliers  perished 
hi  the  snow,  in  February,  1853.  The  bodies  of  two  privates  who  were 
accompanying  him  were  found  at  a  spot  known  as  Double  Waters, 
where  a  little  stream  runs  under  the  road.  The  event  is  recorded  on 
a  tablet  in  Princetown  Churchyard.  The  grave  in  which  these 
"three  valiant  soldiers"  lie  was  restored  in  1908. 

The  road  now  descends  into  a  hollow  where  it  crosses  the  springs 
of  the  Mew  at  Devil's  Bridge.  The  name  suggests  a  legend,  but  in 
reality  became  attached  to  the  spot  in  a  very  prosaic  manner.  The 
bridge,  which  is  merely  a  culvert,  was  built  by  a  labourer  who  rejoiced, 
or  otherwise,  in  the  sobriquet  of  Devil.  That  is  all ;  "  story,  I  have 
none  to  tell."  His  Santanic  Majesty  has  left  his  name  in  other  places 
on  Dartmoor,  but  not  at  this  particular  spot. 

On  the  slope  above  Devil's  Bridge,  that  is  to  the  N.W.  and  W.  of 
it,  are  a  number  of  hut  circles.  One  group  is  close  to  the  railway.  In 
connection  with  the  other  there  is  a  pound,  overlooking  Yes  Tor 
Bottom.  In  this  combe  fragments  of  a  vessel  of  highly  glazed  ware 
were  discovered  a  few  years  ago  under  some  slag,  and  also  the  bottom 
of  a  cooking-pot,  as  well  as  sherds  and  charcoal. 

Proceeding  on  our  way  we  soon  reach  Double  Waters,  which  is 
about  half-a-mile  from  the  hollow.  Here  we  notice  Black  Tor,  a  short 
distance  across  the  common  to  the  L.  Near  it  are  some  prehistoric 
antiquities,  and  also  an  extensive  stream  work  with  two  mining  houses, 
which  are  noticed  in  our  next  excursion.  West  of  Double  Waters, 
and  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  it,  are  several  hut  circles  ;  in  fact, 
these  ancient  ruined  dwellings  are  exceedingly  numerous  in  that  part 
of  the  common  now  under  notice. 


22 


PRINCETOWN    AND    TWO    BRIDGES    DISTRICT. 


Black 
Tor. 


Lether 
Tor. 


Sharp 
Tor. 


FROM   DOUBLE   WATERS,    I.OOKIXG   S.VV. 


As  we  pass  on,  we  shall  be  struck  with  the  bold  appearance  of  two 
tors  immediately  in  front  of  us.  The  one  L.  is  the  principal  pile  of 
Lether  Tor  ;  the  other  is  Sharp  Tor,  which  has  a  rather  greater  eleva- 
tion. R.,  and  much  nearer  to  us,  is  L,eedon  Tor,  consisting  of  several 
fine  groups  of  rocks  in  which  the  granite  is  fantastically  piled.  Looking 
back  in  a  northerly  direction  we  see  the  pound  just  mentioned.  It  is 
situated  on  the  slope  below  the  railway,  where  the  latter  begins  to  hide 
itself  behind  the  hill  on  the  nearer  side  of  which  are  the  granite  quarries. 
Below  us,  L.,  are  the  enclosures  of  Stanlake  Farm,  the  house  itself 
also  being  visible.  On  the  hill  beyond  it  is  Cr amber  Tor  (Ex.  2),  and 
across  the  valley  to  the  R.  of  the  farm,  is  Down  Tor  (Ex.  2,  38),  with 
the  fine  mass  of  Sheeps  Tor  (Ex.  38)  still  further  R.  One  of  the 
enclosures  of  Stanlake  is  built  on  a  stone  row.  This  is  noticed  in 
Ex.  39. 

At  a  point  about  2\  miles  from  Princetown  our  road  begins  to 
ascend  the  flank  of  Peak  Hill.  Here  it  is  crossed  by  a  track  (T.  4) 
coming  up  in  front  of  us  from  the  direction  of  Walkhampton,  and 
running  down  the  hill  L.  to  Stanlake.  Half  mile  further  on  we  reach 
the  twelfth  milestone  from  Plymouth.  This  is  known  as  Goad's  Stone, 
and  on  the  upper  half  of  the  face  are  some  markings,  but  they  are  not 
readily  distinguishable.  Passing  up  the  hill  we  soon  reach  a  pond  on 
the  L.  of  the  road,  on  the  brink  of  which  is  a  double  stone  row.  It  is 
in  a  very  ruined  condition,  but  may  be  traced  for  some  distance.  It 
appears  to  terminate  at  a  boulder,  but  is  really  continued,  as  a  careful 
examination  will  show,  to  the  remains  of  a  kistvaen  at  its  northern 
end.  Near  it  is  also  a  single  row.  Prom  the  pond,  which,  by  the  way, 
has  never  been  known  to  be  dry,  we  may  ascend  Sharp  Tor  and  the 
summit  of  Peak  Hill,  the  view  from  which  points  is  exceedingly  fine, 
and  is  noticed  in  our  Excursions  from  Yelverton.  (Ex.  39). 

In  his  progress  towards  Sharp  Tor  from  Double  Waters  the  rambler 
will  probably  have  noticed  a  reave  running  from  the  pile  down  the  hill 
towards  the  road.  From  our  station  near  the  pond  we  shall,  on  look- 
ing north-eastward,  perceive  another  of  these  objects  on  the  left.  It 
runs  across  the  track  we  saw  at  the  foot  of  the  ascent,  and  like  the 


24  PRINCETOWN    AND   TWO   BRIDGES   DISTRICT. 

former,  climbs  the  hill  capped  by  Leedon  Tor.  These  reaves  have 
been  said  to  extend  for  a  very  conisderable  distance  ;  one  of  them, 
indeed,  as  far  as  Chagford.  If  the  visitor  considers  that  a  hiatus  of  a 
few  miles  here  and  there  does  not  render  this  doubtful,  and  is  quite 
ready  to  believe,  if  he  picks  up  a  line  anywhere  to  the  north  or  south 
of  the  point  at  which  all  traces  were  lost,  that  he  is  still  following  the 
same  reave,  he  may,  if  he  cares  for  a  long  tramp,  satisfy  himself  that  it 
really  does  go  to  Chagford.  It  may,  therefore,  be  as  well  to  inform 
him  that  it  is  the  Sharp  Tor  reave  that  was  once  said  to  lead  to  that 
moorland  town,  although  it  is  highly  probable  that  if  he  chooses  the 
other  reave  the  result  of  his  endeavours  will  be  precisely  the  same. 

Hut  circles  occur  between  the  track  before-named  and  the  summit 
of  Leedon  Hill.  To  the  fine  rocks  crowning  that  eminence  we  shall 
now  make  our  way,  and  strike  thence  towards  Inga  Tor,  which  bears 
N.W.,  and  is  close  to  the  Princetown  Railway.  When  about  300  yards 
from  the  last-named  tor,  and  in  a  direct  line  between  the  two,  we  shall 
come  upon  a  kistvaen  surrounded  by  a  circle  of  stones  about  20  feet 
in  diameter.  Both  are  unfortunately  in  a  dilapidated  condition. 
The  cover  of  the  kist  is  four  feet  in  length,  and  nearly  three  feet  in 
width.  Turning  southward  towards  the  railway  we  shall  direct  our 
steps  to  a  crossing-place  to  which  two  white  gates  give  access,  and 
which  forms  an  approach  to  Routrendle,  a  moor  farm  in  full  view 
from  the  road  at  Goad's  Stone.  On  reaching  the  further  side  of  the 
railway  we  shall  follow  a  road  that  will  lead  us  to  the  farmhouse. 
This  we  leave  on  the  I/.,  and  shall  shortly  regain  the  open  common, 
not  far  from  Inga  Tor,  which  we  see  rising  immediately  above  the  line. 
On  passing  this  pile,  the  rocks  of  which  are  poised  in  a  similar  manner 
to  those  of  Leedon  Tor,  the  line  makes  a  bend  towards  the  east,  and 
crossing  the  lower  end  of  Yes  Tor  Bottom,*  turns  again  to  the  west, 
and  runs  out  to  King  Tor. 

[This  spot  may  be  reached  from  Princetown  direct  by  following 
the  road  to  Devil's  Bridge,  and  then  striking  up  over  the  common 
westward,  with  the  railway  on  the  R.,  or  by  crossing  the  bridge  near 
the  station  from  the  Frenchmen's  road  (T.  5)  and  then  turning  L. 
If  the  latter  route  is  followed  the  visitor  will  pass  under  the  line  at  the 
first  cattle  creep  he  comes  to,  where  is  a  little  stream.  From  this 
point  he  will  see  the  railway  far  down  below,  as  it  sweeps  round  towards 
Inga  Tor.  He  must  then  make  for  it,  keeping  well  to  the  R.  Should 
the  way  by  Devil's  Bridge  be  chosen,  the  railway  will  be  similarly  seen 
below. 

From  Yes  Tor  Bottom  the  rambler  may  make  his  way  around 
King  Tor,  noticing  Little  King  Tor  on  the  L.,  to  the  Royal  Oak  level, 
by  taking  the  railway  for  his  guide.  He  will  keep  it  on  his  R.,  crossing 
it  on  reaching  the  tor  if  he  wishes  to  ascend  the  pile.  If  he  desires 
first  to  see  the  quarries  he  will  ascend  the  hill  above  the  line,  whence 
he  may  look  down  upon  them.  Granite  quarrying  on  this  part  of 
Dartmoor  commenced  on  the  opening  of  the  Plymouth  and  Dartmoor 

*  Apparently  a  corruption  of  East  Tor.  Yes  Tor  Green,  below 
the  bottom,  is  shown  on  a  map  of  Sir  Thomas  Tyrwhitt's  projected 
railway  as  Easter  Green.  The  date  of  this  is  1818.  Here  is  Crip  Tor 
Farm,  and  adjoining  it  are  the  ruins  of  another  Dartmoor  homestead. 


EXCURSION    I.       WARD   BRIDGE.       OREL   TOR.  25 

Railway  in  1823.  [100  Years,  Chap.  III.]  From  the  Royal  Oak 
level  the  visitor  may  return  to  Princetown  either  by  way  of  the  Red 
Cottages  and  Rundle  Stone,  or  by  following  the  line  to  the  station. 
If  the  former  route  be  chosen  he  will  make  his  way  to  the  cottages, 
which  are  seen  near  by,  and  passing  them  will  gain  the  high  road  from 
Tavistock,  just  above  the  Mission  Room.  Directions  for  reaching 
Princetown  from  this  point  are  given  at  the  end  of  the  present 
excursion.] 

Making  our  way  over  the  common  from  Routrendle,  with  the  wall 
of  the  enclosures  on  our  I,.,  we  shortly  reach  a  moor  gate  opening 
upon  a  lane.  This  we  descend,  and  shall  soon  find  that  it  is  crossed  by 
another,  which  comes  up  from  Walkhampton  and  runs  on  to  Merivale. 
Here  we  turn  R.,  the  latter  now  becoming  our  road,  unless  it  be  desired 
-to  visit  Ward  Bridge  before  proceeding  up  the  valley,  in  which  case 
we  continue  to  descend  the  hill.  The  bridge,  which  is  not  far  distant, 
is  situated  in  one  of  the  most  charming  parts  of  the  valley  of  the 
Walkham,  and  is  noticed  in  our  excursions  from  Tavistock  (Ex.  7). 

At  a  distance  of  less  than  4-  m.  from  the  point  where  the  lanes 
intersect  each  other  we  shall  reach  Whithill  Farm,  where  the  road 
crosses  the  Yes  Tor  Brook  by  a  clapper  of  two  openings.  It  is  of 
comparatively  modern  date,  and  presents  nothing  remarkable.  Be- 
yond this  we  pass  Davy  Town  Farm  (see  Town  in  the  list  of  terms), 
when  our  road  becomes  exceedingly  rough.  But  we  shall  regard  the 
inconvenience  of  traversing  it  as  a  very  light  matter  when  we  arrive 
at  Okel  Tor  Gate,*  for  we  shall  then  have  reached  one  of  the  most 
beautiful  of  the  rock  piles  of  Dartmoor.  [Gems,  Chap.  XXI.]  The 
gate,  which  is  at  the  top  of  a  slight  ascent,  is  hung  to  the  rocks  of  the 
tor,  and,  having  passed  through  it,  we  find  ourselves  in  their  midst. 
The  piles  do  not  rise  high  above  the  ground,  and  there  is  nothing  of 
the  grandeur  that  belongs  to  such  granite  crowns  as  Mis  Tor,  or  Staple 
Tor,  or  Hound  Tor  ;  but  the  masses  are  so  delightfully  shrouded  in 
dwarf  oaks  and  mountain  ash,  tufts  of  heather,  and  patches  of  the 
bright  green  whortleberry  plants,  that  they  present  an  appearance 
that  cannot  fail  to  enchant  the  beholder.  In  place  of  sternness  we 
have  beauty  ;  the  rugged  is  lost  in  the  softening  effect  of  the  foliage 
that  so  happily  mingles  with  the  weather-stained  rocks.  A  number 
of  tors  are  in  view,  and  away  to  the  south,  beyond  the  farm  lands,  rise 
the  heights  that  look  down  upon  Plymouth  Sound.  Beneath  us  is 
the  charming  Walkham  Valley,  but  the  length  of  our  present  excursion 
will  prevent  us  from  visiting  it  now.  To  do  so  it  will  be  better  to 
proceed  by  the  road  from  Princetown  to  Merivale  (R.  i),  and  on  reach- 
ing that  place  to  follow  the  directions  given  in  Excursion  7. 

Leaving  Okel  Tor,  with  its  drapery  of  living  green,  we  continue 
on  our  way,  and  soon  the  sound  of  falling  water  strikes  upon  the  ear. 
Coming  down  from  the  moor  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Rundle  Stone, 
the  Long  Ash  Brook  here  crosses  our  track  on  its  way  to  join  the  Walk- 
iam.  The  road  is  carried  over  it  by  a  clapper,  which,  though  not  of 
great  size,  is  yet  an  excellent  example  of  these  rude  bridges.  The 
banks  of  the  stream  being  so  thickly  covered  with  bushes  little  of  the 
structure  can  be  seen  in  crossing,  but  a  good  view  of  it  is  to  be  obtained 

*  Often  called  Hucken  Tor. 


26  PRINCETOWN    AND    TWO    BRIDGES    DISTRICT. 

from  a  point  a  few  yards  below  it  on  the  southern  side.  The  clapper 
has  two  openings,  and  the  centre  pier  and  buttresses  are  formed  of 
massive  stones.  Just  beyond  we  reach  Long  Ash  Farm,  and  shortly 
afterwards  find  ourselves  on  the  Princetown  and  Tavistock  road,  near 
Merivale  Bridge.  Our  walk  from  the  cross  lanes  has  been  a  rough  one, 
but  it  has  brought  us  through  some  of  the  finest  Dartmoor  border 
scenery.  [If  the  visitor  does  not  desire  to  go  to  Merivale  he  may 
strike  up  across  the  enclosures  from  Long  Ash  Farm  to  the  common, 
on  which  the  stone  rows  shortly  to  be  noticed  are  situated.  The 
distance  is  very  short.] 

Merivale  Bridge  spans  the  Walkharn,  which  stream  here  forms- 
the  boundary  between  Walkhampton  Common  and  the  common  lands 
belonging  to  the  parish  of  Whitchurch.  The  hamlet  of  Merivale  is- 
situated  in  the  latter  parish,  and  consists  of  a  roadside  house  of  enter- 
tainment called  the  Dartmoor  Inn,  a  few  cottages,  a  modern  Wesleyan 
Chapel,  and  a  row  of  dwellings  erected  during  recent  years  for  the  men 
working  in  the  adjoining  Tor  Granite  Quarries  of  Messrs.  Duke  and 
Company.  The  stone  is  conveyed  by  road  to  the  railway  at  Tavistock, 
which  town  is  4^-  miles  from  the  bridge. 

On  the  common  between  the  road  leading  from  the  bridge  towards 
Princetown  and  Great  Mis  Tor,  which  rises  high  above  the  left  bank 
of  the  Walkham,  are  some  deep  cuttings  of  the  tinners,  and  close  to 
the  stream  the  remains  of  two  small  buildings  in  which  they  smelted 
their  ore  are  to  be  seen.  The  rambler  will  find  these  on  the  left  bank, 
the  first  being  about  a  furlong  above  the  bridge.  A  door  jamb  marks 
the  entrance,  and  near  to  this  is  a  mould  stone.  The  mould  is  a  large 
one,  being  about  18  inches  in  length,  and  as  usual  has  bevelled  sides. 
In  one  end  of  it  is  a  notch,  no  doubt  intended  for  the  more  easy  with- 
drawal of  the  block  of  metal.  In  the  stone  there  is  also  a  tiny  mould, 
four  inches  long.  Similar  small  cavities  are  to  be  seen  in  other  mould 
stones  on  the  moor,  and  it  is  thought  they  were  intended  for  sample 
ingots.  Above  the  house  traces  of  a  leat  are  observable,  by  which 
water  was  probably  conducted  to  a  wheel.  Under  the  house  is  a  small 
culvert  leading  from  that  part  of  the  building  in  which  the  wheel 
appears  to  have  stood.  Another  stone  will  be  noticed  in  this  blowing- 
house  which  has  been  hollowed  out  in  the  manner  of  a  shallow  trough. 
This  it  is  not  unlikely  formed  the  bottom  of  the  furnace,  in  the  midst  of 
the  remains  of  which  it  lies.  The  second  building  will  be  found  about 
half-a-mile  further  up  stream.  Here  also  is  a  stone  with  a  large  and 
small  mould,  as  well  as  the  remains  of  a  leat. 

Near  the  head  waters  of  the  Walkham  are  other  mining  remains ; 
these  are  briefly  noticed  in  the  excursions  from  Lydford.  (Ex.  10). 

In  making  his  way  back  to  the  road  the  rambler  may  forsake  the 
guidance  of  the  river,  and  keeping  a  little  up  the  hillside  pass  Over  Tor, 
where  Mrs.  Bray  alighted  upon  a  rock  basin  filled  with  water,  and 
having  washed  her  hands  in  it  her  husband  bestowed  upon  it  the  name 
of  "  Mrs.  Bray's  Wash-hand  Basin." 

On  Long  Ash  Hill,  above  Merivale  Bridge,  are  the  well-known 
stone  rows.*  To  reach  these  from  the  bridge  the  rambler  will  pass  up 

*  This  group  of  remains  was  formerly  known  in  the  neighbourhood 
as  the  Potato  Market,  and  also  as  the  Plague  Market,  and  a  tradition 
stated  that  provisions  were  brought  here  by  the  country  people  and 


EXCURSION    I.       ANTIQUITIES    AT    MERIVALE.  27 

the  Princetown  road  for  a  short  distance,  and  will  then  strike  up  across 
the  common  to  the  R.,  when  the  tall  menhir  near  the  Long  Ash 
enclosures  will  come  in  sight  and  serve  as  a  guide  to  the  other  objects 
of  which  he  is  in  search.  There  are  two  rows,  both  being  double, 
and  some  faint  indications  of  a  third  nearer  to  the  menhir.  The 
direction  of  the  two  former  is  nearly  due  east  and  west,  and  they  are 
roughly  parallel  to  each  other.  The  length  of  these  rows  of  stones 
has  been  variously  given,  showing  discrepancies  of  about  200  feet  in 
the  northern  row  and  about  300  feet  in  the  southern.  This  reminds 
us  of  what  used  to  be  said  of  the  Giant's  Grave,  near  Kenford.  It 
was  formerly  marked  by  two  stones,  and  the  country  people  declared 
that  no  matter  how  often  the  distance  between  them  was  measured 
the  result  was  never  the  same.  But  some  who  have  used  the  tape 
at  Merivale  have  proved  a  little  more  fortunate,  for  the  measurements 
of  the  rows  given  by  Sir  Gardner  Wilkinson  have  been  verified  by 
more  than  one.j  The  length  of  the  southern  row  is  850  feet,  and 
that  of  the  northern  590.  About  the  middle  of  the  former  is  a  stone 
circle,  and  at  the  eastern  end  of  the  latter  a  large  stone.  This  is  placed 
between  the  lines,  and  closes  the  end  of  the  row,  as  it  were.  Near  the 
north-western  end  of  the  southern  row  is  a  small  cairn,  much 
dilapidated,  and  about  600  feet  south-east  of  this,  and  also  near  the 
same  row,  is  a  ruined  kistvaen.  This  was  formerly  regarded  as  a 
dolmen,  or  cromlech,  and  is  marked  as  such  on  a  plate  illustrating  a 
paper  by  the  Rev.  Samuel  Rowe,  in  the  first  volume  of  the  Transaction 
of  the  Plymouth  Institution  (1830)  ;  and  it  is  also  so  marked  on  a  plate 
accompanying  the  paper  in  which  these  remains  are  mentioned  by 
Sir  Gardner  Wilkinson.  Unfortunately  the  cover  stone  is  broken, 
and  one  of  the  side  stones  also.  This  damage  was  done  about  the  year 
1860  ;  gate  posts  being  cut  from  the  former,  and  part  of  the  latter 
being  removed.  Over  thirty  years  later  an  examination  was  made  of  the 
kist,  and  a  flint  scraper  and  flake  and  polishing  stone  were  found. 
About  300  feet  southward  of  the  small  dilapidated  cairn  previously 
mentioned,  and  not  far  from  the  menhir,  are  the  remains  of  a  stone 
circle.  The  menhir,  which  stands  on  the  line  of  the  old  Tavistock 
and  Ashburton  track  (T.  i,  7,  56),  and  which  was  in  this  part  of  its 
course  identical  with  a  branch  of  the  Abbots'  Way  (T.  i),  is  a  good 
example.  Its  height  is  ten  and  a  half  feet. 

Near  by  is  a  corner  formed  by  the  walls  of  the  Long  Ash  enclosures, 
and  here  there  is  a  gateway,  whence  a  path  leads  towards  the  farm 
house.  Built  into  this  wall  is  the  half  of  a  large  circular  stone,  about 
ten  feet  in  diameter. 

North-eastward  of  the  rows,  and  not  very  far  from  the  road,  is  a 
small  enclosure  formed  of  upright  blocks  set  on  their  edges  in  the 
ground.  Hut  circles  occur  within  and  without  it,  and  in  some  of  these 
charcoal  has  been  found.  A  large  number  of  these  ruined  dwellings 
are  also  to  be  seen  northward  of  the  road,  on  the  slope  above  the 

deposited  as  supplies  for  Tavistock,  at  a  time  when  the  plague  ravaged 
that  town.     See  Tamar  and  Tavy.     Letter  IX. 

f  The  Merivale  remains  are  drawn  to  scale  and  figured  in  Sir 
Gardiner  Wilkinson's  paper,  entitled,  The  Rock  Basins  of  Dartmoor, 
and  some  British  Remains  in  England,  Journal  of  the  British  Archa?o- 
logical  Assoc.,  1860. 


PRINCETOWN    AND   TWO   BRIDGES   DISTRICT. 

Walkham.  (Ex.  6).  Near  the  enclosure  is  a  round  stone  resting  on 
some  supporters.  Visitors  are  cautioned  not  to  allow  their  antiquarian 
zeal  to  carry  them  so  far  as  to  suppose  this  to  be  a  dolmen.  It  is  true 
that  a  well-known  archaeologist  once  made  this  mistake,  but  with  the 
history  of  the  stone  before  us  there  can  be  no  danger  of  our  doing  so. 
He  afterwards  discovered  that  what  he  had  regarded  as  an  ancient 
monument  had  been  fashioned  by  a  man  then  living  in  the  vicinity. 
The  piece  of  granite  had  been  intended  for  a  millstone,  but  was  found 
to  be  unfitted  for  the  purpose. 

The  stones  in  the  Long  Ash  rows  and  circles  are  small,  and  the 
general  effect  cannot  be  said  to  be  particularly  striking.  Finer 
examples  of  the  stone  row  exist  on  Dartmoor,  as  we  shall  see,  but  at 
the  same  time  it  must  be  confessed  that  the  megalithic  monuments 
on  the  moor  are  not  imposing.  Of  pounds  and  remains  of  ancient 
habitations  fine  examples  exist  there,  but  the  same  cannot  be  said  of 
the  sepulchral  circles,  while  the  stones  in  many  of  the  rows  rise  only 
a  foot  or  so  above  the  turf.  This  is  the  more  surprising  seeing  that  in 
so  many  parts  of  the  moor  stones  of  large  size  and  of  suitable  shape 
are  scattered  abundantly  over  the  surface  of  the  ground.  One  has 
only  to  look  upon  the  clatter  on  the  slope  of  Mis  Tor  to  see  what 
a  striking  effect  might  have  been  produced  had  choice  been  made 
of  the  kind  of  stones  found  there  instead  of  such  comparatively 
small  ones  as  compose  the  rows.  It  is  the  vast  number  of  its  stone 
remains  that  renders  Dartmoor  remarkable  from  an  archaeological 
point  of  view,  and  not  the  size  or  importance  of  individual  groups 
of  antiquities. 

But  though  the  visitor  to  Merivale  may  be  somewhat  disappointed 
when  he  views  the  long  lines  of  stones,  and  remembers  what  he  has 
read  of  Carnac,  he  will  certainly  not  fail  to  be  pleased  with  his  sur- 
roundings. And  after  all,  it  is  the  scenery  of  Dartmoor  and  not  its 
antiquities  that  constitutes  its  chief  charm.  In  its  wildness,  its  old 
associations,  and  its  stories  of  other  days,  the  visitor  will  probably  find 
an  attraction  far  greater  than  in  the  mouldering  monuments  of  its  early 
people,  important  as  these  may  seem  to  the  antiquary.  As  the  late 
Mr.  W.  F.  Collier  has  well  observed,  "  in  comparison  to  the  work  of 
nature  all  interest  in  them  vanishes." 

From  the  plateau  near  the  menhir  we  look  across  the  Walkham 
valley,  and  in  a  direction  about  W.S.W.  see  the  piles  of  Pu  Tor  ;  to 
the  right  of  these,  and  much  nearer  to  us,  is  the  granite  mass  of  Vixen 
Tor,  and  still  further  to  the  right,  and  immediately  below  us,  the 
hamlet  of  Merivale.  On  the  ridge  above  it  are  placed  Mid  Staple  Tor 
and  Great  Staple  Tor,  and  further  north,  Roose  Tor.  To  the  N.N.E. 
Great  Mis  Tor,  the  giant  of  the  moor,  uplifts  his  rocky  crest.  Turning 
to  the  south  we  see  King  Tor,  with  the  Princetown  Railway  winding 
round  its  base. 

The  guide  stones  marking  the  old  Tavistock  and  Ashburton  track 
(T.  i,  7,  56)  and  bearing  the  letters  T  and  A  [Ancient  Crosses,  Chap. 
XIV.]  may  be  seen  on  this  part  of  the  common,  leading  from  the 
menhir  eastward. 

These  guide  stones  run  towards  Yellowmead  Farm,  which  will  be 
noticed  on  the  hillside,  E.  A  short  distance  from  the  lower  corner 
of  the  farm  enclosures  is  a  pound  having  hut  circles  within  it. 

Leaving  the  rows  we  make  our  way  to  the  road,  and  passing  up 


EXCURSION   I.       BUNDLE   STONE.  29 

the  hill  shall  shortly  reach  the  Mission  Room.  Just  beyond  this  we 
cross  the  Long  Ash  Brook  near  its  source,  and  here  a  road  turns  R. 
to  the  Foggin  Tor  granite  quarries,  passing  the  Red  Cottages.  About 
a  quarter  of  a  mile  further  on  we  reach  the  first  of  the  dewllings  at 
Rundle  Stone.  Opposite  to  a  row  of  granite  posts  on  the  right  of  the 
way  is  the  wall  of  an  enclosure.  It  was  close  to  this  wall  that  a  school- 
master belonging  to  the  prison  at  Princetown  lost  his  life  in  the  snow 
many  years  ago.  When  on  his  way  home  from  Tavistock  snow  com- 
menced to  fall,  and  though  urged  to  remain  for  the  night  in  a  cottage 
at  which  he  called,  near  Moor  Shop  (R.  i),  he  determined  to  continue 
his  journey.  I  have  been  told  by  one  who  was  present  that  he  appeared 
very  anxious  to  get  to  his  home,  saying  that  he  feared  his  wife  would 
be  alarmed  if  he  did  not  return  that  night.  After  his  departure  the 
storm  increased  in  fury,  and  the  next  day  his  body  was  found  at  the 
spot  indicated.  It  was  said  that  he  possessed  some  artistic  skill,  and 
that  the  very  last  picture  he  produced  represented  a  man  meeting  his 
death  in  the  snow.  [100  Years,  Chap.  X.] 

It  is  not  so  very  long  since  that  the  dwellings  at  Rundle  Stone 
were  mere  miserable  huts,  as  the  ruins  of  some  still  attest.  Passing 
on,  with  Mount  View,  a  modern  house,  on  the  I/.,  we  soon  reach  the 
site  of  the  object  that  gave  name  to  this  spot.  This  was  a  granite 
pillar  known  as  the  Rundle  Stone,  which  stood  on  the  forest  boundary 
line.  It  is  not  named  as  a  bondmark  in  any  of  the  surveys,  but  was, 
however,  recognized  as  such  in  1702.  It  was  formerly  to  be  seen  on 
the  S.  of  the  way,  immediately  opposite  to  the  modern  boundary  stone, 
which  we  shall  observe  on  the  L.  This  bears  the  names  of  the  parishes 
that  here  meet  each  other — Lydford  and  Walkhampton — and  on 
passing  it  we  again  enter  the  forest.  The  Rundle  Stone  was  broken  up 
several  years  ago,  when  a  wall  was  being  built  near  by.  It  is  much  to 
be  regretted  that  an  ancient  landmark  should  have  been  wantonly 
destroyed  ;  unfortunately  the  spoliator  has  been  busy  on  Dartmoor,, 
and  has  swept  away  many  interesting  objects.  About  the  year  1881 
I  took  measurements  of  the  Rundle  Stone.  It  stood  7  feet  above  the 
stones  in  which  it  was  set,  and  was  four  feet  in  girth.  Near  the  top 
was  the  letter  R,  cut  in  relief.  It  is  marked  on  a  map  dated  1720  as  a 
"  Great  stone  call'd  Roundle."  Rundle  Stone  Tor  is  a  short  distance 
up  the  hill  to  the  south. 

A  few  yards  further  on,  and  exactly  six  miles  from  Tavistock,  is 
Rundle  Stone  Corner,  where  a  road  branches  R.  to  Princetown  ;  the 
Duchy  Hotel  is  i-J-  miles  distant.  This  we  shall  follow,  and  shortly 
after  passing  the  prison  shall  enter  the  town.  If  our  destination  be 
Two  Bridges,  2  m.,  we  keep  straight  on  from  Rundle  Stone,  crossing 
the  Blackabrook  on  our  way. 

[A  direct  route  from  Princetown  to  Yes  Tor  Bottom  has  been 
given.  Direct  route  to  Ward  Bridge  :  First  to  Yes  Tor  Bottom — thence 
down  the  common  W.  by  S.  to  the  moor  gate  near  Withill  Farm. 
Those  who  prefer  to  do  so  may  make  their  way  from  Princetown  to  the 
Long  Ash  Rows  by  North  Hisworthy  Tor,  instead  of  taking  the  road  to 
Rundle  Stone  as  described  in  S.  Ex.  3.  From  the  tor  the  way  lies  N.W. 
to  Hollow  Tor,  which  is  near  by  and  in  sight,  and  then  down  by  the  Red 
Cottages.  Thence  down  the  hill  W.,  crossing  the  Long  Ash  Brook,  to 
the  rows.  The  road  to  Merivale  Bridge  is  described  in  Route  i.] 


30  PRINCETOWN    AND    TWO    BRIDGES    DISTRICT. 

Ex.  2. — Hart  Tor — Cr amber  Tor — Crazy  Well  Pool — Roundy  Farm 
— Lcther  Tor  Bridge — Riddy  Pit — Mining  Houses  on  the  Mew — Raddick 
Hill — Stone  Rows  near  Black  Tor.  About  7  miles  from  and  to  Prince- 
town.  EXTENSION  to  Hingston  Hill  Stone  Rows  add  2  miles.  ALTERNATIVE 
RETURN  ROUTE  from  Crazy  Well  by  Older  Bridge  and  South  Hisworthy. 
DIRECT  ROUTE  to  Siward's  Cross,  2^  m.  from  Princetown. 

One  of  the  curiosities  of  Walkhampton  Common  is  Crazy  Well 
Pool,  which,  unlike  the  more  famous  Cranmere  Pool  in  the  northern 
part  of  the  moor,  is  really  deserving  of  its  title.  Between  the  pool  and 
Princetown,  from  which  it  is  distant  about  2-i-  miles,  are  several  objects 
of  antiquarian  interest,  and  the  border  scenery  being  of  a  fine  character, 
the  rambler  should  not  neglect  to  visit  it. 

We  leave  Princetown  by  the  Plymouth  road  as  in  Ex.  i ,  but  when 
reaching  a  gate  on  the  R.  near  the  top  of  Devil's  Bridge  Hill,  shall 
forsake  it  and  strike  across  the  common  L.,  our  course  now  being 
.almost  due  S.  Ahead  of  us  are  seen  two  tors,  the  left  hand  one  being 
Sheeps  Tor  and  the  other  Lether  Tor.  We  make  for  a  point  about 
midway  between  these  two,  and  very  soon  Hart  Tor,  which  is  quite 
near  to  us,  comes  into  view,  in  a  direct  line  with  Sheeps  Tor,  but  much 
under  it.  Other  rock  piles  seen  to  the  R.  of  Lether  Tor  are  Sharp  Tor 
and  Leedon  Tor,  with  Inga  Tor  far  down  below  the  latter.  Beyond 
Hart  Tor,  and  on  the  further  side  of  the  Mew,  is  Black  Tor.  A  straight 
line  to  Crazy  Well  Pool  would  leave  Hart  Tor  a  little  to  the  right,  but 
the  rambler  will  perhaps  hardly  pass  it  by  without  a  visit.  As  we 
progress  other  tors  come  into  view.  Pu  Tor  and  Heckwood  Tor 
(Ex.  7),  on  the  downs  beyond  the  Walkham  Valley,  will  be  observed 
on  the  R.,  as  also  will  Swell  Tor,  the  latter  marking  the  site  of  the 
granite  quarries,  which  are  comparatively  near  to  us,  while  behind  us 
the  summit  of  North  Hisworthy  is  seen.  On  the  slope  down  which  we 
pass  before  commencing  the  ascent  of  the  tor  is  a  cluster  of  hut  circles 

In  itself  Hart  Tor  presents  nothing  remarkable,  though  it  is  rather 
striking  when  seen  from  some  points,  particularly  from  Black  Tor, 
but  the  view  from  it  is  good.  In  addition  to  the  tors  already  named 
a  dozen  others,  are  in  sight,  including  the  range  beyond  Merivale,  with 
Mis  Tor,  and  Higher  and  Lower  White  Tor.  Brent  Tor,  with  its 
little  church,  rises  N.W.  by  W.,  and  far  awav  to  the  N.  is  the  summit 
of  the  lonely  Cut  Hill. 

On  the  slope  south-westward  of  the  tor  are  a  pair  of  stone  rows. 
These  are  noticed  further  on. 

Our  next  point  is  Cramber  Tor,  which  is  about  half-a-mile  distant, 
in  a  direction  S.  by  E.  We  therefore  descend  to  the  Hart  Tor  Brook, 
which  we  shall  cross  at  a  ford,  and  find  ourselves  on  the  Princetown 
and  Kingsett  track  (T.  3).  This  will,  however,  afford  us  little  guidance 
here,  as  it  is  by  no  means  clearly  defined  ;  but  we  shall  hardly  need 
any,  for  ere  we  have  proceeded  very  far  up  the  hill  in  front  of  us  we 
come  in  sight  of  the  tor.  On  reaching  it  we  shall  find  that  our  view 
southward  is  greatly  extended. 

Hen  Tor  and  Gutter  Tor,  in  the  Plym  Valley,  are  seen,  with  Shell 
Top,  the  height  overlooking  Cornwood,  beyond.  Across  the  valley 
below  us  is  Down  Tor,  with  Combeshead  Tor  to  the  L.  of  it.  Between 
these  two  tors  and  Sheeps  Tor,  whose  giant  bulk  here  looms  largely, 
is  the  beautiful  Dean  Combe  (Ex.  38).  To  the  L.  of  Sheeps  Tor  we 


EXCURSION   2.       CRAZY   WELL    POOL. 

look  far  away  to  the  Staddon  Heights,  on  the  eastern  side  of  Plymouth 
Sound.     A  striking  feature  in  the  scene  is  the  Burrator  Lake  (Ex.  39) 


BURRATOR    I.AKE   FROM    CRAMBER   TOR. 

•with  Lether  Tor,  the  fine  proportions  of  which  are  strikingly  presented 
from  this  point,  rising  above  its  northern  shore.  We  get  a  glimpse  of 
Yennadon,  and  a  view  of  the  distant  Kit  Hill,  on  the  Cornish  side  of 
the  Tamar,  an  eminence  conspicuous  in  all  this  part  of  the  moor.  It 
is  marked  by  a  lofty  mine  chimney  on  its  crest. 

Leaving  this  spot,  the  view  from  which  is  rendered  so  impressive 
t>y  the  fine  grouping  of  the  nearer  tors,  we  shall  make  our  way  to  Crazy 
Well  Bridge,  where  the  cart  track  to  Kingsett  crosses  the  Devonport 
Leat.  This  is  about  three  furlongs  distant,  and  if  we  pursue  a  course 
due  S.  we  shall  not  fail  to  strike  it.  The  pool  is  situated  just  below, 
but  is  not  visible  until  we  reach  the  edge  of  the  deep  hollow  in  which 
the  waters  are  gathered.  That  this  hollow  is  artificial  is  evident  at  a 
glance.  It  is  an  excavation  of  the  tinners,  who  were  once  very  busy 
on  this  part  of  the  common,  as  even  a  cursory  examination  will  show. 
It  is  said  to  cover  about  an  acre  of  ground.  Its  depth  is  about  1 5  feet, 
though  it  used  to  be  related  on  the  moor  how  the  bellropes  belonging 
to  Walkhampton  Church  were  once  tied  together  and  let  down  into 
it,  and  yet  no  bottom  was  found.  It  was  also  said  to  rise  and  fall  with 
the  tide  ;  but  that  was  "  yeers  agone."  That  the  water  does,  however, 
sometimes  rise  very  rapidly,  we  shall  probably  not  care  to  dispute  if 
we  have  ever  experienced  a  true  Dartmoor  downpour. 

In  my  Ancient  Stone  Crosses  of  Dartmoor  there  is  a  brief  notice  of 
Crazy  Well  Pool  (Chap.  X.),  and  in  connection  with  it  mention  is  made 
of  a  poem  by  the  Rev.  John  Johns,  entitled,  Gaveston  on  Dartmoor. 
There  was  formerly  a  tradition  in  the  forest  that  the  favourite  of 
Edward  II.  sought  concealment  there  during  one  of  his  banishments 
from  Court.  Mr.  Johns,  with  a  poet's  license,  discovers  Gavestoii  at 
early  morn  beside  the  waters  of  Crazy  Well,  where  he  meets  the  Witch 
of  Sheeps  Tor,  and  his  fate  is  revealed  to  him,  though  he  does  not  read 
the  prophecy  aright.  But  no  tradition  regarding  Gaveston  is  found 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Crazy  Well ;  the  choice  of  the  spot  for  the 
scene  of  the  poem  was  merely  fanciful  on  the  part  of  its  author. 
Whether  another  story  of  a  knight  who  came  secretly  to  Dartmoor, 
and  which  is  related  further  on  (Ex.  20),  has  any  reference  to  the 
favourite  I  cannot  say,  but  it  belongs  to  the  eastern  side  of  the  forest 


32  PRINCETOWN    AND   TWO   BRIDGES   DISTRICT. 

and  not  to  Walkhampton  Common.     Gaveston  held  the  forest  under 
grant  from  Edward  II.     At  his  death  it  reverted  to  the  Crown. 

A  short  distance  southward  of  the  pool  is  the  track  leading  from 
Lowery  to  White  Works,  which  is  formed  on  the  line  of  an  ancient 
one  running  across  the  forest  to  Dartmeet  and  Holne.  This  is  the 
track  which,  as  already  mentioned  (T.  2),  the  discovery  of  certain 
stone  crosses  revealed  to  me.  A  portion  of  one  of  the  objects  that 
evidently  marked  its  course,  consisting  only  of  the  head  and  arms,  is 
to  be  seen  near  the  N.E.  corner  of  the  pool.  Its  original  site  was 
probably  a  little  nearer  to  the  old  path.  [Crosses,  Chap.  X.] 

Not  far  from  Crazy  Well  Pool  are  the  ruins  of  Roundy  farmhouse, 
and  thither  we  shall  now  direct  our  steps.  A  gully  will  be  seen  ex- 
tending from  the  S.  side  of  the  pool,  and  this  we  must  leave  on  the  L 
as  we  descend  the  slope.  We  soon  come  in  sight  of  some  enclosures, 
R.,  within  which,  and  a  short  distance  above  the  track  just  referred  to, 
the  remains  of  the  ancient  homestead  are  situated.  The  building 
below  us,  and  on  the  further  side  of  the  track,  is  Kingsett  farm  house, 
and  a  little  over  a  quarter  of  a  mile  to  the  E.,  or  I/.,  of  this,  though  not 
in  sight,  are  the  ruins  of  another,  which  bears  the  same  name  as  the 
pool.  In  the  valley  is  the  Newleycombe  Lake,  a  stream  that  joins  the 
Mew  immediately  below  Nosworthy  Bridge,  and  very  near  to  the  upper 
end  of  the  Burrator  Lake  (Ex.  39). 

Roundy  Farm  is  interesting  as  an  example  of  an  old  Dartmoor 
dwelling,  though  there  are  several  on  the  moor  that  boast  a  far  greater 
antiquity.  A  stone  over  the  doorway  bears  the  letters  R.C.,  and  the 
date  1668,  cut  in  relief,  and  about  six  inches  in  height.  The  initials 
have  been  thought  to  be  those  of  Richard  Cryrnes,  whose  family  were 
long  seated  at  Crapstone,  in  Buckland  Monachorum  parish,  and  to 
which  the  manor  was  granted  at  the  Dissolution.  Crapstone  was 
built  by  them,  and  afterwards  became  the  property  of  the  Elfords  by 
purchase.  (Yelverton  District).  If  the  date  on  the  stone  is  that  of 
the  erection  of  the  house,  and  not  of  a  restoration,  it  is  not  improbable 
that  the  latter  was  built  on  the  site  of  a  still  older  dwelling.  There 
were  farm  enclosures  on  this  common  at  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  and  it  is  more  than  likely  that  Roundy  was  one  of  these. 
The  jury  which  made  a  presentment  respecting  the  forest,  in  1609, 
refer  to  this  part  of  the  moor,  and  speak  of  "  certayne  howses  "  that 
had  been  erected  there,  and  of  land  that  had  been  enclosed.  In  going 
through  the  ruins  the  large  fireplace  will  be  noticed,  also  a  recess  in  the 
wall,  and  in  the  garden  what  was  evidently  a  cooling-place  for  butter. 

Northward  of  the  farmhouse,  and  inside  the  enclosures,  are  a 
number  of  hut  circles,  some  of  them  being  good  examples.  There  is 
one  small  circular  enclosure  of  a  kind  not  usually  met  with.  This  will 
be  found  a  short  distance  above  the  ruin. 

Before  setting  out  on  his  return  to  Princetown  the  visitor  who  is 
interested  in  mining  remains  will  do  well  to  visit  Riddy  Pit,  where  are 
some  stones  with  hollows  in  them.  To  do  this  he  will  make  his  way 
down  to  the  track  below  Roundy,  and  turning  right  will  follow  it  to 
Lether  Tor  Bridge,  a  clapper  of  two  openings,  but  evidently  not  of  very 
ancient  construction.  Just  above  the  bridge  he  will  notice  a  track  run- 
ning up  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Mew.  This  will  lead  him  to  Riddy 
Pit,  which  is  indeed  quite  near,  and  where  are  the  ruins  of  two  houses. 
A  little  beyond  these  he  will  find  the  stones  with  the  cavities.  They 


EXCURSION    2.       REMAINS  ON   KINGSTON  HILL.  33 

now  form  part  of  the  paving  of  the  rough  track.  Close  by  is  an  old 
wall,  and  near  to  this,  and  built  into  the  hedge,  is  a  stone  in  which 
there  is  a  circular  cavity  on  each  side.  Another  curious  stone  having 
a  rounded  top,  and  with  a  small  piece  of  iron  leaded  into  it,  will  also  be 
seen.  This  was  probably  the  upper  stone  of  a  crushing  mill.  On  his 
way  back  the  rambler  may  strike  L.  at  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from 
the  bridge,  into  Raddick  Lane,  and  so  gain  the  common  northward  of 
Roundy  Farm. 

Below  Lether  Tor  Bridge  the  Mew  flows  between  farm  enclosures, 
and  by  the  edge  of  the  common,  to  Nosworthy  Bridge.  The  latter  we 
have  named  as  an  important  point  in  the  Princetown  District,  as  it 
marks  the  confluence,  as  already  stated,  of  the  Mew  and  Newleycombe 
Lake.  A  track  opposite  to  Raddick  Lane  leads  down  to  it  (R.  8),  but 
the  approach  most  frequently  used  branches  from  the  Lowery  road  at 
Cross  Gate.  The  bridge  is  noticed  in  the  excursions  from  Yelverton. 
(Ex.  39), 

[Extension  from  Crazy  Well  Pool  to  Hingston  Hill.  On  that  part 
of  the  common  bearing  the  name  of  Hingston  Hill,  and  situated  to 
the  south  of  Newleycombe  Lake,  is  an  interesting  group  of  pre-historic 
remains,  and  these  the  visitor  may  very  well  include  in  the  present 
ramble.  Having  examined  Roundy  Farm  he  will  make  his  way  to 
the  track  before  referred  to  (T.  2),  and  leaving  Kingsett  on  the  R. 
will  pass  down  by  the  ruins  of  Crazy  Well  Farm,  to  which  a  path 
branches,  and  descend  to  Newleycombe  Lake.  There  is  a  fording 
place  where  he  will  strike  the  stream,  but  usually  it  can  be  crossed  at 
any  point  without  much  difficulty.  If  preferred  the  rambler  may  turn 
R.  on  reaching  the  track,  and  then  L.  to  Kingsett.  If  he  does  this 
he  will  find  just  across  the  stream,  and  opposite  to  the  farm  house,  a 
ruined  building,  very  much  overgrown.  It  is  so  decayed  that  it  is 
not  possible  to  determine  its  character,  but  it  may  have  been  connected 
with  mining  operations.  A  stone  with  a  cavity  will  be  observed 
in  the  doorway,  and  this  seems  to  indicate  that  such  was  the  case. 
The  hollow  has  all  the  appearance  of  an  unfinished  tin  mould. 
But  whether  the  stream  be  crossed  below  Crazy  Well  or  Kingsett,  the 
visitor  will  have  no  difficulty  in  discovering  the  object  that  has  brought 
him  to  this  part  of  Walkhampton  Common.  He  will  mount  the  hill, 
keeping  a  course  about  S.E.,  with  Down  Tor  on  his  R.,  and  the  remains, 
which  are  less  than  half  a  mile  from  the  stream,  will  soon  come  in 
sight.  These  consist  of  a  single  row  of  stones  running  nearly  east 
and  west,  with  a  menhir  at  each  end.  Very  near  to  the  western 
menhir,  which  is  much  the  higher  of  the  two,  is  a  stone  circle  about 
36  feet  in  diameter,  enclosing  a  barrow.  About  300  yards  from  the 
eastern  menhir  is  a  cairn  50  feet  or  more  in  diameter,  and  not  far 
distant  is  a  pound.  Some  of  the  stones  is  the  row  are  of  large  size, 
and  the  monument  is  more  than  usually  striking.  The  menhirs,  which 
had  fallen,  were  set  up  in  the  summer  of  1894.  The  length  of  the  row 
is  about  340  yards.  South  of  the  row  is  Combeshead  Tor,  and  below 
this  is  the  charming  Dean  Combe,  both  of  which  are  noticed  in  the 
Yelverton  Excursions.  (Ex.  39).  Returning  to  the  stream  we  may 
cross  it  at  Kingsett  Steps,  below  the  farm,  and,  mounting  the  hill,  shall 
once  more  find  ourselves  on  the  common  near  Roundy.] 

Passing  onward  from  Roundy  with  the  enclosures  L.,  our  course 
at  first  being  northerly  and  then  N.W.,  we  soon  come  in  sight  of 

Dl 


34  PRINCETOWN    AND    TWO    BRIDGES    DISTRICT. 

Stanlake  Farm  (Ex.  i),  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  valley.  Shortly 
after  we  reach  the  Devonport  leat,  where  it  runs  down  the  side  of  a  steep 
hill,  the  water  forming  one  long  rapid,  to  an  aqueduct  known  locally 
as  Iron  Bridge,  which  carries  it  over  the  river.  We  follow  it  to  that 
point,  where  it  is  easily  crossed,  and  shall  then  make  our  way  up  the 
L.  bank  of  the  Mew  to  its  confluence  with  the  Hart  Tor  Brook,  in  the 
midst  of  an  extensive  stream  work.  We  cross  the  brook,  and  then  the 
Mew  itself,  and  shortly  afterwards  reach  one  of  the  beauty  spots  of 
Dartmoor.  This  is  Black  Tor  Pall,  where  the  stream  comes  swiftly 
round  a  heathery  bank  to  glide  over  moss-covered  stones ;  where 
dripping  ferns  margin  the  waters,  and  the  mountain  ash  waves  her 
branches  gracefully  above  them. 

In  this  charming  little  dell  are  two  mining  houses,  one  on  each 
side  of  the  stream,  and  both  are  worthy  of  examination.  The  one  on 
the  eastern  bank  has  the  doorway  in  a  particularly  perfect  state.  It 
is  about  5  feet  high,  and  rather  over  3  feet  wide.  There  is  a  groove  in 
the  jamb  and  the  lintel  for  the  door.  On  one  side  of  it  is  a  wheel  pit, 
the  wall  of  which  is  built  of  very  large  stones.  The  building  measures 
22  feet  by  16.  The  ruin  on  the  western  bank  is  not  so  large,  measuring 
only  1 6  feet  by  12.  In  this  one  the  chimney  to  the  height  of  several 
feet  was  until  recently  intact.  In  August,  1907,  a  colt  belonging  to 
Mrs.  Gill,  of  Stanlake,  fell  into  it,  and  was  imprisoned  in  the  wide 
hearth  for  three  days,  when  it  was  rescued  by  Mr.  Pearse,  of  Kingsett, 
who  noticed  its  dam  grazing  near  by.  This,  however,  could  only  be 
accomplished  by  destroying  the  chimney.  Two  stones  having  circular 
cavities  in  them  are  to  be  seen  here  ;  these  were  probably  mortars  in 
which  the  tin  ore  was  pounded.  To  reach  this  spot  direct  from  Prince- 
town  the  rambler  will  proceed  as  in  Ex.  i,  and  soon  after  passing 
Double  Waters  will  leave  the  road  and  make  his  way  to  Black  Tor, 
which  he  will  see  on  the  common  left.  The  Mew  is  just  below  the  tor, 
and  by  following  it  downward  for  a  short  distance  he  will  be  led  to 
the  dell. 

[On  the  further  side  of  the  stream  work,  in  a  S.E.  direction,  is  a 
pound  of  an  irregular  shape  on  the  slope  of  Raddick  Hill.  It  contains 
several  hut  circles,  and  in  one  of  these  a  fine  vessel  of  rude  hand-made 
pottery  was  found  intact  by  Mr.  Robert  Burnard,  when  exploring  the 
remains  in  1895.  It  measured  ioi  inches  in  height,  and  was  10  inches 
in  diameter  at  the  top.  Unfortunately,  the  bottom  of  the  vessel  went 
to  pieces  when  it  was  taken  out  of  the  cooking  hole  in  which  it  was 
discovered.  In  the  other  huts  cooking  stones,  flint,  and  sherds  were 
found.  On  Raddick  Hill  there  are  also  several  barrows.  Should  the 
rambler  desire  to  visit  Raddick  Hill  on  his  way  from  Roundy  Farm, 
the  best  plan  will  be  for  him  to  cross  the  Devonport  leat  at  Crazy  Well 
Bridge,  and  then  proceed  north-westward  with  the  leat  on  his  L.  To 
reach  the  hill  direct  from  Princetown  he  can  go  either  by  way  of  Black 
Tor,  or  Hart  Tor.  From  the  former  the  pound  bears  about  S.E.,  and 
from  the  latter  about  S.W.,  and  is  plainly  visible  from  both  points. 
It  is  on  the  hillside  just  above  the  Hart  Tor  Brook.] 

Passing  upward  from  the  little  dell  we  speedily  reach  Black  Tor 
Ford,  where  we  shall  cross  the  stream.  On  the  slope  between  the  ford 
and  Hart  Tor,  but  much  nearer  the  former,  are  two  stone  rows,  one 
double  and  the  other  single.  They  each  start  from  a  cairn,  the  one  at 
the  commencement  of  the  double  row  being  placed  within  a  stone 


EXCURSION  2.    The  Newleycombe  Valley.    Older  Bridge.      35 

circle.  They  are  here  about  36  feet  apart,  but  they  do  not  run  parallel, 
and  that  distance  is  doubled  at  their  termination.  The  length  of  the 
double  row  is  about  460  feet,  and  of  the  single  one  260  feet.  A  tinners' 
working  crosses  these  remains.  The  visitor  will  have  no  difficulty 
in  finding  them  whether  they  be  approached  from  the  ford  or 
from  Hart  Tor,  if  he  follows  a  straight  course  from  one  object  to  the 
other. 

Passing  Hart  Tor  we  regain  the  high  road  at  the  top  of  Devil's 
Bridge  Hill,  where  we  left  it  on  setting  out  on  our  excursion  ;  or,  if 
the  rambler  prefers  it,  he  may  make  his  way  to  the  road  by  tracing 
the  stream  upward. 

[ALTERNATIVE  ROUTE  from  Crazy  Well  Pool  to  Princetown.  Older 
Bridge — Siward's  Cross — South  Hisworthy  Tor.  Add  2  m. 

If  the  remains  in  the  valley  of  the  Mew  have  already  been  visited, 
or  if  it  is  intended  to  visit  them  direct  from  Princetown,  the  rambler 
may  prefer  to  return  from  Crazy  Well  Pool  by  another  route  than  the 
one  already  sketched,  as  offering  a  change  of  scenery.  Supposing  this 
to  be  decided  upon,  we  shall  follow  the  track  (T.  2)  below  the  pool  up 
the  valley,  our  direction  being  easterly.  When  we  have  advanced 
about  half  a  mile  we  shall  pass  a  broken  cross  lying  on  the  ground  a 
short  distance  to  the  R.  of  the  way.  Only  the  head  and  arms,  and  the 
socket  stone  in  which  the  shaft  was  fixed,  now  remain.  [Crosses, 
Chap.  X.]  The  view  from  this  point,  looking  down  the  valley,  is  good. 
Among  the  tors  Sheeps  Tor  and  Down  Tor  are  conspicuous,  while 
Lether  Tor,  and  its  companion  Sharp  Tor,  present  a  particularly  fine 
appearance. 

As  we  proceed  along  the  track  we  shall  not  fail  to  be  struck  with 
the  great  amount  of  work  the  "  old  men  "  performed  here.  On  every 
hand  are  evidences  of  their  labours  in  search  of  tin,  and  that  they 
were  rewarded  with  success  can  hardly  be  doubted.  That  the  valley 
was  rich  in  the  metal  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  where  they  delved  the 
more  modern  mining  adventurer  has  also  conducted  operations.  Less 
than  half-a-mile  from  the  broken  cross  we  reach  a  ravine,  called  in  the 
neighbourhood  Drivage  Bottom,  near  the  head  of  which  our  track 
crosses  the  Devonport  leat  at  Older  Bridge.  We  are,  however,  not 
now  on  the  line  of  the  ancient  track.  That  kept  a  little  lower  down 
the  hill,  and  passed  direct  from  the  cross  just  noticed  to  Siward's,  or 
Nun's,  Cross,  the  interesting  object  already  mentioned  as  a  forest 
bondmark.  (T.  1,2).  It  may  be  reached  from  Older  Bridge  by  follow- 
ing the  Devonport  leat  upward,  and  will  be  found  very  near  where  this 
enters  an  adit,  or  tunnel,  1,400  yards  in  length. 

Before  describing  this  cross  it  will  perhaps  be  well  to  sketch  the 
route  to  it  from  Princetown  direct.  Should  the  rambler  not  include 
it  in  the  present  excursion,  he  will  pass  up  to  the  head  of  the  ravine 
above  Older  Bridge,  and  pursuing  a  northerly  course  will  soon  come  in 
sight  of  an  enclosure.  The  wall  of  this  he  will  keep  on  his  R.,  and, 
passing  South  Hisworthy  Tor  (rather  over  i  m.  from  the  bridge),  will 
reach  the  gate  opening  upon  Ivybridge  Lane.  (T.  6).  For  the  pathway 
inside  the  wall  see  post.] 

[From  Princetown  to  Siward's  Cross.  Leaving  the  town  by  way  of 
Ivybridge  Lane  (T.  6),  we  soon  gain  the  common,  and  ere  we  have 
proceeded  very  far  shall  notice  a  stile  in  the  wall  on  the  L.  Here  a 


36  PRINCETOWN    AND   TWO   BRIDGES   DISTRICT. 

path  leads  to  South  Hisworthy  Tor  and  Peat  Cot  (Ex.  3),  and  we  may 
avail  ourselves  of  it  if  we  will.  It  is  carried  along  a  bank  raised  to  the 
level  of  the  top  of  the  wall,  and  will  bring  us  direct  to  the  tor  named. 
As  we  proceed  we  notice  the  bond  stones  that  mark  the  limits  of  the 
forest  between  this  pile  of  rocks  and  North  Hisworthy  Tor,  and  which 
we  were  able  to  see  when  on  our  way  to  the  latter.  On  the  top  of 
South  Hisworthy,  which  is  usually  known  in  the  vicinity  as  Look 
Out  Tor,  is  an  iron  spike.  From  the  tor  the  path  to  Peat  Cot  (Ex.  3) 

Ter 
Hill. 


PEAT   COT   FROM   SOUTH   HISWORTHY   TOR. 

runs  down  across  the  newtake  L.,  but  we  continue  on  our  way  by  the 
wall,  and  on  reaching  the  corner  of  the  enclosure,  climb  over  it  and 
regain  the  common.  Those  who  do  not  care  for  the  work  of  scaling 
had  perhaps  better  make  their  way  along  the  common  outside  the  wall. 
At  the  corner  referred  to  this  wall  must  be  left,  and  a  course  the  same 
as  that  previously  followed  from  the  tor,  that  is  to  say  about  S.S.E., 
must  be  kept.  Very  soon  we  shall  strike  a  reave  which  here  marks 
the  forest  boundary,  and  by  following  this  we  shall  be  led  directly  to 
the  cross,  which  is  under  2\  miles  from  the  Duchy  Hotel.  The  track 
passed  about  4-  mile  S.  of  the  newtake  corner  leads  to  Peat  Cot,  and  a 
branch  passed  further  on  to  the  White  Works  (Ex.  3).  It  comes  up 
from  Older  Bridge,  to  which  point  we  followed  it  in  the  previous  ex- 
cursion.] 

More  than  one  of  the  Dartmoor  crosses  is  referred  to  in  documents 
relating  to  the  forest  and  commons,  but  none  receives  so  early  a 
mention  as  Siward's  Cross.  It  is  named  as  a  forest  bondmark  by  the 
perambulators  of  1240,  who  draw  the  line  from  "  Elysburghe  "  (now 
Eylesbarrow)  "  et  sic  linealiter  usque  at  crucem  Sywardi,"  but  that  it 
was  in  existence  long  before  that  time  there  is  good  reason  for  believing. 
Standing  on  the  line  of  a  branch  of  the  Abbots'  Way  (T.  i),  it  may 
possibly  have  been  set  up  by  the  monks  of  Tavistock  as  a  mark  to 
that  path,  and  their  house  was  founded  before  the  close  of  the  tenth 
century  ;  but  it  is  quite  likely  that  it  is  of  rather  later  erection,  and  that 
its  name  is  indicative  of  the  period.  There  could  never  have  been 
much  traffic  over  this  branch  of  the  Abbots'  Way,  and  during  the  earlier 
years  of  Tavistock  Abbey  it  is  questionable  whether  there  was  any. 
We  may  with  more  probability  look  upon  the  cross  as  having  been 
erected  in  the  time  of  the  Confessor,  when  Siward,  Earl  of  Northumber- 


EXCURSION   2.       SIWARD'S   CROSS.  37 

land,  held  the  manors  of  Tavei  and  Wifleurde.  The  former  was  prob- 
ably the  manor  of  Mary  Tavy,  in  the  parish  of  that  name,  and  the 
latter  has  been  thought  to  be  Warne,  a  former  manor  in  the  same 
parish,  but  I  am  now  inclined  to  regard  it  as  being  the  manor  of 
Willsworthy,  in  the  parish  of  Peter  Tavy.  Worthy,  a  farm  place, 
appears  in  the  Devonshire  Domesday  as  orda,  orde,  and  urde,  and  while 
Wifleurde  might  become  Willsworthy,  it  is  difficult  to  see  how  the 
name  could  have  changed  its  form  to  Warne.  The  manor  of  Wills- 
worthy  includes  a  considerable  portion  of  the  moor  (see  L,ydford 
District),  and  abuts  on  the  forest,  which  latter  was  also  probably  held 
by  the  earl.  There  are  several  instances  of  the  royal  hunting  ground 
having  been  granted  temporarily  to  a  subject.  It  will  be  noticed  that 
the  earl's  name  is  graven  on  that  side  of  the  cross  which  looks  towards 
the  forest.  The  letters  are  not  particularly  clear,  but  there  is  no 
uncertainty  about  them  except  that  the  second  may  be  either  an 
"i"  or  a  "y." 

The  inscription  on  the  western  side  of  the  cross  is  one  that  puzzled 
antiquaries  for  a  long  time,  and  it  was  not  until  my  book  on  the  crosses 
of  the  moor  appeared  (ist  Ed.,  1884)  that  this  was  understood.  It  had 
been  variously  read  as  Roolande,  Bod  Bond,  and  Booford,  but  after 
much  careful  examination  of  the  letters,  coupled  with  various  refer- 
ences, I  was  able  to  decipher  them.  The  inscription  is  BOC  LOI1D, 
the  ancient  form  of  Buckland,*  and  the  name  was  in  all  probability  cut 
on  the  cross  by  the  Monks  of  Buckland  Abbey  to  mark  the  limits  of 
their  lands,  which  included  the  manor  of  Walkhampton,  which  extends 
as  we  have  seen,  to  the  boundary  line  of  the  forest.  These  lands  were 
given  by  Amicia,  Countess  of  Devon,  to  endow  the  abbey,  and  the  gift 
was  confirmed  by  her  daughter,  Isabella  de  Portibus.  Immediately 
above  the  name  a  small  incised  cross  will  be  observed. 

This  interesting  relic  is  seven  feet  four  inches  in  height,  and 
measures  two  feet  eight  inches  across  the  arms.  It  will  be  noticed 
that  the  shaft  is  broken,  and  is  now  held  together  by  an  iron  clamp  on 
each  side.  This  damage  resulted  from  the  cross  being  intentionally 
thrown  down  by  two  lads  when  searching  for  cattle  in  this  part  of  the 
moor.  This  was  in  1846,  but  it  was  soon  after  repaired  by  a  stone 
mason,  named  John  Newcombe. 

I  have  ventured  to  suggest  elsewhere  that  the  second  name  of  the 
cross  may  be  derived  from  the  Cornu-Celtic  word  nans,  a  valley,  dale, 
or  ravine,  standing,  as  it  does  at  the  head  of  the  Swincombe  valley. 
But  it  is  quite  possible  that  Nuns  is  a  comparatively  modern  name,  or 
corruption  of  one.  The  earliest  record  of  it  is  in  1699,  when  it  appears 
as  Nannecross.  A  full  account  of  this  interesting  object  is  given  in 
the  book  to  which  reference  has  just  been  made.  [Crosses,  Chap. 
IX.] 

Quite  near  to  the  cross  is  Nun's  Cross  Farm,  enclosed  about  1870 
by  John  Hooper.  Some  years  ago  a  modern  dwelling-house  took  the 
place  of  the  quaint  little  thatched  cottage  that  he  erected.  Near  by 
are  the  remains  of  Nun's  Cross  Mine. 

(For  route  from  Siward's  Cross  to  Childe's  Tomb,  see  Rx.  3). 

To  return  to  Princetown  we  follow  the  reave  northward,  with  the 
farm  enclosures  on  the  R.  When  these  latter  are  passed  we  continue 

*  Boc  Land,  i.e.,  Book  Land,  or  land  held  bv  charter. 


3§  PRINCETOWN    AND    TWO    BRIDGES    DISTRICT. 

on  the  same  course,  and  at  the  distance  of  nearly  a  mile  from  the  cross 
shall  reach  the  corner  of  the  newtake  already  noticed.  The  wall  will 
then  become  our  guide  to  South  Hisworthy  Tor,  and  to  the  moor  gate 
at  the  end  of  Ivybridge  Lane.  (T.  6). 

(This  excursion  may  be  extended  to  Childe's  Tomb.     See  Ex.  3). 


Ex.  3.  Peat  Cot— White  Works— Fox  Tor  Mire— Childe's  Tomb- 
Fox  Tor — Mining  Remains — Kists  in  Tor  Royal  Newtake.  7  m.  from 
and  to  Princetown.  With  route  from  Siward's  Cross  to  Childe's  Tomb, 
1 4-  m.  ;  from  Peat  Cot  to  Princetown  by  the  leat,  2  m.  ;  and  direct  route 
to  the  kists  in  Tor  Royal  Newtake. 

Leaving  Princetown  by  the  road  leading  to  Tor  Royal  we  shall 
make  our  way  to  Peat  Cot,  as  in  T.  7,  for  the  purpose  of  visiting  the 
Swincombe  valley,  in  which  are  several  objects  of  interest.  (On  reach- 
ing the  entrance  to  South  Hisworthy  House,  R.,  which  is  just  beyond 
Tor  Gate,  L.,  we  shall  notice  a  gate  L.  of  it,  and  into  this  it  will  be 
worth  while  to  turn  for  a  few  minutes.  In  the  second  field  is  a  circle 
resembling  the  fringe  of  a  turfy  mound,  36  yards  in  diameter,  and 
within  this  is  another,  across  which  is  a  short  piece  of  wall  cutting  off 
a  segment  of  it).  Shortly  before  the  road  reaches  Peat  Cot  we  leave 
it  and  enter  a  field  L.,  where  a  footpath  runs  to  the  hamlet. 

Peat  Cot  may  also  be  reached  by  way  of  Ivybridge  Lane  (T.  6, 
Ex.  2).  At  South  Hisworthy  Tor  strike  into  the  green  path  L.,  and 
descend  to  Castle  Road.  Vide  supra. 

From  Two  Bridges  Peat  Cot  may  best  be  reached  by  way  of 
Round  Hill  Farm.  The  visitor  will  cross  the  Blackabrook  at  the  steps 
S.  of  the  farmhouse,  and  then  strike  S.W.  over  Tor  Royal  Newtake, 
leaving  Tor  Royal  House  R.,  to  the  corner  of  the  enclosures  in  front 
of  the  latter.  Thence  as  in  R.  34.  To  go  direct  to  Childe's  Tomb 
from  the  steps  a  course  S.  by  E.  must  be  followed  across  the  newtake, 
keeping  Royal  Hill  R.  This  will  bring  the  rambler  to  the  hunting-gate 
mentioned  post.  From  Prince  Hall  Lodge  to  the  tomb,  see  R.  27. 

Peat  Cot,  though  not  dating  back  to  early  times  like  Babeny,  or 
Pizwell,  or  Hexworthy,  is  yet  not  devoid  of  interest.  It  shows  what 
the  nineteenth  century  settler  has  been  able  to  accomplish  on  Dart- 
moor, and  is  a  realization  of  a  small  part  of  Sir  Thomas  Tyrwhitt's 
dream.  The  mother  of  Peat  Cot,  Charlotte  Worth,  died  in  March,  1906, 
aged  ninety-four,  and  in  possession  of  all  her  faculties.  She  came  of  a 
long-lived  stock  ;  not,  however,  natives  of  Dartmoor,  but  of  Wembury, 
on  the  coast  near  the  mouth  of  the  Yealm.  Mrs.  Worth's  father, 
Richard  Edwards,  died  at  White  Works,  aged  ninety-nine  ;  his  mother 
lived  till  she  was  over  a  hundred,  as  also  did  his  brother.  Peat  Cot, 
which  is  fairly  sheltered  from  the  westerly  winds  that  are  so  detri- 
mental to  the  agriculturists  on  the  moor,  consists  of  a  few  small  farms. 
The  Devonport  leat  runs  quite  close  to  it,  and  is  carried  round  the  hill 
on  the  side  of  which  the  settlement  is  situated. 

Leaving  this  little  group  of  Dartmoor  dwellings  we  pass  over  the 
hill  to  the  S.E.,  and  make  our  way  to  White  Works,  which  place  is  less 
than  half- a- mile  distant.  Just  before  reaching  the  first  of  the  cottages 
we  again  meet  the  Devonport  leat  as  it  comes  round  the  hill  from  the 
E.,  and  this  we  cross  by  a  granite  footbridge.  White  Works  owes  its 


EXCURSION  3.     WHITE  WORKS.     FOX  TOR  MIRE.          39 

existence  and  its  name  to  a  mine.  This  has  been  closed  for  some  years, 
hut  the  evidences  of  it  are  abundant  around  the  few  dwellings  that  now 
constitute  the  place.  We  remember  when  two  large  waterwheels 
were  to  be  seen  revolving  here,  and  when  the  blacksmith's  hammer 
was  constantly  heard  ringing  on  the  anvil.  For  some  time  the  mine 
was  worked  by  Mr.  Moses  Bawden,  of  Tavistock,  a  gentleman  who  has 
been  connected  with  other  similar  operations  on  the  moor  of  an  exten- 
sive character.  Those  who  now  live  at  White  Works  look  not  to  the 
bowels  of  the  earth  for  their  support,  but  to  its  surface.  By  breeding 
ponies  and  rearing  other  stock,  and  doing  such  labour  as  their  hands 
may  find  for  them  to  do,  they  contrive  to  get  a  living,  and  if  the  prize 
of  wealth  is  not  to  be  obtained,  they  have  what  is  far  more  than  its 
equivalent — health. 

The  cottages  fir;?t  reached  are  of  recent  erection,  and  take  the 
place  of  older  ones  that  had  gone  to  decay.  Those  seen  lower  down 
are  part  of  the  original  settlement,  and  with  their  thatched  roofs 
present  a  picturesque  appearance.  Around  them  are  the  grey  walls 
of  a  number  of  small  enclosures. 

The  wide  flat  in  front  of  White  Works  is  Fox  Tor  Mire,  and  looking 
across  this  in  a  S.E.  direction,  a  tor  will  be  observed,  the  only  one  that 
is  here  in  sight.  This  is  Fox  Tor,  and  below  it,  and  a  little  to  the  L., 
a  plain  piece  of  ground  will  be  seen,  which  is  known  as  Sand  Parks. 
Here,  if  the  visitor  looks  carefully,  he  will  notice  a  dark  object.  Its 
form  cannot  be  distinguished  at  this  distance,  but  it  is  the  tomb  to 
examine  which  is  one  of  the  objects  of  our  present  excursion. 

[Before  leaving  White  Works  it  will  be  well  to  mention  two  objects 
described  post  (in  the  route  from  Siward's  Cross  to  Childe's  Tomb),  as 
the  rambler  may  wish  to  take  them  on  his  way  to  Sand  Parks,  instead 
of  proceeding  by  the  more  direct  way  hereafter  sketched.  The  first 
of  these  is  a  cross  on  the  further  side  of  the  mire,  and  the  other  a  stone 
pillar  near  Wheal  Anne  Bottom.  To  reach  the  cross,  which  is  about 
half-a-mile  S.E.  by  S.  of  White  Works,  the  visitor  will  pass  over  the 
upper  end  of  the  mire.  This  he  may  readily  do,  as  the  few  swampy 
places  in  this  part  of  it  are  easily  avoided.  He  should  not,  however, 
attempt  to  cross  it  lower  down.  Though  not  so  dangerous  as  formerly, 
there  are  yet  many  parts  of  it  where  the  ground  is  treacherous,  and  it 
is  as  well  to  give  it  a  wide  berth.  A  branch  of  the  Swincombe  river, 
here  only  a  small  brook,  runs  through  the  middle  of  it.  On  the  further 
side,  i.e.,  the  south,  the  ground  rises,  and  some  short  distance  up  the 
slope  is  a  new  newtake  wall.  The  cross  is  about  midway  between 
the  edge  of  the  mire  and  this  wall.  It  is  set  up  on  a  rock,  and  around 
it  is  much  scattered  granite.  Wheal  Anne  Bottom  is  westward  of  the 
cross,  and  in  full  view ;  a  little  stream  courses  through  it,  and  joins  the 
Swincombe  river.  By  following  this  up  for  a  short  distance,  and  then 
striking  R.,  the  stone  pillar  will  be  seen.] 

Making  our  way  down  by  the  lower  cottages  at  White  Works,  and 
crossing  the  Strane,  a  small  tributary  of  the  Swincombe,  we  pass 
onward  with  the  wall  of  Tor  Royal  Newtake  I,.  Ere  long  we  reach 
Stream  Hill  Ford,  close  to  the  Wheal  Emma  weir,  where  we  shall  cross 
the  Swincombe,  and  by  directing  our  steps  a  little  to  the  L.  of  Fox  Tor 
shall  reach  Sand  Parks.  We  shall  find  the  object  of  which  we  are  in 


40  PRINCETOWN    AND   TWO   BRIDGES   DISTRICT. 

quest  about  -]-  m.  northward  of  the  tor.  To  be  exact,  jt  is  £  m.  from  the 
confluence  of  the  two  streams  near  the  weir,  S.S.E.  by  E.  But  unfor- 
tunately what  the  rambler  will  see  is  not  the  ancient  monument  spoken 
of  by  Risdon  in  the  early  part  of  the  seventeenth  century  as  one  of 
Dartmoor's  "  three  remarkable  things,"  but  a  late  nineteenth  century 
erection  that  bears  little  resemblance  to  it.  I  have  elsewhere  given  a 
full  account  of  Childe's  Tomb,  and  the  legend  of  the  luckless  hunter; 
and  have  also  related  how  I  found  the  kist,  and  the  stones  that  once 
surmounted  it,  *  but  it  is  perhaps  necessary  that  my  notices '  of  this 
object  should  be  briefly  recapitulated  here.  Before  doing  so,  however, 
we  will  sketch  the  route  to  the  tomb  from  Si  ward's  Cross. 

[Siward's  Cross  to  Childe's  Tomb,  i£  miles.  Passing  down  with 
Nun's  Cross  Farm  on  our  L.,  we  cross  the  little  brook  of  the  same  name, 
and  then  the  Plym  road  S.  of  Nun's  Cross  Ford.  We  pursue  an  easterly 
direction  up  the  slope,  keeping  rather  higher  than  a  direct  route  would 
necessitate,  in  order  to  examine  the  stone  pillar  already  referred  to. 
Presently  we  shall  reach  a  reave  running  along  the  side  of  the  hill,  and 
following  this  toward  the  E.,  shall  soon  arrive  at  the  stone.  This  we 
shall  find  to  be  an  ordinary  shaft,  about  5!  feet  in  height.  The  head, 
which  was  discovered  near  by  a  few  years  ago,  has  part  of  a  cross  cut 
in  relief  upon  it.  Eastward  is  the  little  stream  running  down  Wheal 
Anne  Bottom,  and  when  we  reach  this  we  must  make  for  the  newtake 
wall  below.  (The  latter  was  erected  about  1904 ;  it  runs  on  the 
line  of  an  old  reave).  Reaching  the  newtake  we  strike  about  E., 
gradually  leaving  the  wall  on  the  R.,  and  when  nearly  opposite  White 
Works,  shall  come  upon  the  cross  already  mentioned  as  being  set  up 
on  a  rock.  There  is  much  scattered  granite  near  by,  but  if  the 
directions  here  given  be  followed,  the  object  will  not  be  missed.  It 
was  discovered  by  I,ieut.  M.  Lennon  Goldsmith,  in  1903,  after  the 
latest  edition  of  my  book  on  the  Dartmoor  crosses  had  appeared.  He 
found  it  lying  on  the  ground  near  the  rock  in  which  the  socket  was  cut, 
and  afterwards  had  it  re-erected,  and  secured  in  its  place  with  cement. 
A  portion  of  the  shaft  appears  to  be  missing,  but  otherwise  this 
ancient  relic  is  in  an  excellent  state  of  preservation.  It  faces  E.  and 
W.  It  is  41  inches  high  ;  the  bottom  of  the  shaft  is  43  inches  in 
girth  ;  the  arms  measure  22  inches  across  ;  and  the  head  rises  7  inches 
above  the  shaft.  Near  the  cross  is  a  kistvaen  within  a  circle  of 
stones. 

The  discovery  of  this  cross  adds  another  to  the  line  of  those  objects 
extending  from  Buckland  Abbey  across  the  forest  (T.  2),  and,  as  Lieut. 
Goldsmith  observed  when  acquainting  me  with  his  find,  tends  to 
confirm  my  contention  that  they  marked  an  old  track.  [Crosses, 
Chap.  X.]  Since  this  cross  was  discovered  another  on  the  same  line 
has  come  to  light ;  it  is  described  further  on  (Ex.  39). 

Continuing  on  our  way  eastward  to  Sand  Parks,  with  the  newtake 
wall  R.,  we  soon  reach  the  tomb,  which  is  distant  only  a  little  over 
£  m.  from  the  cross.] 

The  story  of  Childe,  the  hunter,  which  I  have  frequently  heard  in 
the  forest,  was  first  related  by  Risdon  nearly  three  hundred  years  ago. 

*  Ancient  Stone  Crosses  of  Dartmoor.  Chap.  X.  Folk  Rhymes  of 
Devon,  p.  4. 


EXCURSION   3.      CHILDE'S   TOMB.  41 

It  is  to  the  effect  that  one  Childe,  of  Plymstock,  "  a  man  of  fair  possess- 
ions," being  overtaken  by  a  snowstorm  when  hunting  on  Dartmoor, 
slew  his  horse  and  disembowelled  him,  hoping  to  preserve  himself  by 
seeking  shelter  in  the  carcase.  But  he  was  there  frozen  to  death,  and 
having,  as  our  old  topographer  states,  "  ordained,  by  his  will,  that 
wheresoever  he  should  happen  to  be  buried,  to  that  church  his  lands 
should  belong,"  he  was  carried  by  Tavistock  men  to  the  Abbey  Church 
for  interment.  They  were,  however,  able  to  accomplish  this  only  by 
a  stratagem.  The  people  of  Plymstock  having  learnt  what  was  taking 
place,  assembled  at  the  bridge  over  the  Tavy,  with  the  intention  of 
preventing  the  Tavistock  men  taking  the  body  to  the  Abbey.  But 
the  latter,  hearing  of  this,  threw  a  slight  bridge  across  the  river,  and 
carrying  over  their  prize  in  triumph,  became  the  possessors  of  Childe' s 
lands.  The  people  of  Plymstock  "were  deceived,"  says  Risdon, 
"  by  a  guile  "  ;  "in  memory  whereof  the  bridge  beareth  the  name  of 
Guilebridge  to  this  day."  Our  author  also  tells  us  that  Childe's  Tomb 
was  to  be  seen  on  the  moor  in  his  time,  though  he  does  not  say  in  what 
part  of  it,  and  that  it  once  bore  the  following  lines  : 

"  They  fyrste  that  fyndes  and  brings  rnee  to  my  grave, 

The  priorie  of  Plimstoke  they  shall  have."* 

This  story  is  probably  a  version  of  some  early  legend.  Childe 
does  not  seem  to  have  been  a  proper  name,  though  some  writers  not 
only  apparently  think  it  was,  but  have  gone  so  far  as  to  furnish  the 
supposed  hunter  with  another — indeed,  he  has  had  no  less  than  three 
Christian  names  given  to  him,  Amyas,  John,  and  Oswald.  In  all 
probability  it  was  the  Saxon  Cild,  a  common  appellation.  Further, 
nothing  is  known  of  any  Priory  of  Plymstock,  and  this  perhaps  accounts 
for  the  word  "  lands  "  being  substituted  for  "  priorie  "  in  later  versions 
of  the  couplet.  Tavistock  Abbey  possessed  the  manor  of  Plymstock, 
but  it  belonged  to  it  at  the  time  of  the  Domesday  Survey.  That 
Guile  Bridge  was  simply  the  Guild  Bridge,  or  bridge  that  led  to  the 
Guildhall  of  Tavistock,  is  much  more  likely  to  be  the  case  than  that  it 
obtained  its  name  in  the  manner  the  tradition  states.  It  is  difficult 
also  to  understand  how  we  find  the  hunter's  grave  in  the  forest,  when 
the  story  says  he  was  buried  at  Tavistock.  It  is  true  that  the  body  of 
a  stranger  found  on  the  moor  might  have  been  interred  on  the  spot, 
and  afterwards  exhumed  on  his  identity  being  discovered,  but  that 
could  hardly  have  happened  at  so  late  a  period  as  the  end  of  the  tenth 
century,  when  Tavistock  Abbey  was  founded.  The  grave,  consisting 
of  a  kist  within  a  stone  circle,  is  precisely  sitniliar  in  plan  to  those 
which  we  know  to  belong  to  pagan  times,  and  there  can  be  little  doubt 
is  very  much  older  than  that  religious  house,  though  there  are  indica- 
tions that  the  kist  itself  is  not  of  such  great  antiquity  as  those  generally 
seen  on  the  moor.  That  a  Christian  monument  should  have  been 
erected  upon  it  is  not  inexplicable,  since  we  know  that  the  cross  was 
frequently  planted  in  similar  situations  in  early  times.  Menhirs  have 
been  fashioned  into  the  symbol  of  that  faith,  or  have  had  it  graven 
upon  them,  as  we  shall  see  in  places  on  the  borders  of  the  moor.  The 
story  of  Childe  the  Hunter  must  be  regarded  as  a  myth,  but  at  the  same 
time  there  is  no  doubt  that,  like  most  legends,  there  is  an  element  of 
truth  underlying  it. 

*  Risdon's  Survey  of  Devon,  p.  223.     Edit.  1811. 


42  PRINCETOWN    AND   TWO  BRIDGES   DISTRICT. 

Although  Risdon  does  not  state  in  what  part  of  the  moor  Childe 
was  said  to  have  been  buried,  forest  tradition  has  always  pointed  to- 
the  tomb  under  Pox  Tor  as  that  of  the  unfortunate  lord  of  Plymstock. 
This  tomb  remained  intact  until  about  1812,  when  it  was  destroyed  by 
a  Mr.  Windeatt,  who  enclosed  Fox  Tor  Farm,  and  built  the  house,  the 
ruins  of  which  will  be  seen  on  the  slope  eastward.  It  consisted  of  a 
calvary  of  three  stages,  surmounted  by  a  large  worked  stone  in  which 
a  cross  was  fixed.  In  the  first  edition  of  Carrington's  poem  Dart- 
moor (1826),  the  tomb  is  figured,  but  as  this  was  probably  drawn  from 
memory,  it  is  not  a  true  representation  of  it  in  every  particular,  though 
no  doubt  correct  in  its  main  features.  A  note  to  the  poem  states  that 
Mr.  Windeatt  removed  some  of  the  stones  from  the  tomb,  and  used  them 
for  building  purposes  and  for  door  steps.  More  than  half  a  century 
after  this  was  written  I  discovered  the  whole  of  the  stones  with  the 
exception  of  three,  but  not  in  the  place  the  note  would  seen  to  indicate. 

When  I  was  engaged  in  my  investigations  of  the  Dartmoor  crosses 
in  the  seventies,  Childe's  Tomb  naturally  attracted  my  attention. 
But  its  exact  site  appeared  to  be  then  unknown,  and  it  was  not  without 
some  trouble  that  I  discovered  it.  I  was,  however,  aided  in  my  search 
by  some  information  obtained  from  Richard  Eden,  a  moorman  with 
whom  I  was  well  acquainted,  and  who  was  born  at  Fox  Tor  Farm. 
All  that  was  then  to  be  seen  was  a  small  mound,  and  some  half  buried 
stones.  An  account  of  my  exploration  is  given  in  my  book  on  the 
crosses,  and  it  is  therefore  only  necessary  to  state  that  I  discovered 
the  greater  part  of  the  missing  stones.  Some  of  these  yet  form  a  bridge 
over  the  brook  below  the  ruined  farmhouse.  With  the  "  restoration  " 
I  had  nothing  to  do,  beyond  raising  my  voice  against  the  manner  in 
which  it  was  carried  out.  The  present  cross  and  stone  in  which  it  is 
fixed  were  cut  at  Home,  in  1885. 

Mining  operations  near  Fox  Tor  were  evidently  of  an  extensive 
character.  Fox  Tor  Gert,  as  the  deep  gully  running  up  to  the  tor  is 
named,  has  been  worked  for  tin,  as  also  has  the  branch  of  the  Swin- 
combe  that  runs  down  in  front  of  the  farmhouse,  and  which  rises  not 
far  from  Little  Aune.  (Ex.  43).  The  visitor  to  Childe's  Tomb  will 
probably  wish  to  ascend  Fox  Tor,  and  here  he  will  see  the  gert  on  the 
eastern  slope  of  the  hill,  and  also  behind,  or  to  the  S.  of  the  tor. 

He  will  likewise  be  able  to  examine  an  old  mining  house,  which 
is  not  wanting  in  interest.  It  will  be  found  at  the  end  of  Black  L,ane 
(T.  61),  where  that  old  path  runs  into  the  gert,  and  S.  of  the  tor.  It 
stands  on  the  W.  side  of  the  way,  which  here  passes  through  a  gully, 
and  consists  of  the  walls  of  a  building,  23^  feet  by  14  feet  on  the  outside. 
The  doorway,  as  is  usual  in  these  houses,  is  near  one  corner,  and  the 
fireplace  appears  to  have  been  at  the  opposite  end. 

Adjoining  the  southern  wall  of  the  farm  enclosures,  and  near  the 
bank  of  the  Swincombe  branch  that  flows  in  front  of  it,  are  the  remains 
of  another  mining  house,  about  the  same  width  but  a  little  longer 
than  the  one  just  noticed.  It  is  built  against  a  bank,  a  plan  often 
followed  by  the  constructors  of  these  huts  on  the  moor.  Most  of  the 
wall  that  formed  the  western  end  has  disappeared. 

The  path  known  as  Sandy  Way  (T.  56),  runs  from  Sand  Parks 
up  the  hollow  to  the  E.S.E.,  down  which  the  stream  comes.  This  it 
leaves  on  the  right  in  ascending  and  goes  on  to  Aune  Head,  where  it 
becomes  a  plainly-marked  track. 


EXCURSION  3.     KISTVAENS.     THE  CROCK  OF  GOLD.         - 

Fox  Tor  farmhouse  presents  nothing  that  will  detain  the  visitor, 
unless  it  be  that  he  desires  to  look  more  closely  upon  the  building 
with  which  so  many  of  the  incidents  of  Eden  Phillpotts'  novel, 
The  American  Prisoner,  are  associated.  If  such  be  the  case  he  may 
amuse  himself  for  half-an-hour  in  searching  for  Maurice  Malherb's 
wine  cellar,  but  we  fear  the  result  will  be  disappointing. 

Passing  down  to  the  ford  on  the  Swincombe  we  again  cross  that 
stream,  but  instead  of  returning  te  White  Works  shall  make  for  a 
hunting  gate  in  the  wall  of  Tor  Royal  Newtake,  which  we  see  near 
by.  Our  first  point  will  then  be  a  tumulus  about  i  m.  N.N.W.,  and 
which  will  come  in  sight  as  we  mount  the  slope.  On  our  R.  are  some 
other  enclosures  near  the  river,  one  of  which  is  known  by  the  name  of 
Joan  Ford's  Newtake,  in  which  are  three  small  upright  stones  standing 
in  a  row. 

A  few  hundred  yards  in  a  north-easterly  direction  from  the  tumulus 
we  shall  come  upon  a  ruined  kistvaen,  close  to  the  source  of  a  rivulet  ; 
and  a  little  further  on,  but  in  a  more  northerly  direction,  are  two  others, 
also  dilapidated.  Here  we  are  near  the  summit  of  Royal  Hill,  the 
highest  point  in  the  newtake,  and  if  we  leave  this  a  little  to  the  L.,  and 
proceed  in  a  north-westerly  direction  for  about  \  m.  beyond  it  we  shall 
reach  the  kistvaen  known  as  the  Crock  of  Gold.  It  is  situated  close 
beside  the  track  leading  from  Princetown  to  Hexworthy  (T.  8),  and  is 
a  well  preserved  kist,  with  some  of  the  stones  that  once  encircled  it  yet 
remaining.  The  track  we  shall  now  follow  W.  to  Bull  Park,  where, 
passing  through  a  gate,  we  soon  reach  the  entrance  to  Tor  Royal,  the 
residence  of  Mr.  A.  E.  Barrington,  the  High  Bailiff  of  Dartmoor. 
Passing  upward  we  bend  R.,  and  speedity  find  ourselves  at  Princetown. 

[A  pleasant  way  of  returning  from  Peat  Cot  is  by  the  Devonport 
leat.  The  best  plan  is  to  cross  it  at  the  bridge  at  the  little  settlement, 
and  passing  for  a  short  distance  over  the  newtake,  strike  it  again  above 
the  bend.  There  is  a  path  on  the  bank  which  the  rambler  may  follow. 
Just  before  reaching  Tor  Royal  the  woods  are  passed,  and  when  the 
trees  are  in  leaf  the  contrast  between  the  slope  on  which  they  grow 
and  the  bare  moor  around  it  is  very  striking.  A  short  distance  beyond 
Tor  Royal  the  road  from  Bull  Park  (supra)  is  reached.] 

[The  kistvaens  in  Tor  Royal  Newtake  may  be  visited  from  Prince- 
town  direct  by  following  the  Hexworthy  track  (T.  8)  to  the  Crock  of 
Gold,  and  then  crossing  over  Royal  Hill  to  the  others.  This  will  be 
the  reverse  of  the  latter  part  of  the  homeward  route  from  Childe's 
Tomb  just  sketched.  The  walk  may  be  extended  to  White  Works, 
and  the  return  made  by  way  of  Peat  Cot  and  the  leat.] 


Ex.  4. — The  Ockery — Antiquities  on  Round  Hill  Farm — Prince 
Hall — Swincombe — Crock  of  Gold — Bull  Park.  About  9  m.  from  and  to 
Princetown.  WITH  ALTERNATIVE  RETURN  ROUTES  from  Swincombe, 
via  White  Works  or  Tor  Royal  Newtake,  and  from  Prince  Hall,  via 
Moorlands  and  Bachelor's  Hall. 

From  Princetown  our  way  takes  us  along  the  Two  Bridges  road 
past  New  London.  This  is  the  name  given  to  the  four  blocks  of  dwell- 
ings on  the  R.,  and  considered  to  be  appropriate  since  they  were 


44  PRINCETOWN    AND   TWO   BRIDGES   DISTRICT. 

erected  under  the  superintendence  of  a  London  man  ;  much  of  the 
material  of  which  they  are  constructed  was  brought  from  there,  and 
being  several  storeys  in  height  they  much  more  resemble  town  houses 
in  plan  than  they  do  those  usually  seen  on  Dartmoor.  Beyond  them 


FROM  MAIN  ROAD  NEAR  NEW  LONDON. 

we  descend  the  hill  to  the  Ockery,  having  Arrow  Head  Field  on  our  L., 
so  called  in  consequence  of  the  finding  there  of  some  flint  implements. 
We  cross  the  Blackabrook  by  a  modern  bridge,  formerly  known  as 
Trena  Bridge,  and  turn  R.  On  the  R.  bank  of  the  stream  is  the  Ockery, 
the  approach  to  it  being  by  means  of  a  clapper.  Though  not  of  great 
size  this  is  a  good  example  of  these  structures,  and  consists  of  buttresses 
with  centre  pier,  but  the  addition  of  parapets  to  some  extent  destroys 
its  primitive  appearance.  The  Ockery  was  formerly  a  very  picturesque 
building,  having  an  exterior  gallery  ;  renovation  has  altered  it,  but 
has  not  altogether  destroyed  its  old-time  air. 

Entering  Lower  Watern  Newtake  by  a  gate  near  the  bridge,  we 
pass  down  by  the  Blackabrook,  and  noticing  some  low  tumuli  near  the 
bank  as  we  proceed,  shall  shortly  reach  the  wall  of  one  of  the  enclosures 
belonging  to  Round  Hill  Farm.  On  the  further  side  of  this,  and  quite 
near  to  the  stream,  is  a  group  of  kistvaens,  and  less  than  200  yards 
from  these  in  a  N.E.  direction  are  the  remains  of  two  others,  placed 
side  by  side.  Further  on  in  the  same  direction,  and  on  the  slope  of 
Round  Hill  where  it  declines  towards  the  Dart  and  the  lower  part  of 
the  Blackabrook,  are  other  examples  of  kists,  as  well  as  tumuli  and  hut 
circles.  Having  examined  these  we  shall  turn  westward,  and  leaving 
Round  Hill  Farm  to  the  L.,  shall  reach  the  track  by  which  it  is 
approached  from  the  Two  Bridges  road.  This  we  follow  N.  to  Round 
Hill  Cottage,  once  the  home  of  Jonas  Coaker,  locally  renowned  as  the 
Dartmoor  poet,  where  we  regain  the  road  we  left  at  the  Ockery,  within 
a  short  distance  of  Two  Bridges. 

In  Lower  Watern  Newtake  the  Princetown  and  Hexworthy  Races 
have  been  held.  These  consist  of  races  for  ponies,  galloways,  and 
horses. 

[As  the  Round  Hill  antiquities  are  situated  in  enclosed  land,  it 
will  be  well  for  the  visitor  to  obtain  permission  at  the  farm  to  examine 


EXCURSION   4.       PRINCE    HALL.  45 

them.  From  Two  Bridges  they  are,  of  course,  reached  by  way  of 
Round  Hill  Cottage.] 

On  leaving  Two  Bridges  we  pass  up  the  hill  behind  the  hotel. 
On  the  brow  the  road  forks,  the  L.  branch  running  to  Moreton  and 
the  R.  to  Ashburton.  We  follow  the  latter,  with  Muddy  Lakes  New- 
take  on  our  L.,  and  during  our  progress  towards  Prince  Hall  Lodge 
shall  look  upon  several  fine  tors.  Across  the  newtake,  and  at  no 
great  distance  from  us,  is  Crockern  Tor  (See  post.]  To  the  R.  of 
this,  and  standing  up  boldly  on  a  lofty  ridge,  is  "  Longaford's  strange 
mitre  of  earth  and  stone,"*  and  beyond  it  Higher  and  Lower  White 
Tors.  In  front  is  Bellaford  Tor,  a  prominent  object  in  every  view 
in  this  part  of  the  moor.  Away  to  the  R.  we  see  the  high  land  of 
the  south  quarter  of  the  forest  rising  like  a  huge  barrier  from  the 
Swincombe  valley,  and  extending  from  Cater's  Beam,  L.,  to  Hand 
Hill  and  Kylesbarrow,  R.  If  we  look  carefully  at  it  we  may  discern 
a  pile  of  rocks,  not  defined  against  the  sky,  but  rising  from  its  dusky 
side.  This  is  Fox  Tor,  already  noticed  [Ex.  3],  which,  like  Crockern 
Tor,  is  chiefly  interesting  on  account  of  its  associations,  in  this  instance 
only  legendary. 

At  the  distance  of  about  i  m.  from  the  fork  of  the  roads  we  arrive 
at  Prince  Hall  Lodge,  R.,  and  passing  through  the  gate  make  our  way 
along  the  road  that  leads  to  the  house  (T.  10).  This  is  bordered  with 
trees,  but  they  have  bowed  before  the  prevailing  westerly  winds. 
Stunted  in  growth  they  tell  but  too  plainly  that  it  is  only  in  the 
sheltered  spots  on  the  moor  that  planting  can  be  undertaken  with  any 
success. 

Prince  Hall  was  one  of  the  ancient  tenements  of  the  forest  [see 
Ancient  Tenement  in  the  Terms  section],  and  was  known  by  the  name 
it  at  present  bears  several  centuries  ago,  being  mentioned  as  Prynshall 
in  a  forester's  account  of  the  time  of  Henry  VIII.,  while  in  a  document 
of  a  later  date  it  appears  as  Prynce  Hall.  In  1702  it  was  in  the 
possession  of  William  Gidley,  and  in  the  last  quarter  of  the  eighteenth 
century  was  held  by  a  Mr.  Gullet,  one  of  those  who  about  that  time 
entertained  hopes  that  the  forest  might  be  profitably  cultivated. 
From  him  it  passed  to  Judge  Buller,  and  was  afterwards  held  by 
Mr.  G.  W.  Fowler,  whose  operations  on  the  farm  were  on  a  very 
large  scale.  [Dev.  Alps,  Chap.  3.]  But  they  proved  unsuccessful, 
except  in  one  respect ;  he  certainly  showed  that  such  a  style  of  farming 
as  he  adopted  was  not  suited  to  Dartmoor.  Some  of  the  older  people 
still  speak  of  him,  and  will  tell  you  that  there  was  one  thing  Mr. 
Fowler  deserved  special  praise  for  :  he  grew  the  largest  turnips  ever 
seen  on  the  moor.  "  Proper  gert  benders,  zure  'nuff — but  most  o' 
mun  was  holla." 

The  road  will  conduct  us  by  the  side  of  the  house,  which  is  large, 
and,  for  the  moor,  of  imposing  appearance,  and  down  the  lawn  in 
front  of  it  to  Prince  Hall  Bridge,  which  spans  the  West  Dart.  Here 
the  scene  is  of  a  very  attractive  character,  particularly  in  the  summer, 
when  the  trees  are  in  leaf,  and  the  hedgerow  that  borders  the  little 
lane  that  leads  up  from  the  bridge  on  the  southern  bank  of  the  river 
is  bright  with  young  ferns  and  wild  flowers.  Near  the  top  of  the  ascent 
the  lane  turns  R.  to  Moorlands,  a  farm  close  by,  but  our  way  will  be  as 

*  The  River.     Book  I.,  Chap.  XIII. 


46  PRINCETOWN    AND   TWO    BRIDGES    DISTRICT. 

in  T.  10.  Crossing  the  little  Rue  Lake,  which  falls  into  the  Dart  below 
Cherry  Brook  Foot,  we  enter  Swincombe  Newtake,  and  soon  reach  the 
gate  at  Swincombe  Farmhouse.  This  building  formed  one  of  Sir 
Thomas  Tyrwhitt's  lodges,  and  appears  to  have  been  erected  on  land 
long  enclosed.  In  a  list  of  the  newtakes  in  the  forest  made  over  two 
hundred  years  ago  there  are  three  enclosures  named  respectively 
Swancombe  Head,  Swancombe,  and  Swancombe  Ford. 

A  short  lane  leads  to  Swincombe  Ford,  over  the  stream  of  that 
name,  the  farmhouse  being  on  the  R.  as  we  proceed,  and  a  cottage  on 
the  L.  The  latter  was  the  abode  for  many  years  of  John  Bishop,  a 
true  specimen  of  the  old  style  of  Dartmoor  man.  He  retained  his 
primitive  manners  to  the  last,  insisting  on  using  a  flint  and  steel  in 
place  of  matches,  among  other  things,  and  "  couldn'  abide  any  new 
fashioned  notions."  The  footbridge  at  the  ford  is  usually  known  as 
the  Fairy  Bridge. 

We  shall  return  to  Princetown  by  the  track  running  between  that 
place  and  Hexworthy  (T.  8),  and  for  this  purpose  shall  either  retrace 
our  steps  to  the  gate  of  the  newtake,  and  then  turn  L.  behind  Swin- 
combe farmhouse,  or  pass  in  front  of  it.  Though  we  now  pass  over 
the  track  the  reverse  way  of  that  in  which  it  has  been  described,  it 
will  be  followed  without  difficulty,  and  we  shall  soon  be  led  to  the  gate 
opening  upon  Tor  Royal  Newtake,  across  which  the  green  path  is  well 
denned.  About  midway  we  shall  pass  the  kistvaen  called  the  Crock 
of  Gold,  noticed  in  Ex.  3,  from  which  point  we  make  our  way  to  Bull 
Park,  and  thence  by  the  road  to  Princetown. 

[To  return  by  way  of  the  Swincombe  Valley,  noticed  in  the  Hex- 
worthy  District,  will  be  found  very  interesting.  The  visitor  will  cross 
the  stream  by  the  footbridge,  and  follow  it  up  to  the  point  where  it 
receives  the  tributary  that  comes  down  from  under  Fox  Tor  farmhouse, 
whence  he  may  make  his  way  to  Princetown  either  by  the  White 
Works  or  by  Tor  Royal  Newtake  (Ex.  3).  The  walk  may  be  shortened 
by  returning  direct  to  Princetown  from  Prince  Hall  Bridge.  The 
visitor  will  follow  the  postman's  path  from  Moorlands  (T.  9),  which 
will  lead  him  across  the  northern  side  of  Tor  Royal  Newtake,  where  he 
will  pass  over  the  Cholake  and  the  Lanson  Brook,  the  former  a  tribu- 
tary of  the  West  Dart  and  the  latter  falling  into  the  Blackabrook. 
The  path  will  bring  him  to  Batcheror's  Hall,  whence  the  road  will  lead 
him  past  New  London,  R.,  to  the  highway  on  the  outskirts  of  Prince- 
town.  The  view  from  Bachelor's  Hill  Newtake,  above  New  London, 
is  very  fine.  It  embraces  Mis  Tor,  Maiden  Hill,  Cowsic  Head,  Bear 
Down,  Row  Tor,  Meripit  Hill,  Hameldon,  the  valley  of  the  Dart,  Holne 
Moor,  and  many  other  prominent  objects.] 


EXCURSION    5.       WISTMAN'S    WOOD.  47 


Ex.  5.  Wistman's  Wood — Foxholes — Crow  Tor — Row  Tor — Bear 
Down  Man — Antiquities  on  Conies  Down — The  Cowsic  Valley.  8^-  m. 
from  and  to  Two  Bridges.  FROM  THE  Cowsic  TO  PRINCETOWN  :  Black 
Dunghill — The  Blackabrook — Rundle  Stone.  IF  To  BEAR  DOWN  MAN 
BY  WAY  OF  Crockern  Tor — Littaford  Tors — Longaford  Tor — The  White 
Tors — Brown's  House,  9  m.  IF  BY  WAY  OF  Bear  Down  Clapper — Bear 
Down  Tors — Lydford  Tor,  j\  m.  IF  FROM  AND  TO  PRINCETOWN  (re- 
turning by  Black  Dunghill)  add  ij-  m. 

For  Cut  Hill  see  Ex.  n. 

From  the  southern  edge  of  the  great  fen  hereafter  described 
as  covering  so  much  of  the  N.  quarter  of  the  forest,  two  lofty  ridges, 
each  about  i  m.  in  width,  extend  for  about  3  m.  in  a  southerly  direction , 
and  terminate  at  Two  Bridges.  These  ridges,  which  are  crowned  with 
tors,  forming  prominent  objects  when  viewed  from  the  road  at  Prince- 
town,  are  separated  by  the  valley  of  the  West  Dart.  Along  the  foot 
of  the  Western  ridge  runs  the  Cowsic,  the  other  being  bounded  on  the 
east  for  some  distance  by  the  Cherry  Brook.  The  three  streams  here 
flow  southward,  their  courses  being  roughly  parallel.  The  greater 
part  of  the  western  ridge  and  the  whole  of  the  eastern,  are  now  enclosed 
within  newtake  walls.  Those  who,  some  century  ago,  took  in  these 
large  tracks  of  land — "  improvers  "  they  delighted  to  call  themselves — 
under  grant  from  the  Duchy,  were  careful  to  select  the  best  parts  of 
the  forest,  and  pushed  their  walls  out  to  the  verge  of  the  fen,  thus 
leaving  those  who  possessed  an  undoubted  right  to  the  pasturage 
of  the  moor,  only  the  boggy  parts  of  it.  In  this  excursion  the 
rambler  will  see  much  enclosed  moorland,  and  will  be  able  to  form 
some  idea  of  what  Dartmoor  would  have  been  reduced  to  had  those, 
of  whom  Sir  Thomas  Tyrwhitt  was  the  chief  pioneer,  been  permitted 
to  realize  their  idle  dreams. 

In  the  valley  of  the  West  Dart,  about  ij  m.  above  Two  Bridges, 
is  situated  one  of  the  curiosities  of  Dartmoor.  This  is  Wistman's 
Wood,  and  consists  of  three  small  groves  of  dwarf  oaks  growing  from 
the  midst  of  a  clatter,  and  extending  for  about  -I-  m.  along  the  L.  bank  of 
the  river.  Several  suggestions  as  to  the  derivation  of  the  name  have 
been  made,  one  being  that  it  is  a  corruption  of  the  Celtic  words  uisg 
maen  coed,  signifying  the  stony  wood  by  the  water,  but  there  is  also 
reason  for  believing  the  word  to  be  derived  from  wealas,  meaning 
foreigners,  a  term  applied  by  the  Saxons  to  all  not  of  their  race.  At  all 
events,  the  older  people  living  on  the  moor  used  to  speak  of  this  oak 
grove  as  Welshman's  Wood,  and  it  seems  not  at  all  improbable  that 
Wistman  is  merely  a  corruption  of  this.  Wealasman's  Wood  would 
thus  be  the  wood  of  the  Celts,  regarded  as  foreigners  by  the  Saxon 
settlers.  [Gems,  Chap.  I.] 

The  path  from  Two  Bridges  to  the  wood  lies  through  the  enclosures 


48  PRINCETOWN    AND   TWO   BRIDGES   DISTRICT. 

of  Crockern  Farm,  at  one  time  known  as  Board'n  House,  and  these 
are  entered  at  a  gate  on  the  L.  in  ascending  the  hill  immediately  behind 
the  hotel  (T.  n.)*  No  directions  are  needed,  as  the  path  is  followed 
through  the  enclosures  beyond  which  the  wood  is  seen.  The  oaks 
grow  quite  near  to  the  Dart  amongst  the  rocks  forming  the  clatter,  and 
are  so  dwarfed  that  their  boughs  will  often  be  seen  resting  upon  the 
blocks  of  granite.  The  site  of  the  wood,  a  stone-covered  slope,  seems 
altogether  unsuited  to  the  growth  of  trees,  but  in  reality  it  is  to  the 
presence  of  the  boulders  that  the  oaks  owe  their  preservation.  These 
have  not  only  sheltered  them,  but  have  probably  prevented  their  being 
cut  down  for  fuel  by  the  tinners.  Trunks  and  boughs  are  thickly  coated 
with  moss,  and  consequently  appear  much  larger  than  they  really  are. 
In  1886  the  central  grove  took  fire,  by  what  means  was  never  satis- 
factorily explained,  and  much  damage  was  done.  Time  has,  however, 
healed  the  wound  the  flames  inflicted. 

When  the  belief  was  held  that  the  Druids  once  turned  Dartmoor 
into  one  wide  temple,  Wistman's  Wood  was  regarded  as  being  a  spot 
they  particularly  patronised  ;  indeed,  it  was  said  to  have  obtained  its 
name  from  them,  this  meaning  neither  more  nor  less  than  the  wood 
of  the  wise  men.  The  Druids,  by  the  way,  showed  their  wisdom  by 
cutting  mistletoe  (though  where  they  found  it  on  Dartmoor  it  is  rather 
difficult  to  say)  and  by  making  stones  rock,  end  other  similarly  useful 
acts.  The  valley,  with  its  ruined  hut  dwellings,  its  oak  groves,  and 
the  Dart  perhaps  as  its  oracle,  was  presumably  regarded  as  another 
Dodona.  But  the  Druids  have  gone  now,  and  left  only  snakes  and 
foxes  to  occupy  the  wood.  As  a  holt  for  the  latter  it  probably  serves 
a  much  more  popular  purpose  than  when  it  was  given  over  to  the 
white-jjearded  priests.  Many  a  fox  has  been  bolted  there,  and  one 
game  little  terrier,  who  often  showed  his  prowess  among  the  moss- 
covered  rocks,  now  lies  beneath  one  of  its  aged  trees.  This  is  Jumbo, 
which  belonged  to  Mr.  Sam  Adams,  a  former  Master  of  the  Lamerton 
Hounds.  One  day  in  April,  1 904,  after  being  as  active  as  ever  in  the  field, 
the  game  little  animal  died  suddenly,  and  was  buried  in  the  wood. 

To  reach  the  higher  end  of  the  wood  it  will  be  better  that  we  keep 
on  its  upper  side,  that  is  to  say,  along  its  eastern  verge.  About  50 
paces  above  the  central  grove  is  a  large  triangular-shaped  stone  in  the 
midst  of  the  clatter,  on  which  is  an  inscription  setting  forth  that  a 
tree  was  cut  down  on  this  spot  in  1866  by  Mr.  Wentworth  Buller. 
A  section  of  the  trunk  is  now  in  the  Albert  Memorial  Museum  at 
Exeter. 

About  a  third  of  a  mile  above  the  higher  oak  grove,  which  is  due 
W.  of  Longaford  Tor,  is  Wistman's  Wood  Ford  on  the  Dart,  and  to 
this  we  shall  now  direct  our  steps,  f  On  our  way  we  pass  a  small 
deserted  dwelling,  constructed  of  wood,  once  the  abode  of  a  warrener, 
and  in  which  readers  of  the  River  will  recognise  the  home  of  Nicholas 
Edgecombe.  In  full  view  as  we  descend  towards  the  stream  is  Crow 

*  The  public  right  of  way,  as  already  stated  (T.  n),  is  now 
disputed.  This  is  one  of  the  results  of  the  work  of  the  forest  "  im- 
provers." Board'n  is  equivalent  to  wooden. 

t  Here  the  rambler  passes  over  what  was  formerly  Wistman's 
Warren.  If  he  cannot  cross  the  river  at  the  ford  he  wifl  perhaps  be 
able  to  do  so  at  the  weir  where  the  Devonport  leat  is  taken  from  it. 


50  PRINCETOWN    AND    TWO    BRIDGES    DISTRICT. 

Tor,  placed  on  the  southern  extremity  of  the  hill  peninsulated  by  its 
two  branches.  (Crow  rhymes '.with  now.  See  View  from  North 
Hisworthy).  The  ford  is  situated  about  200  yards  below  the  con- 
fluence, and  it  was  here  that  the  Lich  Path  (T.  18)  crossed  the  Dart. 

The  side  of  the  valley  in  which  Wistman's  Wood  is  situated  is 
included  within  Longaford  Newtake,  the  wall  of  which  is  carried 
along  the  L.  bank  of  the  Dart.  We  shall  find  ourselves  in  Bear  Down 
Newtake,  after  having  crossed  the  river  at,  or  near,  the  ford,  which, 
unless  it  be  in  flood,  is  not  difficult.  Passing  up  the  R.  bank  we 
soon  reach  the  smaller  branch  of  the  Dart  alreadv  referred  to 


FROM   ABOVE   WISTMAN'S   WOOD. 

and  which  is  immediately  without  the  northern  wall  of  the  last- 
named  enclosure.  This  stream  flows  down  from  a  hollow  called 
Dart  Hole,  and  is  sometimes  known  as  the  Foxholes  Water,  and 
also  as  Methern  Brook.  It  forms  the  boundary  between  the  east 
and  west  quarters  of  the  forest,  the  line  running  from  Horse 
Hole  southward  to  Dart  Hole,  and  thence  down  to  the  West  Dart. 
(See  Quarters  in  the  Terms  section).  Just  above  the  confluence  the 
northern  wall  of  Longaford  Newtake  runs  off  in  a  direction  E.  by  N., 
crossing  the  Dart  and  passing  up  the  hill  to  Higher  White  Tor.  At  the 
point  where  this  wall  leaves  the  little  stream  another  will  be  seen 
running  up  the  hill  in  a  direction  N.  by  E.  through  a  clatter,  known  as 
Foxholes.  This  we  follow  up  the  slope  to  Crow  Tor,  about  |  m.  distant, 
not  far  beyond  which  it  terminates.  Many  years  ago  I  learnt  from  one 
whose  memory  carried  him  far  back  into  the  nineteenth  century,  that 
it  was  intended  to  take  in  more  land  here  from  the  forest,  the  example 
of  those  who  had  enclosed  Longaford  and  Bear  Down,  and  the  other 
large  tracts  in  the  vicinity,  presumably  inciting  others  to  follow  in 
their  steps.  Much  of  the  wall  was  built,  but  fortunately  it  was  never 
completed.  The  fragment  at  Crow  Tor  forms  a  part  of  it,  and  another, 
and  larger  part,  is  to  be  seen  near  Row  Tor,  whence  it  runs  down  to  the 
Dart,  and  up  the  hill  in  a  N.  easterly  direction,  for  about  f-  m.,  to  a 
point  not  far  from  Cherry  Brook  Head,  and  then  turns  southward,  and 
is  carried  for  some  little  distance  down  by  the  side  of  that  stream. 
This  part  of  the  enclosure  is  known  as  Wild  Banks  Newtake. 

Crow  Tor  we  shall  find  to  consist  of  several  lumps  of  rock,  one  of 
which,  placed  exactly  on  the  brow  of  the  hill  where  the  latter  drops 


EXCURSION  5.       ROUTE  TO  ROW  TOR.  51 

rather  suddenly  to  the  streams,  is  a  conspicuous  object  from  some  parts 
of  the  lower  valley. 

Less  than  £  m.  almost  due  N.  from  Crow  Tor  is  Row  Tor,  to  which, 
as  it  affords  a  good  view  of  the  moor,  the  rambler  up  this  valley  will  no 
doubt  desire  to  make  his  way.  The  ground  is  good,  and  the  rise  gradual, 
the  tor  being  only  about  150  feet  higher  than  Crow  Tor.  It  is,  how- 
ever, of  considerable  elevation,  being  no  less  than  1,793  feet,  and  is 
seen  standing  up  boldly  from  the  surrounding  moor  from  the  street  at 
Princetown.  The  tor  gives  name  to  that  part  of  the  forest  extending 
a  little  to  the  N.  of  it,  and  a  considerable  distance  to  the  E.  This  is 
known  as  Rowtor,  and  it  abuts  on  Broad  Down,  about  i\  m.  in  the 
latter  direction.  At  that  end  of  it  is  Rowtor  Gate,  hereafter  mentioned 
(T.  1 8,  78),  and  to  a  miry  spot  near  this,  and  a  small  stream  issuing 
from  it,  have  been  given  the  name  of  Rowtor  Marsh,  and  Rowtor  Brook, 
though  I  have  not  heard  them  so  spoken  of  by  the  moormen.  JThe 
latter  is  sometimes  called  Middle  Brook. 

The  name  of  the  tor  became  attached  to  this  area  in  consequence 
of  the  latter  forming  what  was  probably  to  have  been  called  Rowtor 
Farm,  and  of  which  Wild  Banks  Hill  would  have  constituted  a  part. 
Rowtor  Gate  was  the  approach  to  it  from  the  Post  Bridge  district. 
A  ruined  dwelling  (see  post)  stands  within  this  uncompleted  enclosure, 
and  is  now  known  as  Brown's  House. 

Before  proceeding  to  Bear  Down  Man  from  Row  Tor  we  shall 
sketch  the  route  to  the  latter  by  way  of  the  ridge  between  the  West 
Dart  and  the  Cherry  Brook.  This  will  lead  us  first  to  Crockern  Tor, 
which  is  reached  from  the  hotel  at  Two  Bridges  by  following  the 
Moreton  road  for  about  4-  m.  to  Parson's  Cottage,  close  to  which  a  gate 
gives  access  to  the  newtake  in  which  the  tor  is  situated.  The  cottage, 
which  is  now  in  ruins,  was  built  in  the  early  part  of  the  nineteenth 
century  by  the  Rev.  J .  H.  Mason,  Vicar  of  Widecoinbe,  who  held  land 
here  under  a  grant  from  the  Duchy.  It  is  also  known  as  Billy  Clack's 
Cottage,  having  once  been  in  the  occupation  of  the  Rev.  William  Clack, 
a  sporting  parson,  of  Moretonhampstead. 

Crockern  Tor  will  be  seen  on  the  brow  of  the  hill  behind  the  cottage, 
from  which  it  is  distant  only  about  300  yards.  In  itself  it  presents 
nothing  remarkable,  consisting  only  of  a  small  group  of  rocks,  and 
attaining  an  elevation  of  no  more  than  1,295  feet.  But  it  is  one  of 
those  objects  to  which  interest  is  lent  by  its  historic  associations. 
Without  these  it  would  fail  to  appeal  to  the  beholder,  but  viewed  in 
its  connection  with  the  Stannaries  it  at  once  claims  attention.  We 
shall,  however,  defer  our  notice  of  it  until  we  have  finished  our  excur- 
sions in  this  district,  as  it  will  be  more  convenient  to  deal  with  it 
separately. 

Passing  Crockern  Tor  and  proceeding  along  the  ridge  in  a  direction 
a  little  W.  of  N.,  with  the  wall  on  our  R.,  we  shall,  at  the  distance  of 
about  £  m.,  reach  Longaford  Newtake,  just  within  which  are  the  three 
groups  of  rocks  known  as  the  Littaford  Tors,  of  which  mention  is 
elsewhere  made.  (T.  18).  On  a  map  drawn  from  a  survey  made 
at  the  beginning  of  the  last  century,  and  which  was  spoken  of  soon 
after  its  publication  as  being  defective  in  names,  these  groups  of  rocks 
are  marked  as  Little  Bee  Tor,  although  the  name  as  we  have  it  to-day 
was  that  by  which  they  were  then  called  on  the  moor.  In  a  book 
published  in  1832  this  name  occurs,  only  it  is  there  rendered  Littleford. 


52  PRINCETOWN    AND   TWO   BRIDGES   DISTRICT. 

Prom  this  it  seems  probable  that  the  error  on  the  map  occurred  in  the 
transcription  of  the  name,  and  other  mistakes  on  it  may  perhaps  be 
explained  in  the  same  way  ;  or  they  may  in  some  instances  be  due  to  a 
wrong  reading  of  his  copy  by  the  engraver.  This  was  very  likely  the 
case  with  regard  to  Beetor  Cross  (R.  4),  which  is  shown  on  the  map  in 
question  as  Sector  Cross.  But  though  these  errors  are  to  be  deplored, 
they  have  nevertheless  served  one  useful  purpose.  They  have  been 
re-produced  in  more  than  one  book  dealing  with  the  moor,  and  thus 
have  shown  the  Dartmoor  student  that  their  writers  have  not  gathered 
their  information  on  the  spot,  but  have  adopted  the  much  easier  plan 
so  delightfully  described  by  Captain  Marryat  in  his  article  on  writing 
a  book  of  travels. 

Passing  the  northernmost  of  the  Littaford  Tors,  we  make  our  way 
to  Longaford  Tor,  less  than  £  m.  distant,  with  the  Dart  valley  on  our 
L.,  and  the  great  dun  slope  that  stretches  away  to  the  Cherry  Brook 
on  our  R.  The  rambler  will  do  well  to  ascend  Longaford,  which 
attains  an  elevation  of  1,595  feet,  for  the  view  from  it  is  exceedingly 
fine.  The  pile  is  rather  different  in  character  from  most  of  the  tors  on 
the  moor,  consisting  not  of  rocks  alone,  but  of  rocks  and  turf,  and  is 
thus  very  easy  of  ascent.  It  is  somewhat  of  a  conical  form,  and  a 
conspicuous  object  in  all  those  parts  of  the  moor  centring  round  what 
we  have  called  the  Great  Central  Depression.  (See  Situation  and 
Extent,  etc.)  From  Cut  Hill  it  at  once  arrests  the  attention  of  the 
beholder  who  looks  down  upon  the  valley  of  the  West  Dart  by  its 
striking  form,  though  it  is  400  feet  lower  than  that  eminence. 
Cut  Hill  is  seen  rising  against  the  sky  in  a  direction  about  N.N.W. 
(Ex.  ii). 

The  next  pile  on  this  ridge  is  Higher  White  Tor,  or  Whitten  Tor, 
as  it  is  usually  called,  and  which,  like  Longaford,  is  also  a  conspicuous 
object.  It  is  of  greater  elevation  than  that  tor,  being  placed  on  the 
highest  part  of  the  ridge,  which  is  here  1,712  feet  high.  Its  distance 
from  Longaford  is  about  the  same  as  the  distance  of  that  tor  from  the 
nearest  of  the  Littaford  group.  To  this  pile  we  make  our  way,  and 
thence  to  a  gate  in  the  northern  wall  of  the  newtake,  a  short  distance 
due  N.  of  which  is  Lower  White  Tor. 

The  masses  of  rock  so  named  are  placed  upon  the  brow  of  a  steep 
declivity  forming  the  western  side  of  Hollowcombe  Bottom.  The  tor 
is  interesting  as  being  the  point  where  a  reave  of  stone  and  turf,  which 
may  be  traced  for  some  distance  eastward,  has  its  termination.  This 
is  noticed  in  the  Excursions  in  the  Post  Bridge  District.  (Ex.  46). 

Leaving  Lower  White  Tor  we  turn  our  steps  in  a  north-westerly 
direction,  or,  to  be  more  precise,  N.W.  by  N.,  and  crossing  a  slight 
depression  in  the  side  of  the  hill  shall  reach  Brown's  House,  which  is 
about  •§•  m.  distant.  The  situation  of  this  ruined  dwelling  is  such  as 
would  certainly  satisf}'  the  greatest  lover  of  solitude.  From  what  I 
have  been  able  to  gather  it  never  became  what  its  builder  intended  it 
to  be.  As  we  have  already  seen,  the  work  of  enclosing  the  land  around 
it  was  never  completed,  and  consequently,  instead  of  becoming  the 
home  of  a  settler,  it  was  suffered  to  fall  to  decay. 

Across  the  valley  of  the  Dart,  and  in  full  view,  is  Row  Tor,  and  to 
this  we  now  make  our  way  direct.  Should  the  river  prevent  the  visitor 
striking  a  beeline  it  must  be  followed  upward  for  a  short  distance, 
when  a  means  of  crossing  it  by  the  natural  stepping-stones  will  no 


EXCURSION   5.       BEAR    DOWN   MAN.  53 

doubt  present  itself.     The  distance  from  Brown's  House  to  the  tor  is 
rather  over  4-  m. 

We  have  already  stated  that  Row  Tor  is  a  prominent  object  in  , 
the  view  from  several  points  in  this  part  of  the  moor.  It  does  not 
greatly  exceed  in  elevation  the  stretches  of  heath  surrounding  it, 
except  on  one  side  where  the  ground  drops  some  200  feet  to  the  Dart, 
but  the  form  of  the  hill  renders  it  conspicuous.  The  rocks  of  the  tor 
are  disposed  in  a  form  approaching  that  of  an  oval,  and  enclose  a  small 
area.  Almost  due  W.  of  the  tor,  and  less  than  4-  m.  from  it,  are  the 
springs  of  Summer  Brook,  a  feeder  of  the  Dart,  which  pursues  a  course 
directly  opposite  to  that  of  the  river  into  which  it  falls.  Just  below 
its  source,  and  near  its  L.  bank,  is  the  bottom  known  as  Horse  Hole, 
where  is  the  junction  of  the  north,  west,  and  east  quarters  of  the  forest, 
as  hereafter  mentioned.  (See  Quarters  in  Terms  section).  This  is  about 
4;  m.  N.  W.  of  Row  Tor.  A  short  distance  to  the  N.  of  it  is  Summer 
Hill,  on  which  are  some  rocks  known  as  Flat  Tor,  but  they  present 
nothing  remarkable.  Still  further  N.  is  West  Dart  Head,  distant,  if 
the  line  via  Crow  Tor  be  followed,  about  2  m.  from  the  ford  above 
Wistman's  Wood,  or  4  m.  from  Two  Bridges. 

Bear  Down  Man  is  a  little  over  4;  m.  from  Row  Tor  in  a  south- 
westerly direction.  Our  way  thither  will  lead  us  across  a  part  of 
Methern  Hill  with  Dart  Hole  on  our  left.  The  menhir  is  quite  close 
to  Devil's  Tor,  which  does  not  consist  of  piles  of  granite,  but  merely 
of  flat  rocks  scattered  about  the  hill.  Although  it  bears  a  name  sug- 
gestive of  some  tradition  I  have  never  been  able  to  gather  any  in 
connection  with  it.  It  was  the  opinion  of  one  moorman  whom  I 
consulted  that  the  pillar  represented  the  Devil,  and  that  the  tor,  which 
can  hardly  be  truly  regarded  as  such,  "  was  plenty  good  enough  vur 
he." 

Man  is,  of  course,  the  Celtic  maen,  stone,  and  the  word  is  found 
so  corrupted  in  all  parts  of  the  country.  The  pillar  is  nearly  1 1  feet 
high,  and  about  8  feet  in  girth. 

Horse  Hole  is  about  \  m.  N.N.E.  of  Bear  Down  Man,  and  Cowsic 
Head  4-  m.  N.N.W.  The  course  of  the  Cowsic  is  at  first  almost  due  S., 
and  the  Walkham,  a  little  over  i  m.  to  the  W.,  runs  parallel  to  it. 
Between  the  springs  of  the  Cowsic  and  Spriddle  Lake,  W.,  is  Maiden 
Hill,  1,774  feet,  and  southward  of  this  is  Conies  Down,  which  is  pro- 
bably the  Condyshull  of  a  fourteenth  century  document.  The  Lich 
Path  (T.  1 8)  runs  along  the  southern  verge  of  this.  Rather  over 
4  m.  due  N.  of  Cowsic  Head  are  the  upper  waters  of  the  Tavy,  and 
between  the  two  the  ground  is  very  heavy,  this  being  the  southern 
edge  of  the  great  fen  that  extends  northward  to  Ockment  Hill. 

The  rain  gauges  seen  in  this  part  of  the  moor  are  in  connection 
with  the  Devonport  Water  Supply. 

[Should  the  visitor  desire  to  make  his  way  direct  to  Bear  Down 
Man  from  the  ford  on  the  Dart  above  Wistman's  Wood,  he  will  follow 
the  Methern  Brook  for  about  J-  m.,  keeping  it  on  his  R.  Then,  leaving 
it,  he  will  pursue  the  same  course,  i.e.,  N.W.,  up  the  hill,  and  will  soon 
reach  his  objective.] 

On  leaving  Bear  Down  Man  we  shall  strike  S.W.  to  the  Cowsic, 
which  we  cross,  and  make  our  way  down  the  stream  with  Conies  Down 
Tor  (T.  1 8)  on  our  R.  Just  below  this  is  a  group  of  hut  circles,  and 
J  of  a  mile  to  the  W.  a  double  stone  row,  but  the  stones  of  the  latter 


54  PRINCETOWN    AND    TWO    BRIDGES    DISTRICT. 

are  not  very  large.  It  is  close  to  the  L/ich  Path,  and  extends  for  a 
distance  of  about  350  feet,  running  nearly  N.  and  S.  Not  far  from  the 
•  southern  end  of  it  are  what  appear  to  be  the  remains  of  a  small  cairn, 
probably  despoiled  by  the  builders  of  the  Bear  Down  enclosures, 
which  are  not  far  off.  A  little  way  below  the  hut  circles  is  Travellers' 
Ford,  where  the  Lich  Path  (T.  18)  crosses  the  Cowsic,  and  if,  on 
reaching  this  old  track,  we  follow  it  for  a  short  distance  towards  the 
W.,  we  shall  observe  the  row  on  the  R.,  or  northern,  side  of  it. 

Continuing  on  our  way  down  the  stream  we  soon  arrive  at  Cowsic 
Fork,  which  is  just  below  the  ford.  The  branch  which  comes  from  the 
N.W.  rises  close  to  the  Lich  Path,  and  is  sometimes  known  as  the 
Conies'  Down  Water.  The  Cowsic  here  runs  through  a  deep  hollow, 
called  Broad  Hole,  where,  in  the  year  1831,  the  remains  of  an 
oak  were  discovered  in  the  bank.  When  dug  out  the  tree  was 
found  to  consist  of  the  trunk,  with  a  part  of  the  root  and  a  branch,  and 
was  thought  to  be  larger  than  any  of  those  in  Wistman's  Wood.  In 
Broad  Hole  is  Bear  Down  Newtake  Corner,  where  the  northern  wall 
joins  the  western  one.  The  former  runs  up  the  hill  eastward,  and 
passing  close  to  Lydford  Tor  is  carried  to  the  West  Dart,  which  it 
reaches  near  the  confluence  under  Crow  Tor,  as  we  have  already  seen. 
A  few  hundred  yards  below  the  corner  the  western  wall  leaves  the 
eastern  for  the  western  bank  of  the  stream,  so  as  to  include  this  part 
of  the  Cowsic  within  the  Bear  Down  enclosures.  Passing  down  through 
Broad  Hole  we  soon  after  cross  a  small  tributary  rivulet,  and  find  our- 
selves on  the  eastern  edge  of  Holming  Beam,  or,  as  the  name  is  now 
often  rendered,  Omen  Beam.  This  comprehends  that  part  of  the  moor 
lying  between  the  Cowsic  and  the  upper  waters  of  the  Blackabrook. 
A  considerable  portion  of  it  is  now  included  in  that  part  of  the  prison 
enclosures  to  which  the  name  of  the  New  Forest  has  been  given.  Holm- 
ing  Beam  is  noted  for  the  abundance  of  its  whortleberry  plants,  and  has 
long  been  a  favourite  place  with  the  gatherers  of  that  fruit.  Old  mine 
workings  exist  here,  as  the  name  would  indicate,  and  much  peat  was 
formerly  cut  near  the  Blackabrook.  About  i  in.  below  the  Bear  Down 
Newtake  Corner  the  wall  is  carried  to  the  eastern  bank  of  the  Cowsic, 
and  very  near  to  this  point  the  Devonport  leat  crosses  that  stream. 
Making  our  way  southward  with  the  leat  and  the  river  on  our  L.,  and 
the  prison  enclosures  on  our  R.,  we  reach  the  Tavistock  road  at  a  point 
\  m.  W.  of  Two  Bridges,  and  exactly  2  m.  from  Travellers'  Ford. 

This  excursion  will  be  found  particularly  interesting,  and  will 
enable  the  visitor  to  gain  a  good  idea  of  the  upper  valley  of  the  West 
Dart  as  well  as  of  the  Cowsic  valley.  To  reach  Bear  Down  Man  by 
way  of  the  latter  it  will,  of  course,  only  be  necessary  to  follow  the 
stream  upward,  and  cross  it  at,  or  above,  Travellers'  Ford. 

[If  our  destination  be  Princetown  we  leave  the  Cowsic  just  where 
the  Bear  Down  wall  is  brought  across  it,  near  the  lower  ned  of  Broad 
Hole,  and  climbing  the  steep  on  the  R.,  make  our  way  to  Black  Dung- 
hill, the  summit  of  which  (1,615  feet)  is  a  little  over  |  m.  distant,  in  a 
direction  S.W.  by  W.  A  quarter  mile  beyond  this  we  reach  a  track 
(T.  12),  and  this  we  follow  southward  with  the  Blackabrook  on  our  R. 
Soon  we  arrive  at  the  wall  of  the  New  Forest  Prison  enclosures,  and 
entering  them  shall  cross  the  stream.  Still  following  the  track  we  shall 
pass  Fitz's  Well  (Ex.  6),  and  speedily  reach  the  high  road  a  short 
distance  from  Rundle  Stone  (Ex.  i,  6).  When  the  convicts  are  at  work 


EXCURSION  5.     ROCKS  IN  THE  COWSIC.     BEAR  DOWN.     55 

in  the  enclosures  here  it  is  very  likely  that  the  visitor  will  not  be  allowed 
to  pass  this  way.  In  that  case  he  will  turn  R.  on  reaching  the  wall, 
and  follow  it  up  the  hill  to  the  corner,  near  Little  Mis  Tor  (Ex.  6). 
Here  he  will  turn  L.,  and  still  keeping  close  to  the  wall  will,  at  the 
distance  of  i  m.,  reach  Rundle  Stone.  (Ex.  i,  6)  ] 

Another  route  to  Bear  Down  Man  from  Two  Bridges  is  by  way  of 
Bear  Down  Hill.  The  distance  from  the  hotel  is  3^  m.  On  leaving 
the  latter  the  visitor  follows  the  Tavistock  road,  and  just  after  passing 
the  entrance  to  Bear  Down  Lodge  will  reach  a  gate  on  the  R.,  where 
a  road  leads  direct  to  Bear  Down  Farm.  The  bridge  over  the  Cowsic 
takes  the  place  of  one  erected  by  Mr.  Edward  Bray,  the  encloser  of  the 
farm,  and  who  died  in  1816.  This  was  swept  away  in  the  great  flood  of 
July,  1890.  Some  of  the  rocks  in  the  bed  of  the  stream  near  here,  and 
on  its  bank,  bear  inscriptions.  These  are  the  work  of  Mr.  Bray's  son, 
afterwards  Vicar  of  Tavistock,  who,  presumably  lamenting  the  absence 
of  the  Druids,  and  the  stir  and  bustle  consequent  upon  their  frantic 
endeavours  to  discover  mistletoe  on  Dartmoor,  conceived  the  idea  of 
consecrating  the  rocks  in  this  part  of  the  valley  to  Theocritus  and 
Virgil,  and  to  British  bards,  and  suitably  inscribing  them,  and  thus,  as 
he  says,  "  give  more  animation  to  the  scene."  His  method  of  proceeding 
was  to  trace  the  letters  on  the  stone  with  a  paint  brush,  and  then  get 
them  cut  by  a  labourer  with  a  pick.  It  is  fortunate  that  he  recorded 
what  he  had  done,  for  had  this  been  omitted  he  would  have  caused  no 
end  of  trouble.  The  speculations  of  the  antiquaries  upon  the  work  of 
Mr.  William  Stumps  would  have  been  as  nothing  compared  to  the 
theories  that  would  have  been  advanced  by  the  modern  Dryasdusts. 
In  sparing  us  these  Mr.  Bray  has  proved  more  fortunate  than  in  his 
endeavours  to  impart  "  animation  "  to  the  district. 

A  very  short  distance  above  the  bridge,  and  in  the  beautiful  dell 
that  renders  this  part  of  the  Cowsic  so  charming,  is  an  interesting 
clapper.  It  was  swept  away  in  1873,  but  the  stones  were  afterwards 
replaced,  and  some  of  them  secured  with  iron  clamps.  In  1890  it  was 
again  partly  destroyed  by  the  flood  that  did  so  much  damage  in  this 
part  of  the  moor,  and  was  then  rebuilt  by  the  Dartmoor  Preservation 
Association.  Its  length  is  about  37  feet,  and  its  breadth  rather  less 
than  4  feet,  while  its  height  above  the  stream  is  3^  feet.  There  are 
five  openings. 

Ascending  the  hill  we  soon  reach  the  farmhouse,  where  we  shall 
be  readily  accorded  permission  to  pass  up  through  the  enclosures. 
Above  the  house  is  the  Devonport  leat,  here  crossed  by  foot  bridges, 
and  just  beyond  that  is  the  great  bare  hill.  Our  first  point  is  the 
chief  of  the  Bear  Down  Tors,  which  is  exactly  i  m.  distant  from  the 
spot  at  which  we  cross  the  leat,  and  in  a  direction  almost  due  N.  On 
a  small  map  in  Bellamy's  Natural  History  of  South  Devon  (published 
in  1839),  illustrative  of  the  zoology  of  Dartmoor,  Bear  Down  is  shown 
as  the  principal  station  of  the  stone-chat.  Whether  this  bird  is  now 
to  be  observed  in  greater  numbers  here  than  in  any  other  part  of  the 
moor  I  cannot  say,  but  so  far  as  I  have  been  able  to  discover  they  are 
as  plentiful  on  Lakehead  Hill,  between  the  Cherry  Brook  and  Post 
Bridge,  as  anywhere.  Two-thirds  of  a  mile  from  the  leat  we  reach 
the  outer,  or  northern,  Bear  Down  Newtake,  within  which  the  tors 
are  situated.  They  consist  of  a  group  of  four,  the  southernmost  being 
the  smallest.  Very  near  to  it  is  the  principal  pile,  which  rises  to  a 


56  PRINCETOWN    AND    TWO    BRIDGES    DISTRICT. 

height  of  i, 68 1  feet,  and  forms  a  conspicuous  object  from  many  of 
the  hills  in  the  surrounding  parts  of  the  forest.  Viewed  from  a  distance 
from  any  point  from  N.E.  to  S.E.,  it  presents  the  appearance  of  a  huge 
cairn,  with  a  small  conical  pile  in  the  centre  of  it.  This  is  especially 
noticeable  from  the  slope  of  the  hill  above  Broad  Marsh  (Ex.  46)  on 
the  East  Dart,  and  from  the  high  ground  round  Aune  Head  (Ex.  43). 
Another  of  the  tors  is  placed  on  the  brow  of  the  hill  nearer  the  West 
Dart,  and  the  fourth  is  a  short  distance  northward  of  this.  Lydford 
Tor,  which  is  the  last  we  shall  pass,  is  about  |-  m.  N.W.  of  the  latter, 
or  less  than  \  m.  N.  by  W.  of  the  chief  of  the  group.  As  already  stated, 
the  northern  wall  of  the  Bear  Down  enclosures  passes  close  to  Lydford 
Tor  as  it  runs  across  the  hill  from  the  Cowsic  to  the  West  Dart. 

In  the  Rev.  E.  A.  Bray's  journal  mention  is  several  times  made 
of  Hannaford,  who  was  his  tenant  at  Bear  Down.  From  his  two 
grandsons  I  have  been  able  to  learn  something  respecting  him.  His 
Christian  name  was  John,  and  he  was  the  father  of  James  Hannaford, 
who  lived  for  so  many  years  at  Headland  Warren  (Ex.  22).  John 
Hannaford,  it  appears,  built  a  great  part  of  the  newtake  wall  at  Bear 
Down,  but  for  some  reason  that  I  could  never  discover,  was  unable  to 
obtain  payment  for  his  work.  Having  spent  a  considerable  sum  upon 
it  the  loss  so  crippled  him  that  he  was  compelled  to  relinquish  the 
farm.  He  was  buried  at  Mary  Tavy. 

Bear  Down  Man  is  rather  under  a  mile  from  Lydford  Tor,  and  lies 
a  little  W.  of  N.  Our  way  thither  will  take  us  over  gently  rising 
ground,  with  Dart  Hole  to  the  E.  and  the  Cowsic  to  the  W.  The 
return  to  Two  Bridges  may  be  made  by  way  of  the  Cowsic  Valley,  as 
already  described,  or  by  the  valley  of  the  West  Dart.  As  the  latter 
route  has  been  given  from  Two  Bridges  to  the  menhir,  the  objects 
named  in  it  must,  of  course,  be  looked  for  conversely  as  the  rambler 
makes  his  way  to  the  former.  In  a  similar  manner  he  will  be  able  to 
vary  any  of  the  excursions  here  described. 

Several  objects,  indicative  of  a  prehistoric  and  medieval  popu- 
lation, have  been  discovered  in  the  vicinity  of  Two  Bridges.  Fhnt 
flakes  and  chips  have  been  found  near  the  bridge,  as  well  as  in  Lower 
Watern  Newtake  (Ex.  4),  at  Crockern  Farm,  and  in  the  track  leading 
to  it.  John  Hannaford,  the  occupant  of  Bear  Down,  told  Mr.  Bray 
in  1827  that  his  uncle  had  found  silver  coins  about  the  size  of  a  sixpence 
in  some  of  the  cairns  on  the  moor,  and  that  he  himself  had  found 
human  hair  in  a  kistvaen  that  he  had  destroyed.  Hannaford,  by  the 
way,  was,  on  his  own  confession,  guilty  of  many  acts  of  vandalism,  a 
statement  that  will  perhaps  incline  some  to  think  that  since  he  was 
so  prone  to  interfere  with  the  erections  of  others  he  was  justly  re- 
warded by  the  failure  of  his  own  building  operations.  Some  human 
bones  are  also  said  to  have  been  found  near  the  road  under  Bear  Down 
Farm.  In  a  kist  not  far  from  the  same  place,  which  Mr.  Bray  opened 
in  1832,  a  small  fragment  of  pottery  of  coarse  texture  was  found. 
Some  oak  bowls  were  dug  up  many  years  ago  in  that  part  of  the  moor 
lying  between  the  Moreton  and  Ashburton  roads,  and  which  is  now 
enclosed  and  known  as  Muddy  Lakes  Newtake.  In  Gawler  Bottom, 
much  nearer  Post  Bridge  (Ex.  46),  an  oak  bowl  was  also  found  about 
the  year  1891.  These  were  probably  used  for  measuring  tin. 
In  February,  1905,  Mr.  F.  Rounsfell,  when  raising  stone  for  road 
mending  a  little  to  the  E.  of  Parson's  Cottage  in  the  newtake  below 


EXCURSION   6.       RUNDLE  STONE. 


57 


Crockern  Tor,  found,  a  stone  axe-hammer  head.  While  engaged  in 
his  work  he  came  upon  a  flat  stone  about  18  inches  square,  just  below 
the  surface,  and  on  breaking  this  up  discovered  the  implement  beneath 
it.  In  the  centre  of  it  was  a  neat  perforation  for  the  reception  of  a 
wooden  handle.  It  had  been  ground  and  polished,  and  one  end  was 
fashioned  as  a  celt,  with  a  cutting  edge,  and  the  other  as  a  hammer. 
Its  weight  was  i  pound  9  ounces. 

[For  the  route  to  Cut  Hill  from  Princetown  or  Two  Bridges  see 
Ex.  ii.] 


Ex.  6. — Rundle  Stone — Great  Mis  Tor — Greena  Ball — The  Walk- 
ham — The  Blackabrook — Holming  Beam — Fitz's  Well.  About  yf  m., 
Princetown.  Two  Bridges  add  about  i  m.  EXTENSION  To  Sandy  Ford, 
the  Lich  Path,  and  the  Cowsic. 

To  Fitz's  Well  direct  (return)  4^  m. 


Black 
Dunghill. 


Maiden  Hill 

Conies  Down 

Tor. 


FROM   ROAD   ABOUT    IOO   YARDS   S.    OF   RUNDI,E  STONE. 


If  our  starting-point  is  Princetown  we  take  the  road  running  past 
the  church  and  the  prison  to  Rundle  Stone,  and  if  we  set  out  from  Two 
Bridges  we  follow  the  Tavistock  road  to  the  same  spot.  As  we  have 
already  spoken  of  the  Rundle  Stone  (Ex.  i ),  there  will  be  little  to  detain 
us  now.  The  destruction  of  the  monolith  is  greatly  to  be  deplored, 
for,  though  we  hear  nothing  of  it  until  1702,  it  is  highly  probable 
that  it  was  standing  long  prior  to  that  time.  It  was  one  of  the  few 
objects  set  up  on  the  forest  boundary  line,  most  of  those  by  which  it 
is  marked  being  natural  ones.  The  house  near  by,  on  the  R.  as  we 
reach  Rundle  Stone  Corner  from  Princetown,  was  formerly  an  inn, 
and  near  here  at  one  time  there  was  a  gate  across  the  road.  Several 
years  ago  the  house  was  greatly  damaged  by  lightning. 


58  PRINCETOWN    AND    TWO    BRIDGES    DISTRICT. 

Proceeding  a  short  distance  on  the  Tavistock  road  we  take  the 
first  turning  on  the  R.  and  make  our  way  towards  Mount  View,  a 
house  which  stands  not  far  from  the  highway.  After  passing  some 
enclosures  beyond  this  we  emerge  upon  the  common  with  the  wall  of 
the  New  Forest  Prison  ground  (Ex.  5)  on  our  R.  This  wall  is  built 
just  within  the  forest  bounds,  and  our  way  lies  along  by  it.  On  our 
L.  is  that  part  of  Walkhampton  Common  which,  together  with  a 
tract  on  our  R.,  formerly  bore  the  name  of  Mis  Tor  Moor.  It  is  spoken 
of  as  such  by  the  jurors  who  surveyed  the  bounds  of  the  forest  in  1609, 
but  is  seldom  so  referred  to  now.  Ancient  workings  extend  from  near 
Rundle  Stone  to  the  Walkham,  and  in  close  proximity  to  these  are  a 
number  of  hut  circles  and  some  small  pounds  The  latter  are  on  the 
side  of  the  hill  below  Wain  Tor,  or  Little  Mis  Tor,  and  almost  due  W. 
of  it.  This  Tor  will  be  seen  a  little  to  the  L.  just  before  we  reach  the 
corner  of  the  prison  enclosure  (Ex.  5).  Though  not  of  great  size, 
Wain  Tor  is  a  conspicuous  object  from  many  points,  owing  to  its 
situation,  and  square,  compact  form. 

Passing  upward,  and  still  pursuing  the  same  course  we  have  been 
following  from  Rundle  Stone,  we  speedily  reach  Great  Mis  Tor,  one  of 
the  grandest  of  the  rocky  crowns  of  the  moor.  From  whichever  side 
it  is  seen  it  presents  an  imposing  appearance,  but  the  best  view  of  it  is 
probably  that  obtained  from  near  Merivale  Bridge.  It  is  also  seen  to 
great  advantage  from  Langstone  Moor  (Ex.  8),  while  from  Roborough 
Down  the  grouping  of  this  fine  pile,  with  Roose  Tor  and  Staple  Tor 
and  Cocks'  Tor  Hill,  presents  all  the  appearance  of  a  mountain  chain. 
The  view  from  the  tor  is  extensive  and  varied.  On  one  side  is  seen 
the  whole  of  West  and  North- West  Devon,  and  much  of  the  eastern 
part  of  Cornwall.  Away  to  the  south  is  Mount  Edgcumbe,  and  the 
Tamar  at  Saltash,  with  the  masterpiece  of  Brunei  which  spans  it. 
Thence  ranging  northward  the  eye  lights  upon  the  hills  of  "  rocky 
Cornewaile,"  and  the  tors  that  rise  from  the  midst  of  King  Arthur's 


LOOKING   N.N.E.    FROM   MIS   TOR. 

Land.  On  the  other  hand,  we  look  into  the  great  moor  we  are  per- 
ambulating, and  see  much  of  the  old-time  hunting-ground,  and  if  we 
have  learnt  to  recognise  the  forms  of  the  chief  of  its  tors  from  the  lofty 
summit  of  North  Hisworthy,  we  shall  here  see  many  that  are  known 
to  us.  Westward  of  the  Walkham  are  several  fine  piles,  which  are 


EXCURSION    6.       IVIES    TOR. 


59 


noticed  in  the  excursions  from  Tavistock.  The  one  nearest  to  us,  in  a 
direction  W.  bv  S.,  is  Roose  Tor  ;  southward  of  that  is  Great  Staple 
Tor,  and  beyond  them  the  rounded  Cocks'  Tor  Hill  (Ex.  8).  To  the 
N.W.,  and  on  the  further  side  of  Langstone  Moor,  is  another  pile. 
This  is  White  Tor  (Ex.  8),  or  Whittor,  as  it  is  more  often  called,  and 
beyond  it  i»  the  valley  of  the  Tavy.  The  stone  circle  on  Langstone 
Moor,  noticed  in  Ex.  8,  is  not  very  far  from  Mis  Tor,  and  when  the 
river  can  be  crossed  may  readily  be  reached  from  it.  It  is  about  £  m. 
from  the  Walkham,  and  N.N.W.  of  the  tor.  Should  the  visitor  decide 
to  include  this  object  in  the  present  ramble  he  may,  after  having 
examined  it,  make  his  way  to  the  point  we  shall  presently  reach,  by 
following  the  Walkham  and  crossing  it  at  Shallow  Ford.  Or  he  may 
return  to  the  Rundle  Stone  by  way  of  Men  vale,  first  visiting  Roose  Tor 
and  Staple  Tor  (Ex.  8),  and  then  descending  to  the  hamlet. 

The  meaning  of  the  name  of  this  tor  is  not  apparent.     The  sug- 
gestion concerning  it  offered  in  the  days  when  the  Druidic  theory  was 


LOOKING   N.E.    FROM   MIS   TOR. 

rife,  is  not  worth  consideration.  The  tor  was  known  as  Mystor,  or 
Mistorr,  in  the  thirteenth  century,  and  is  mentioned  during  succeeding 
centuries  in  documents  relating  to  the  forest. 

As  elsewhere  stated  (see  Bondmark  in  the  Terms  section)  the 
boundary  line  between  the  forest  and  its  purlieus  seems  to  have  been 
drawn  through  the  tor,  so  that  part  of  the  pile  was  within  the  royal 
hunting-ground  and  part  without.  In  the  survey  of  1609  the  bond- 
mark  is  specified  as  "  a  rocke  called  Mistorrpan,"  and  this  name  also 
occurs  more  than  300  years  earlier  in  the  deed  of  Isabella  referred  to 
below.  Mis  Tor  Pan  is  undoubtedly  the  large  rock-basin  on  the  mass 
of  granite  forming  the  southern  part  of  the  pile,  and  yet  by  some  strange 
mistake  the  name  has  been  affixed  in  the  Ordnance  Maps  to  Mis  Tor 
Marsh,  some  third  of  a  mile  to  the  N.E.  of  the  tor.  That  this  should  be 
corrected  is  important,  as  the  forest  boundary  is  expressly  stated  in  the 
deed  above  referred  to  to  be  drawn  from  Mistorpanna,  and  if  this  be 
identified  with  the  marsh  the  forest  line  is  thrown  considerably  back. 
But  the  rock  is  evidently  meant,  and  as  we  have  seen,  was  specially 
mentioned  as  Mistorrpan  in  1609.  By  this  name  also  was  the  rock 
known  to  the  peasantry  early  in  the  nineteenth  century,  and  has  con- 
tinued to  be  so  called.  The  basin  is  a  very  fine  example.  It  is  about 


Oo  PRINCETOWN    AND    TWO    BRIDGES    DISTRICT. 

3  feet  in  diameter,  and  8  inches  in  depth  ;  the  bottom  is  flat,  and  there 
is  a  small  channel  leading  from  it  to  the  edge  of  the  rock. 

But  the  basin  also  bears  another  name.  It  is  sometimes  referred 
to  as  the  Devil's  Frying-pan,  and  several  stories  are  related  in  con- 
nection with  it  in  which  the  Evil  One  figures. 

As  we  have  already  seen,  the  forest  boundary  is  drawn  from  North 
Hisworthy  Tor  to  Mis  Tor.  Looking  southward  towards  the  former 
we  have  the  forest  on  the  L,.  of  an  imaginary  line  running  from  one  to 
the  other,  and  Walkhampton  Common,  as  previously  mentioned,  on 
the  R.  The  latter  formed  part  of  the  lands  given  by  Amicia  of  Clare, 
Countess  of  Devon,  in  1280,  to  found  the  Abbey  of  the  Blessed  Mary 
and  Benedict  of  Buckland.  The  gift  was  afterwards  confirmed  (in 
1 291)  by  her  daughter,  Isabella  de  Fortibus,  Countess  of  Albemarle 
and  Devon,  and  Lady  of  the  Isle  of  Wight.  Isabella  was  left  a  widow 
at  the  age  of  23,  and  two  years  after  succeeded  to  the  possessions  of 
her  father,  Baldwin  de  Redvers,  her  brother  dying  without  heir  male, 
and  thus  became  the  richest  heiress  of  her  time.  Among  these  pos- 
sions  was  included  the  Isle  of  Wight,  the  lordship  of  which  had  been 
bestowed  upon  Richard  de  Redvers  by  Henry  I.  She  died  in  1303, 
and  on  her  deathbed  sold  the  island  to  Edward  I.  for  6,000  marks. 
With  her  the  line  of  De  Redvers  became  extinct,  and  many  of  the 
estates  passed  to  the  Courtenays. 

Another  considerable  tract  of  land  on  Dartmoor,  forming  part  of 
the  Chase  of  Okehampton,  was  also  held  by  the  De  Redvers.  (Oke- 
hampton  District).  It  is  not  a  little  curious  that  in  the  names  of  these 
commons  the  termination  Hampton  appears,  and  yet  is  found  nowhere 
else  on  the  moor,  or  in  the  border  parishes.  Many  of  the  names  of  the 
latter  exhibit  the  oft-found  Saxon  termination  ton,  though  in  more 
than  one  instance  the  word  is  apparently  traceable  to  the  Celtic  dun, 
a  hill,  the  heavy  sound  of  the  initial  letter  having  given  place  to  a 
lighter  one.  But  hampton  is  found  only  in  Walkhampton  and  Oke- 
hampton— locally  pronounced  Wackinton  and  Ockinton — though  in 
neither  does  the  word  seem  to  possess  its  usual  signification.  It  would, 
however,  be  unsafe  to  conclude  that  it  does  not.  Ham  and  ton  may, 
together,  be  taken  to  mean  a  farm,  or  enclosed  land,  with  its  dwelling- 
house  and  outbuildings,  the  house  town,  as  it  were,  and  the  term  came 
to  signify  an  inhabitated  settlement.  In  Walkhampton  the  second 
syllable  does  not  appear  to  have  any  connection  with  the  third,  but 
only  with  the  first,  the  name  being  derived,  we  may  reasonably  suppose, 
from  the  river  Walkham.  Risdon,  writing  early  in  the  seventeenth 
century,  calls  this  river  the  Store  [Gems,  Chap.  XXI.],  but  even  if  it 
were  then  so  known,  it  is  certain  that  at  a  much  earlier  time  it  bore  a 
name  closely  resembling  the  one  by  which  it  is  called  to-day,  being 
referred  to  as  the  Walkamp  in  the  deed  of  Isabella  de  Fortibus.  Thus, 
Walkhampton  would  mean  the  town,  or  settlement,  on  the  Walkham, 
if  we  could  be  sure  that  the  deed  gave  us  the  earliest  form  of  the  name  of 
the  river.  But  this  is  doubtful.  There  are  many  Dartmoor  streams 
bearing  the  name  of  Walla,  or  Wella,  and  one  that  of  Wollake,  and  I 
should  be  inclined  to  place  Walkham  in  the  same  category,  and  to 
regard  its  early  name  to  have  been  either  Walla  or  Wollake.  In 
Saxon  times  the  settlement  on  the  stream  would  be  called  Walla- 
hampton,  or  Wollakhampton,  and  by  an  easy  transition  Walkhampton. 
But  it  is  also  very  probable  that  we  do  not  see  the  word  ham  in  this 


EXCURSION  6.     THE  HANGING   ROCK.     FITZ'S  WELL.       61 

name  at  all ;  that  the  early  name  of  the  river  was  the  Walla,  and  that 
Walkhampton  is  Walla  cwm  ton,  the  town  in  the  combe,  or  valley,  of 
the  Walla.  (Gems,  Chap.  XXI.) 

Leaving  Mis  Tor  and  its  interesting  traditionary  and  historic 
associations  we  shall  make  our  way  down  the  hill  to  the  Walkham,  our 
course  being  a  little  E.  of  N.,  thus  following  in  the  footsteps  of  the  old 
perambulators.  On  our  R.  is  Mis  Tor  Marsh,  already  mentioned, 
where  the  ground  drops  towards  the  Prison  Leat.  About  ^  m.  from 
the  tor  we  reach  Greena  Ball,  where  are  three  cairns,  situated  a  short 
distance  to  the  R.  of  the  line  we  are  pursuing  ;  then  descending  the  /V  /) 
steep  slope  we  reach  the  Walkham  at  what  is  known  as  the  Hanging 
Rock,  and  immediately  opposite  to  a  combe  down  which  flows  a  little 
stream  called  Dead  Lake.  To  the  Hanging  Rock,  which  marks  the 
extreme  northern  part  of  Walkhampton  Common,  the  river  forming 
its  western  boundary,  the  oft-repeated  story  of  the  sheep-stealer 
attaches.  In  the  attempt  to  climb  over  it  with  the  sheep  on  his 
shoulders  he  slipped,  and  the  animal's  legs  being  clasped  round  his 
neck,  he  was  strangled.  From  the  Rundle  Stone  to  this  point  we  have 
been  traversing  the  boundary  line  of  the  forest,  which  here  crosses 
the  Walkham  and  runs  up  Dead  Lake,  but  now  we  leave  it.  The 
suggestion  that  has  been  made  that  the  line  was  once  drawn  from  Mis 
Tor  to  White  Tor  rests  on  nothing  but  supposition,  and  is  directly 
contrary  to  such  evidence  as  we  possess  concerning  it. 

We  turn  eastward  and  trace  the  Walkham  upwards.  Soon  we 
shall  find  it  makes  a  great  bend,  the  stream  flowing  from  the  N.  Jiist 
above  this  bend  the  track  leading  from  the  Blackabrook  to  Cudlipp 
Town  Down  and  Wapsworthy  (T.  12)  crosses  the  river  at  Shallow  Ford. 
But  we  do  not  go  quite  so  far  as  that,  for  OP  reaching  a  rivulet  that 
comes  down  into  the  Walkham  from  Black  Hole,  R.,  we  turn  up  by 
it,  and  following  it  for  about  100  yards,  shall  find  ourselves  on  the 
track.  Following  this  up  the  hill  we  shall  cross  the  Prison  Leat  at  a 
fording-place,  and  about  £  m.  further  on  shall  reach  the  springs  of  the 
Blackabrook.  From  this  point  the  route  to  Princetown  and  Two 
Bridges  has  been  given  in  Excursion  5,  in  which  it  was  also  stated  that 
the  path  through  the  Prison  ground  lies  by  Fitz's  Well  (T.  12). 

This  object  we  shall  find  about  |  m.  S.  of  the  point  at  which  our 
track  by  the  Blackabrook  enters  the  New  Forest  enclosure  (Ex.  5). 
Since  the  formation  of  the  latter  a  wall  has  been  built  round  the  well, 
otherwise  it  is  the  same  as  ever  it  was,  except  that  it  is  less  striking 
now  than  when  it  stood,  as  I  remember  it,  on  the  open  moor.  Fice's 
Well,  as  it  is  locally  called,  used  to  be  spoken  of  as  being  warm  in 
winter  and  cold  in  summer,  and  according  to  Bellamy  is  a  spring  of 
the  kind  that  are  in  evident  connection  with  rivers,  and  which,  he 
j>ays,  "  to  have  attained  their  elevated  temperature,  must  have 
descended  through  some  passages  of  the  river-bed  to  a  great  depth  of 
the  earth  before  reappearing  at  the  surface."* 

A  little  structure  formed  of  slabs  of  granite,  about  3  feet  high,  is 
raised  over  the  well,  the  cover  stone  being  oblong,  and  measuring 
nearly  4  feet  in  length,  by  rather  over  3  feet  in  width.  In  the  front 
part  of  this  cover  is  a  sunken  panel,  in  which  are  carved  in  relief  the 
letters  I.  F.,  and  the  date  1568.  John  Wilson,  the  Christopher  North 

*  Natural  History  of  South  Devon,  p.  146. 


»2  PRINCETOWN    AND    TWO    BRIDGES    DISTRICT. 

of  Blackwood,  noticed  this  well  when  on  a  visit  to  Dartmoor,  and  mis- 
read the  date  as  1168,  "  which,"  he  says,  "  must  be  a  lie."  But  had 
he  been  more  careful  in  his  examination  he  would  have  found  that  the 
inscription  does  not  lie.  The  second  figure  is  rather  curiously  formed, 
it  is  true,  but  this  is  only  characteristic  of  the  manner  of  writing  it  in 
the  sixteenth  century,  and  it  would  be  recognised  by  anyone  to-day 
as  5.*  The  letters  are  supposed  to  represent  the  initials  of  John  Pitz, 
and  there  is  good  reason  for  believing  this  to  be  the  case.  [Crosses, 
Chap.  XI.]  Early  in  the  last  century  there  was  a  moorland  tradition 
to  the  effect  that  John,  or  James,  Fice,  a  traveller,  experienced  some 
great  relief  from  the  spring,  and  in  gratitude  raised  the  little  edifice 
over  it,  while  another  story,  related  in  Tavistock,  told  how  this  was 
set  up  by  John  Pitz,  of  Fitzford.  He  and  his  lady  being  "  pixy-led  " 
when  riding  over  the  moor,  found,  on  drinking  the  water  of  a  certain 
spring,  that  the  spell  of  the  mischievous  elves  was  broken,  and  that 
they  could  no  longer  lead  them  from  their  way.  Grateful  for  this 
deliverance  he  placed  the  granite  covering  over  the  water  that  possessed 
such  miraculous  power  (Ex.  15).  Two  or  three  other  stories  are  related 
of  this  well. 

Quite  near  to  it  a  clapper  spans  the  Blackabrook.  It  was  swept 
away  in  1873  by  the  same  flood  that  so  greatly  damaged  the  one  under 
Bear  Down  (Ex.  5),  and  remained  in  a  dismantled  state  for  some  years, 
but  has  fortunately  been  restored.  The  path  that  evidently  passed  this 
way  seems  to  have  been  the  precursor  of  the  one  on  which  the  present 
high  road  is  formed,  for  in  the  eighteenth  century  we  find  that  the  track 
which  then  ran  across  the  forest  passed  the  Rundle  Stone.  Con- 
tinuing on  our  way  we  shall  soon  reach  the  road,  which  is  exactly  \  m. 
from  the  well. 

[Should  the  visitor  desire  to  extend  this  walk  he  may,  instead  of 
returning  from  the  Walkham  by  the  Blackabrook  Head  path  (T.  12), 
make  his  way  up  that  river  to  the  Lich  Path  (T.  18),  where  it  crosses 
it  at  Sandy  Ford. 

This  is  rather  less  than  \  m.  above  Shallow  Ford.  Following  the 
Path  eastward  he  will  cross  the  Prison  L/eat  at  a  bridge,  and 
make  his  way  along  the  edge  of  Conies'  Down  to  Travellers'  Ford  on 
the  Cowsic,  which  is  about  i  m.  from  the  Walkham.  Instructions  for 
reaching  the  head  waters  of  the  Blackabrook  from  this  point  are  given 
in  Ex.  5.  This  will  add  about  3  m.  to  the  ramble.] 

To  reach  Fitz's  Well  from  Princetown  direct  the  first  point  will  be 
the  Rundle  Stone  ;  then  turn  R.  into  the  Two  Bridges  road,  and  take 
the  first  turning  on  the  L.  Here  the  Prison  ground  is  entered,  the  path 
running  through  it  as  described  above.  From  Two  Bridges  the  way 
will  lead  the  visitor  along  the  Tavistock  road  to  within  a  few  hundred 

*  "  During  the  whole  of  the  sixteenth  century,  in  inscriptions,  the 
5  took  different  forms,  resembling  more  or  less  the  same  figure  as 
commonly  written  in  France  at  the  present  day,  and  in  many  instances 
it  is  easily  mistaken  for  a  i,  particularly  in  inscriptions  of  the  middle 
and  latter  half  of  the  century."  Thomas  Wright's  Essay  on  the 
Antiquity  of  Dates  expressed  in  Arabic  Numerals.  But  Christopher 
North  ought  to  have  known  that  the  figure  could  not  be  i . 


EXCURSION   6.       THE  WALKHAM.       MERIVALE.  r;3 

yards  of  Rundle  Stone  Corner,  when  he  will  enter  the  Prison  ground 
on  the  R.  Although  the  path  to  the  well  existed  long  before  there 
were  any  prison  enclosures  on  the  moor,  and  the  public  have  an  un- 
questionable right  of  way  there,  visitors  are,  as  previously  observed, 
generally  warned  off  when  the  prisoners  are  at  work  near  where  they 
may  happen  to  be  passing.  It  would  be  well  therefore  that  the 
rambler  should  so  time  his  visit  to  those  parts  of  the  Prison  enclosures 
to  which  he  has  access  as  to  be  sure  that  no  convicts  will  be  there. 
They  are  not  abroad  after  5  p.m. 

ALTERNATIVE  ROUTE  from  Mis  Tor  to  Rundle  Stone.  Hut  Circles 
— Blowing  Houses  on  the  Walkham — Merivale. 

If  the  rambler  has  not  already  visited  the  old  tinners'  houses  on 
the  L.  bank  of  the  Walkham,  described  in  Ex.  i ,  and  also  desires  to  see 
the  hut  circles  on  the  rock-strewn  slope  to  the  south-west  of  Mis  Tor, 
he  may  perhaps  prefer  to  return  to  Rundle  Stone  Corner  by  a  route 
that  will  embrace  these.  Prom  the  tor  he  will  pass  down  the  hill  to 
the  newtake  wall,  his  course  being  S.W.  Entering  the  newtake,  and 
still  following  the  same  course,  he  will  come  upon  the  hut  circles  when 
about  half  way  between  the  wall  and  the  river.  These  ruined  dwellings 
are  scattered  on  the  side  of  the  hill,  and  a  few  of  them  are  enclosed 
within  small  pounds.  One  of  these  is  situated  not  very  far  from  the 
Walkham.  By  following  the  river  downward  he  will  soon  come  upon 
the  second  of  the  blowing-houses  described  in  Ex.  i,  and  still  further 
down,  at  the  lower  end  of  some  mining  gerts,  will  reach  the  other.  On 
this  common  near  Over  Tor  (Ex.  i ),  a  mass  of  granite  called  the  Church 
Rock  used  to  be  pointed  out  as  one  of  the  abodes  of  the  pixies,  and  it 
was  said  that  by  placing  the  ear  against  it  the  sound  of  church  bells 
could  be  heard.  A  similar  story  is  told  in  connection  with  an  outlying 
pile  of  White  Tor,  on  Cudlipp  Town  Down  (Ex.  8).  Passing  down  the 
stream  to  Merivale  Bridge  we  gain  the  Princetown  road,  following 
which  we  climb  the  hill  L.  to  Rundle  Stone. 

Merivale  is  much  in  favour  with  the  angler,  but  not  every  one  of 
them  perhaps  meets  with  a  similar  experience  to  that  of  Mr.  A.  B. 
Collier,  the  well-known  Dartmoor  artist,  when  he  was  once  fishing  in 
the  neighbourhood.  The  body  of  an  elderly  man,  which  had  been 
found  in  the  river,  was  brought  into  the  Dartmoor  Inn  while  he  was 
there.  An  inquest  was  held,  and  on  the  foreman  of  the  jury  being 
asked  for  the  verdict,  he  announced  as  their  finding,  "  Died  by  the 
visitation  of  the  Almighty,  brought  on  by  crossing  the  river  when  it 
was  vlidded." 


Crockern  Tor. 

Directions  having  been  given  for  reaching  this,  the  first  of  Risdon's 
"three  remarkable  things"  in  the  forest  (Ex.  5),  and  the  subject  of 
the  Stannaries  having  received  notice  in  the  Terms  section,  we  may 
now  confine  our  remarks  to  the  tor  itself  as  a  meeting- place  of  the 
tinners  of  Devon. 


64  PRINCETOWN    AND   TWO    BRIDGES    DISTRICT. 

Unfortunately  Crockern  Tor  has  not  escaped  the  hand  of  the 
vandal,  and  objects  that  formerly  existed  on  the  hill,  and  which  would 
have  rendered  it  doubly  interesting  to-day,  are  no  longer  to  be  seen 
there.  These,  we  learn  from  Risdon,  consisted  of  "  a  table  and  seats 
of  moorstone  hewn  out  of  the  rocks,"  and  were  presumably  used  by 
the  stannators  at  their  gatherings.  A  hundred  and  sixty-five  years 
after  that  writer's  book  was  completed,  namely,  in  1795,  Mr.  John 
Laskey,  during  an  excursion  on  Dartmoor,  visited  Crockern  Tor,  but 
found  that  the  table  and  seats  had  disappeared.  Making  enquiries 
in  the  locality,  he  discovered  that  the  relics  had  been  removed  to  Prince 
Hall,  during  the  time  that  estate  was  in  the  occupation  of  Mr.  Gullet, 
who  commenced  his  operations  there  in  1780.  Thirty  years  after 
Mr.  Laskey' s  visit  the  spoliation  of  Crockern  Tor  was  ascribed  either 
to  Sir  Francis  Buller,  who  succeeded  Mr.  Gullet  at  Prince  Hall  (Ex.  4), 
or  to  Mr.  Thomas  Leaman.  But  there  is  good  reason  for  believing 
that  the  information  obtained  by  Mr.  Laskey  was  correct,  and  that  it 
was  Mr.  Gullet,  who  is  known  to  have  erected  many  new  farm  buildings 
at  Prince  Hall,  and  not  Sir  Francis,  who  resorted  to  the  tor  as  a  con- 
venient quarry.  That  Mr.  Leaman,  however,  also  had  a  part  in  the 
despoiling  of  the  rude  court  of  the  tinners,  there  is  little  doubt.  He, 
I  find,  was  the  owner  in  the  latter  part  of  the  eighteenth  century  of 
Dunnabridge  Farm,  at  that  time  one  of  the  ancient  forest  tenements, 
but  now  belonging  to  the  Duchy,  and  to  this  farm  it  was  reported  the 
stone  forming  the  stannators'  table  had  been  removed.  In  the  Rev. 
E.  A.  Bray's  journal  of  1831,  he  states  that  the  tenant  of  Bear  Down 
then  told  him  that  the  stone  was  drawn  to  Dunnabridge  Farm  by 
twelve  yoke  of  oxen,  and  many  years  ago  I  heard  the  same  story  on 
the  moor. 

Immediately  within  the  gate  of  Dunnabridge  Pound  (Ex.  42),  is 
an  interesting  object  sometimes  referred  to  as  the  Judge's  Chair,  and 
which  it  has  been  said  was  brought  from  Crockern  Tor.  But  this  story 
has  evidently  arisen  through  confusing  the  pound  with  the  farm,  and 
was  certainly  never  heard  on  the  moor  in  the  first  half  of  the  nineteenth 
century.  In  the  year  above  named  Mr.  Bray  visited  Dunnabridge 
Farm  for  the  purpose  of  seeing  the  stone  his  tenant  had  told  him  of, 
and  nothing  can  be  more  certain  than  that  such  a.  report  had  not  arisen 
at  that  time.  After  seeing  the  stone  at  the  farm,  which  is  still  there 
(Ex.  42),  he  went  on  to  the  pound  and  examined  the  Judge's  Chair, 
which,  however,  was  not  then  known  by  that  name,  and  which  he 
suggested  might  have  been  the  seat  of  an  Arch-druid.  He  says  not  a 
word  about  this  having  been  brought  from  Corckern  Tor  ;  on  the  con- 
trary, he  expresses  his  satisfaction  that  the  person  who  was  said  to 
have  carried  away  the  table  from  the  tor  did  not  have  recourse  to  the 
pound  for  the  stone  he  required.  It  is  quite  plain  that  the  story 
originated  after  Mr.  Bray's  time.  It  became  known,  probably  through 
the  medium  of  Mrs.  Bray's  book,  that  something  was  to  be  seen  at 
Dunnabridge  (meaning  Dunnabridge  Farm)  that  had  been  taken  from 
Crockern  Tor,  and  it  is  easy  to  see  how  the  relic  in  Dunnabridge  Pound 
should  come  to  be  regarded  as  that  object,  and  also  how  it  should 
be  called  the  Judge's  Chair.  I  was  rather  amused  once  when, 
after  explaining  this  to  a  driver  who  was  in  the  habit  of  taking 
visitors  to  the  pound,  he  said  to  me,  "  Well,  I  shan't  have  it  that 
way.  I've  always  told  everybody  it  was  the  Judge's  Chair,  and 


CROCKERN   TOR.  65: 

that  'twas  brought  from  Crockern  Tor,  and  I'm  not  going  to  alter  my 
story  now." 

By  the  side  of  the  Moreton  road,  and  not  very  far  from  the  ruined 
cottage  below  Crockern  Tor,  is  another  stone  which  used  to  be 
associated  with  the  hill  of  the  tinners,  but  on  what  grounds  I  could 
never  discover.  It  was  brought  to  my  notice  many  years  ago,  but  alL 
I  could  learn  was  that  it  was  called  the  Judge's  Corner.  It  is  not  far 
from  Spader's  Cotage,  but  on  the  R.  of  the  way  in  going  towards  Post 
Bridge,  and  at  a  corner  of  Muddy  Lake  Newtake.  Its  situation  prob- 
ably accounts  for  its  name. 

[Dunnabridge  Pound  is  reached  from  Two  Bridges,  from  which  it 
is  distant  2|m.,  by  the  Ashburton  road,  which  passes  Prince  Hall  Lodge 
(i  m.)  and  crosses  the  Cherry  Brook  by  the  bridge  of  the  same  name 
just  beyond.  The  pound  and  the  farm  are  described  in  the  Hexworthy- 
District,  Ex.  42.] 


Littaford       Longaford 
Tor.  Tor. 


?ROM   ASHBURTON   ROAD    BEYOND   TWO    BRIDGES. 
NEAR   PRINCE  HAW,  I<ODGE. 


Bellaford  Tor. 


Hameldon. 


FROM   ASHBURTON   ROAD    BEYOND   TWO    BRIDGES. 
NEAR   PRINCE   HAI.I,   I<ODGE. 


Fl 


66  PRINCETOWN    AND    TWO    BRIDGES    DISTRICT. 


Shorter  Excursions. 

By  means  of  these  the  foregoing  rambles  may  be  varied.  The 
places  where  descriptions  of  the  different  objects,  and  the  directions 
for  reaching  them  may  be  found,  are  indicated  in  brackets.  As  in  the 
case  of  the  other  Excursions,  the  distances  given  include  the  return. 

S.  Ex.  i. — Hut  Circles  at  Head  of  Yes  Tor  Bottom,  3^  m.  T.  B., 
6J-  m.  Devil's  Bridge,  in  Devil's  Gully  (Ex.  i).  Strike  up  over  com- 
mon R.,  making  towards  the  railway.  Leave  it  a  little  on  R.  Hut 
circles  will  soon  be  seen  on  the  common.  Make  towards  the  railway 
L.,  where  it  is  seen  at  the  bottom  of  the  hill,  and  a  hut  enclosure 
(Ex.  i)  will  be  observed.  Return  to  railway  (on  the  hill)  and  follow 
it  to  the  siding  at  the  quarry.  Then  cross,  and  return  to  Princetown 
by  the  path  running  near  to  it  (Ex.  i). 

[This  excursion  may  be  extended  by  passing  down  the  hill  from 
the  pound  to  the  railway,  and  crossing  it.  This  can  then  be  followed 
round  King  Tor  to  the  siding  named.] 

S.  Ex.  2. — Hisworthy  Tor,  Hollow  Tor,  .and  Red  Cottages,  4  m., 
T.B.,  7  m.  North  Hisworthy.  Bear  a  little  L.  down  hill  to  Hollow 
Tor.  Continue  down  hill  to  road  leading  to  Red  Cottages  (Ex.  i). 
Go  on  to  the  quarry  and  the  railway.  Turn  L,.  and  follow  the  latter 
to  Princetown,  as  in  the  previous  Ex. 

S.  Ex.  3. — Merivale  Antiquities,  6  m.  T.B.,  7  m.  Rundle  Stone 
(Exs.  1,6);  before  reaching  this,  Herne  Hole,  where  is  the  prison 
quarry,  is  passed  L.  Mission  Room  (R.  i  a).  Down  the  road  for  \  m. 
Strike  L.  to  the  rows  (Ex.  i). 

S.  Ex.  4. — Ward  Bridge  and  Vixen  Tor,  12  m.  T.B.,  13  m. 
Rundle  Stone  (Ex.  i,  6).  Mission  Room  (R.  i  a.)  Down  the  hill  to 
gate  on  L.  Enter  (Ex.  i)  and  follow  track  to  Long  Ash  Farm  (Ex.  i). 
Cross  Long  Ash  Brook  by  clapper,  then  on,  still  following  the  track,  to 
Hucken  or  Okel,  Tor  (Ex.  i).  On  past  Davy  Town  Farm  and  cross 
brook  by  Withil  Farm  (Ex.  i).  Turn  down  the  hill  R.  to  Ward  Bridge 
(Ex.  7).  Up  the  hill  (Ex.  7)  to  Sampford  Spiney.  Pass  church  on  L. 
and  on  to  common.  (Ex.  7,  T.  13).  Follow  track  below  Pu  Tor  Cottage 
and  continue  on  with  wall  on  R.  Pass  Heckwood  Tor  on  L.  of  track 
(T.  13).  Descend  to  Beckamoor  Brook,  with  Vixen  Tor  on  hill  on 
further  side  (T.  13),  or  go  by  way  of  Vixen  Tor  Farm.  Onward  to 
road  and  turn  R.  to  Merivale  Bridge  (Ex.  i).  Cross  bridge  to  gate  of 
lane  leading  to  Long  Ash  (ante)  and  return  to  Princetown  by  road, 
as  in  Ex.  i. 

S.  Ex.  5. — Blowing  Houses  on  the  Walkham,  7  m.,  T.B.,  8  m. 
Rundle  Stone  (Ex.  i,  6).  Mission  Room  (R.  i  a).  Strike  in  over 
common  R.  Descend  to  river.  Lower  House  about  a  furlong  above 
Merivale  Bridge  (Ex.  i,  6).  Higher  House  about  4-  m.  further  up. 
(Ex.  i,  6).  On  R.  bank  of  river  is  the  farm,  of  Shillapark. 

S.  Ex.  6.— Mis  Tor.  Rundle  Stone,  64-  m.,  T.B.,  j\  m.  (Ex.  i,  6). 
Then  as  in  Ex.  6. 

S.  Ex.  7.—Fi'z's  Well,  $\  m.  See  Ex.  6.  Rundle  Stone  (Ex.  i,  6). 
Turn  in  from  Two  Bridges  road  (Ex.  6),  Follow  road  \  m.  to  Well. 

S.  Ex.  8. — Blackabrook  and  Holming  Beam,  84-  m.,  T.B.,  64-  m. 
Rundle  Stone  (Ex.  i,  6).  Up  by  wall  towards  Mis  Tor  (Ex."  6). 


Shorter  Excursions  from  Princetown  and  Two  Bridges.         67 

"Turn  R.  at  corner.  Follow  wall  down  to  Blackabrook  (Ex.  5,  6,  and 
T.  12).  Cross  stream  and  follow  wall  to  next  corner.  Turn  R.,  keeping 
wall  on  that  side,  to  road  near  Two  Bridges.  Turn  L.  for  that  place, 
and  R.  if  for  Rundle  Stone.  (P.T.  i£m.  less  if  return  is  made  by  way 
of  T.B.) 

S.  Ex.  9. — Peat  Cot  and  Nun's  Cross,  $£  m.,  T.B.,  8£  m.  Castle 
Road  (Ex.  3).  Leave  Peat  Cot  on  L.  Strike  Track  (T.  i,  as  sketched 
in  Ex.  2),  and  follow  it  to  Nun's  Cross.  Return  to  Princetown  by 
T.  i.  The  distance  from  T.B.  will  be  less  if  the  visitor  goes  by  way 
of  Round  Hill,  as  in  Ex.  3. 

S.  Ex.  10. — White  Works  and  Swincombe,  84-  m.,  T.B.,  n4-  in. 
Castle  Road  (Ex.  3)  on  to  White  Works  (Ex.  3).  "Thence  to  the  "ford 
below  Fox  Tor  (Ex.  3),  and  follow  the  river  down  to  Swincombe  Ford 
(Ex.  4).  Cross  by  the  Fairy  Bridge  (Ex.  4,  43).  Thence  home  by  the 
track  through  Tor  Royal  Newtake  (T.  8,  Ex.  4),  or,  if  the  destination 
be  Two  Bridges,  across  Swincombe  Newtake  (T.  10),  to  Prince  Hall 
Bridge.  Return,  reverse  of  Ex.  4.  If  the  return  to  T.B.  is  made  by 
way  of  Prince  Hall  the  distance  will  be  g\  m. 

S.  Ex.  ii. — Nun's  Cross  and  the  Rows  near  Down  Tor,  7  m.,  T.B., 
10  in.  Nun's  Cross  (T.  i,  Ex.  2).  Thence  up  the  hill  in  front,  bearing 
a  little  to  the  R.  with  the  head  of  the  Newleycombe  Lake  (Ex.  2), 
which  flows  W.,  on  the  R.  Keep  on  W.  to  the  rows  which  will  be  seen 
on  the  common  (Ex.  2).  Then  turn  N.W.,  and  descend  the  hill  to  the 
Newleycombe  Lake  ;  cross,  which  it  is  usually  easy  to  do,  and  up  to 
Kingsett.  Thence  back  as  in  Ex.  2. 

vS.  Ex.  12. — Lether  Tor  Bridge,  Nosworthy  Bridge,  Combeshead, 
and  Thrushcl  Combe,  12  m.,  T.B.,  15  m.  Lether  Tor  Bridge,  as  in 
Ex.  2.  Thence  on  to  Nosworthy  Bridge  (Ex.  39),  and  up  through 
Dean  Combe  (Ex.  39),  to  Combeshead  Farm.  Thence  to  Thrushel 
Combe.  See  also  Ex.  37  ;  and  from  Sheeps  Tor,  Ex.  39.  The  Mining 
Remains  at  Dean  Combe  Head,  and  the  Antiquities  at  Thrushel  Combe, 
are  described  in  Part  V.  (Exs.  37,  38,  39). 

S.  Ex.  13. — Hart  Tor  Hut  Circles  and  Rows,  3^  m.-,  T.B.,  6£  m. 
Hart  Tor  (Ex.  2).  Circles  on  slope  on  nearing  it.  Rows  on  slope  on 
further  side  (Ex.  2).  Down  the  hill  to  Black  Tor  Ford,  and  return  as 
in  Ex.  2. 

S.  Ex.  14. — Black  Tor,  Blowing  Houses  on  the  Mew,  and  Peak  Hill, 
6  m.,  T.B.,  9  in.  Devil's  Bridge  (Ex.  i).  Double  Waters  (Ex.  i). 
Strike  L.  over  common  to  Black  Tor.  Descend  to  the  ford  (Ex.  2), 
and  follow  down  stream  for  a  short  distance  to  the  Blowing  Houses. 
Mount  R.  bank,  and  make  for  wall  of  Stanlake  Farm  (Ex.  2).  Keep 
wall  on  L.,  and  pass  over  common  S.W.  Hut  circles  may  be  seen  here. 
Ascend  Peak  Hill.  Turn  R.  to  Princetown  road. 

R.  5.  describes  the  way  from  Princetown  to  Dartmeet.  Reverse 
in  R.  42. 


68  PRINCETOWN    AND    TWO    BRIDGES    DISTRICT. 


Routes  from  Prineetown  and  Two  Bridges. 

The  Route  distances  given  do  not  include  the  return. 

R.  i.  To  Tavistock.  W.  (A)  Rundle  Stone,  Merivale,  Moor 
town,  about  j-i-  m.  (B)  Rundle  Stone,  Merivale,  Moor  Shop,  about 
7|  m.*  T.B.,  \  m.  further.  Reverse,  R.  15. 

[The  objects  passed  on  this  route  are  described  as  follows : — 
Those  between  P.T.  and  T.B.  and  Merivale  are  noticed  in  Exs.  i,  6  ; 
those  beyond  Merivale  in  Exs.  7,  8.  It  would  be  well  that  these  should 
be  consulted  before  starting.] 

(A)  Rundle  Stone  (Ex.  6),  thence  westerly  by  the  road,  passing 
the  granite  posts  by  the  roadside  (Ex.  i),  and  shortly  afterwards  cross 
the  head  waters  of  the  Long  Ash  Brook  (Ex.  i),  near  the  Mission  Room. 
A  fine  view  of  Mis  Tor  on  the  R.,  and  in  front  a  very  extensive  one  of 
the  country  beyond  the  Tamar,  with  the  Cornish  hills  in  the  distance. 
The  antiquities  noticed  in  Ex.  i  are  on  the  plain  piece  of  ground  seen 
L.  soon  after  passing  the  Mission  Room,  a  short  distance  across  the 
common.  Here  are  hut  circles  on  either  hand  ;  soon  after  passing 
them  Merivale  Bridge  is  reached.  ^  m  beyond  the  bridge  is  the  fourth 
milestone  from  Tavistock,  near  which  we  may  leave  the  road,  and 
follow  a  green  track  (L).  This  is  part  of  the  branch  of  the  Abbots' 
Way  (T.  i),  and  will  lead  us  to  a  ford  over  the  Beckamoor  Combe 
Water  (Ex.  7),  and  thence  to  the  Windy  Post  (Ex.  7).  The  track  then 
descends  to  Quarry  Lane  (T.  i,  Ex.  7),  entering  it  near  the  gate  of 
Moortown.  At  the  western  end  of  Quarry  Lane  the  path  over  Whit- 
church  Down  is  followed  (T.  i).  This  leads  by  another  cross  (Ex.  7), 
and  by  the  golf  links,  when  the  Tavistock  road  will  be  struck.  Cross 
this  and  bear  L.  to  the  Square  Seat  (Ex.  7),  and  pass  down  the  edge  of 
the  common  with  the  wall  of  the  enclosures  close  on  the  R.  From  the 
first  gate  reached  (in  the  corner)  a  good  path  leads  direct  to  the  G.W.R. 
Station.  (B)  The  road  from  the  fourth  milestone  crosses  Beckamoor 
Combe  (Ex.  8)  under  Cocks'  Tor  (Ex.  8),  and  a  short  distance  beyond 
the  third  milestone  leaves  the  common.  Descending  Pork  Hill  it 
reaches  Moor  Shop  (Ex.  8  ;  cross  roads,  R.  to  Peter  Tavy,  L.  to  Horra- 
bridge),  and  ij  m.  further  on  passes  the  entrance  to  Mount  Tavy 
(R.  Ex.  8),  from  which  Vigo  Bridge,  near  the  N.E.  end  of  the  town,  is 
\  m.  distant. 

R.  2.  To  Lydford.  N.W.  by  N.,  from  Rundle  Stone  ;  N.W. 
from  T.B.  (A)  Mis  Tor,  White  Tor,  Hill  Bridge,  Yard  Gate,  Forstall 
Cross,  about  n  m.,  T.B.,  -i-  m.  further.  (B)  Cowsic,  Black  Dunghill* 
Walkham,  White  Tor,  T.B.,"n  m.  Reverse,  R.  22. 

[Objects  passed  E.  of  the  Walkham  are  described  in  Exs.  i,  6; 
objects  W.  of  that  stream  in  Exs.  8,  9,  10.] 

*  Prineetown  Church  is  about  7  m.  from  Tavistock.  The  distances- 
here  given  are  from  the  cross  roads  near  the  Duchy  Hotel. 


Route  2.    Princetown  and  Two  Bridges  to  Lydford.          69 

(A)  Rundle  Stone  (Ex.  6)  thence  to  Great  Mis  Tor  as  in  Ex.  6,  and 
down  the  steep  side  of  the  hill  N.W.  by  N.  to  the  Walkhain,  which 
should  be  struck  at  the  weir  of  the  Grimstone  Leat.  Cross  the  stream, 
and  climb  the  bank  to  the  group  of  hut  circles  immediately  above, 
close  to  which  is  the  stone  circle  noticed  in  Ex.  8.  White  Tor  stands 
about  i  m.  N.W.  on  the  further  side  of  Langstone  Moor,  but  in  making 
for  this  object  it  will  be  well  to  keep  a  little  to  the  R.,  in  order  to 
avoid  the  marshy  ground  around  the  springs  of  the  Peter  Tavy  Brook. 
By  the  side  of  the  path  under  White  Tor  (T.  16)  is  the  menhir  men- 
tioned in  Ex.  8] 

[Should  the  state  of  the  weather  render  the  crossing  of  the  Walk- 
ham  doubtful,  it  will  be  better  for  the  excursionist  to  make  his  way 
from  Rundle  Stone  to  Merivale  Bridge,  and  when  near  the  fourth  mile- 
stone from  Tavistock  turn  R.  to  Great  Staple  Tor  (Ex.  8).  Just  before 
reaching  it  the  narrow  path  to  Peter  Tavy  (T.  14)  will  be  struck,  and 
may  be  followed  for  a  short  distance  down  the  hill,  or  the  rambler  may 
make  his  way  N.  to  Roose  Tor,  and  then  descend  the  hill  L.  The  point 
to  be  gained  is  the  wall  of  the  Wedlake  enclosures,  northward  of  Roose 
Tor,  which  is  kept  close  on  the  L.  to  the  corner  of  it,  when  the 
rambler  makes  direct  for  White  Tor,  crossing  the  Peter  Tavy  Brook, 
and  shortly  afterwards  striking  the  green  path  (T.  16).  The  menhir 
is  here  on  the  R.] 

From  White  Tor  (Ex.  8)  the  way  lies  N.W.  to  the  foot  of  Cudlipp 
Town  Down,  about  i  m.  distant.  Here,  very  near  to  the  wall  of  the 
enclosures,  is  a  rubble  heap  thrown  up  by  the  miners,  and  close  to  this 
is  a  stile,  whence  a  path  leads  straight  down  across  one  field  to  the 
Wapsworthy  road.  On  reaching  this  the  rambler  will  turn  R.,  the 
road  here  running  about  N.E.  This  he  will  follow  for  about  £  m., 
when  he  will  turn  L.  into  Church  Lane,  and  descend  to  Hill  Bridge 
(Exs.  8,  10). 

[Another  route  from  White  Tor  to  the  bridge  is  by  way  of  Waps- 
worthy (Ex.  10).  From  the  tor  a  direction  a  little  W.  of  N.  is  followed 
to  a  rough  track  that  comes  up  through  the  newtakes  from  the  settle- 
ment named.  On  reaching  the  latter  turn  L.,  and  follow  the  Peter 
Tavy  road  for  about  \  m.,  and  then  turn  R.  into  the  lane  leading  to 
the  bridge.] 

From  Hill  Bridge  pass  up  the  road  by  Hill  Town  (Ex.  10),  and 
where  it  forks  choose  the  L.  branch,  but  avoid  taking  the  next  turning  L. 
Very  shortly  Yard  Gate  (Ex.  10)  will  be  reached,  on  passing  through 
which  strike  R. ,  close  to  the  wall  of  an  enclosure  to  the  common.  Here 
the  rambler  is  on  an  old  track  to  Lydford  (T.  18),  and  will  follow  it, 
with  Yellowmead  Farm  (Ex.  10)  below  him  on  the  R.,  to  Forstall  Cross 
(Ex.  10).  Two  or  three  paths  cross  here  (T.  18,  21,  25),  but  the  one 
that  must  be  followed  runs  about  N.W.  by  N.  It  passes  over  the  ridge 
and  in  £  m.  or  so  reaches  the  gate  at  Down  Lane  (Ex.  10),  which  runs 
almost  in  the  same  direction.  At  the  bottom  of  the  lane  is  the  Oke- 
hampton  highway,  which  the  excursionist,  turning  R.,  follows  to  the 
seventh  milestone  from  Tavistock,  passing  Higher  and  Lower  Beardon 
on  his  L.  He  enters  the  gate  close  to  it,  and  passes  down  through  the 
brake  with  Skit  Steps  on  the  R.  to  the  foot-bridge  near  the  old  mill. 
Crossing  this  he  follows  the  lane,  and  bearing  L.  will  speedily  enter  the 
village. 

(B)  This  is  the  better  route  from  Two  Bridges.     The  commons  are 


70        Route  3.    Princetown  and  Two  Bridges  to  Okehampton. 

entered  just  after  crossing  the  Devonport  Leat  on  the  road  to  Rundle 
Stone.  Pass  up  N.,  with  the  Cowsic  R.,  and  the  wall  of  the  Prison 
enclosures  L.  (Ex.  5).  On  reaching  the  corner  of  the  wall  strike 
N.W.  by  W.  across  Holming  Beam  to  Black  Dunghill  nearly  |  m., 
just  beyond  which  the  track  (T.  12)  passing  Blackabrook  is  reached. 
Follow  this,  the  direction  still  about  the  same,  to  Shallow  Ford  (Ex.  6) 
on  the  Walkham,  £  in.  further.  Follow  the  track  for  4  m.  to  Dead- 
lake  Head  (Ex.  8),  and  then  strike  due  W.  across  Langstone  Moor 
(Ex.  8)  to  White  Tor,  From  this  point  the  directions  will  be  found 
under  A. 

R.  3. — To  Okehampton,  with  branches  to  Belstone.     N. 

Walkham  Head,  Tavy  Hole,  Broad  Amicombc  Hole,  Dinger  Plain, 
West  Mil  Tor,  P.T.  about  154  m.,  T.B4,  14  m.  If  by  way  of  Maiden 
Hill  (Ex.  5)  from  T.B.  the  distance  from  that  place  will  be  13-^-  m. 
Belstone  i  m.  less  from  either  place.  Reverse,  R.  29. 

[For  description  of  objects  S.  of  Walkham  Head  see  Exs.  5,6,  10  ; 
those  between  that  place  and  Broad  Amicombe  are  noticed  in  the 
Lydford  District,  Ex.  1 1  ;  those  beyond  Broad  Amicombe  are  in  the 
Okehampton  District,  and  are  described  in  Ex.  15.  See  also  C.R.  2, 
10,  17.] 

Rundle  Stone  (Ex.  6)  ;  thence  to  New  Forest  Corner,  near  Little 
Mis  Tor  (Ex.  5,  6),  and  down  N.N.E.  to  the  Prison  leat,  which  is  followed 
nearly  to  the  point  where  the  water  is  taken  in  from  Spriddle  Lake. 
Just  before  this  is  reached  the  Lich  Path  (T.  18)  is  carried  over  the 
leat,  and  here  the  rambler  crosses,  and  turns  R.  Soon  after  this 
Timber  Bridge  is  crossed,  and  beyond  it  the  track  forks.  But  the 
way  lies  straight  on,  with  the  Walkham,  here  a  tiny  stream,  in  sight  on 
the  L.  About  i  m.  above  Timber  Bridge  is  the  end  of  the  track,  and 
the  springs  of  the  Walkham  are  seen  a  little  to  the  R.,  the  stream 
making  a  bend  just  below. 

[Walkham  Head  may  be  reached  direct  from  Two  Bridges  by  way 
of  the  Cowsic,  proceeding  first  as  directed  in  R.  2  (B).  When  the 
corner  of  the  enclosure  is  passed  the  rambler  continues  a  northerly 
course,  having  the  Cowsic  on  the  R.,  but  gradually  leaving  it,  so  as  to 
strike  the  Lich  Path  (T.  18)  about  £  m.  to  the  W.  of  it.  Crossing  this 
track  he  pursues  a  course  N.W.  by  N.,  passing  over  Conies'  Down 
(Ex.  5)  to  Spriddle  Combe  (T.  16).  This  he  also  crosses,  and,  taking 
care  not  to  keep  too  much  to  the  R.  will  soon  strike  the  Walkham 
Head  track  near  its  end.] 

At  Walkham  Head  the  stream  (two  tiny  rivulets  here)  must  be 
crossed,  the  actual  source  being  left  on  the  R.,  and  in  making  his  way 
up  the  further  bank  the  rambler  must  bear  a  little  to  the  L.,  in  order 
to  avoid  the  fen  on  the  top  of  the  ridge.  Progress  will  not  be  very 
rapid,  the  slope,  which  is  known  to  the  moormen  as  Horsey  Park,  being 
covered  with  old  turf  ties,  overgrown  with  whortleberry  plants.  On 
reaching  the  summit  of  the  ridge  a  part  of  the  moor  not  hitherto  seen 
comes  into  view.  On  the  high  ground  on  the  L.,  across  the  valley  of 
the  Rattle  Brook  (Ex.  1 1 ),  are  several  tors,  chief  among  which  is  the 
fine  pile  of  Great  Links  Tor  (Ex.  12).  To  the  R.  of  this,  and  in  front 
of  the  rambler,  is  Amicombe  Hill  (Ex.  12),  and  to  the  R.  of  that  again 
Great  Kneeset  (Ex.  14).  The  dip  to  the  L.  of  this  hill,  which  is  of  a 
pyramidal  form  is  Broad  Amicombe  Hole,  the  point  for  which  we  are 


Route  3.     Prince  town  and  Two  Bridges  to  Oke  Hampton.       71 

making.  R.  of  Kneeset  is  Black  Ridge,  with  Little  Kneeset  under  it, 
and  R.  of  that  Fur  Tor,  the  nearest  pile  of  rocks,  and  Cut  Hill.  If  the 
visitor  has  reached  the  top  of  the  ridge  at  the  proper  point,  Fur  Tor 
should  bear  N.E.  by  N.  The  course  is  now  about  N.N.E.,  a  little  to 
the  R.  of  the  objective,  but  on  reaching  the  Tavy,  above  Tavy  Hole, 
a  line  due  N.  should  be  followed.  The  Amicombe  should  be  struck  at 
Fur  Tor  Foot,  W.N.W.  of  the  summit  of  the  tor,  and  followed  to  its 
source  due  W.  of  Great  Kneeset.  The  rambler  can  make  no  mistake 
if  he  avoids  following  any  stream  branching  from  it  R.  At  its  source, 
iu  Broad  Amicombe  Hole,  he  is  on  the  track  running  from  Okehampton 
to  Post  Bridge  via  Cut  Lane,  but  it  is  not  defined  here.  T.  79  and  34 
should  now  be  consulted.  The  first  object  to  reach  is  Dinger  Tor,  a 
very  short  distance  beyond  which  the  rambler  will  strike  the  peat 
track,  T.  34.  For  this  purpose  he  will  pass  through  the  hollow,  and, 
soon  striking  the  head  of  another  little  stream,  flowing  due  N.,  will 
follow  it  to  Kneeset  Foot,  the  point  at  which  it  meets  the  West  Ock- 
ment.  Here  that  river  is  crossed,  and  the  hill  beyond  it  ascended,  the 
direction  of  Dinger  Tor  from  Kneeset  Foot  being  N.E.  by  N.,  and  the 
distance  exactly  i  m.  Lints  Tor,  which  is  worth  visiting,  lies  about 
midway  between  these  two  points,  a  little  to  the  L.  Viewed  from  a 
distance  its  rocks  bear  a  striking  resemblance  to  a  tower  (Ex.  14). 
(If  the  Ockment  cannot  be  crossed  at  Kneeset  Foot  the  rambler  must 
make  his  way  up  the  bank  to  Kneeset  Nose.  See  Branch  to  Belstone, 
post,  and  R.  29).  On  reaching  the  peat  track  beyond  Dinger  Tor, 
which  consists  of  a  single  mass  of  rock,  the  rambler  will  have  a  well 
defined  path  to  the  road  at  Moor  Gate  (Exs.  14,  15.  T.  34).  He  will 
leave  High  Willes,  Yes  Tor  and  West  Mil  Tor  on  the  L.,  and  Row 
Tor  on  the  R.-  Between  the  two  latter  he  will  find  himself  close 
to  the  Moor  Brook,  and  near  the  bank  of  this  his  path  is  carried  to  the 
gate.  Here  the  road  across  Okehampton  Park  (Ex.  14)  to  the  town  is 
followed. 

[From  T.B.  via  Maiden  Hill.  The  Cowsic  is  followed  upwards 
(Ex.  5)  to  Conies'  Down  Tor,  and  a  course  about  N.  by  W.  is  then 
followed  to  the  Tavy,  which  is  about  i  \  in.  distant.  This  will  lead  the 
visitor  over  Maiden  Hill,  on  the  N.  side  of  which  he  will  pass  between 
the  sources  of  the  Cowsic  and  Spriddle  Lake.  Here  he  crosses  the 
fen,  and  unless  the  weather  be  dry  it  is  not  advisable  to  adopt  this 
route.  On  reaching  the  Tavy  it  is  crossed,  and  a  direction  W.N.W.  is 
followed  down  the  hill,  with  Fur  Tor  on  the  R.,  to  the  Amicombe, 
when  the  directions  given  ante  must  be  followed. 

Branch  to  Belstone.  On  leaving  Amicombe  Hole  a  course  N.Tv.  by 
N.  is  taken,  which  will  lead  the  rambler  to  the  West  Ockment  at  a 
point  where  it  makes  a  sharp  bend  i  m.  above  Kneeset  Foot.  He 
follows  it  upwards  for  -I-  m.,  and  crosses  it  at  Kneeset  Nose,  where  it 
receives  Brim  Brook  (Ex.  14,  16),  which  flows  from  the  N.N.E.  This 
tributary  then  becomes  his  guide,  and  must  be  followed  to  its  source. 
Less  than  4  m.  beyond  this,  N.N.E. ,  the  head  of  the  Blackaven  will  be 
struck,  and  this  is  followed  to  the  clapper  below  East  Mil  Tor,  known 
as  New  Bridge  (Ex.  16,  T.  35).  The  rambler  may  now  either  trace 
the  stream  to  Crovenor  Steps  (Ex.  16),  where  it  falls  into  the  East 
Ockment,  or  he  may  strike  N.E.  across  the  common,  and  reach  that 
river  above  the  enclosures  belonging  to  East  Ockment  Farm  (Ex.  16), 
and  follow  it  down  to  the  steps,  which  are  at  the  N.E.  corner  of  the 


72  Route  4.     Princetown  and  Two  Bridges  to  Chagford. 

farm  enclosures.  From  this  crossing  place  a  road  runs  about  N.E.  to 
Belstone  village. 

To  Belstone  from  Two  Bridges.  N.  C.R.  2  to  East  Dart  Head. 
Thence  due  N.  across  the  fen  to  Taw  Head,  not  quite  -J-  m.  Newtake 
is  R.  (Ex.  19,  Extension),  and  Cranmere  L.  From  Taw  Head  follow 
the  river ;  the  route  is  given  in  C.R.  10. 

[If  the  rambler  desires  to  go  by  way  of  Cut  Hill  he  will  follow  the 
directions  given  in  Ex.  n,  Extension.  From  the  summit  of  the  hill 
he  will  make  for  East  Dart  Head,  either  by  proceeding  N.  for  a  few 
hundred  yards,  and  then  steering  about  E.N.E.  to  the  Dart,  which  he 
will  follow  to  its  source  ;  or  he  may  strike  N.  by  E.  over  Flatters  for 
i£  m.,  and  then  N.E.  by  N.,  with  the  summit  of  Black  Hill  L.,  for 
4  m.,  which  will  bring  him  to  the  head  of  the  river.] 

R.  4. — To  Chagford,  N.E.,  12  m.  Moreton,  13 J  m.  T.B.,  \\  m. 
less.  Reverse,  R.  35. 

[The  objects  met  with  on  these  routes  are  described  in  Exs.  4,  5, 
21,  46  ;  see  also  roads.] 

(Few  directions  are  necessary,  the  high  road  being  followed  in 
•each  case,  but  should  the  rambler  desire  to  make  his  way  over  the  moor 
to  Chagford  he  will  find  instructions  for  doing  so  in  the  Excursions  in 
the  Post  Bridge  District,  at  which  place  he  will  leave  the  road.  Or  he 
may  pass  up  the  West  Dart  by  Wistman's  Wood  (Ex.  5),  and  ascend 
the  hill  to  the  wall  beyond  Brown's  House  (Ex.  5),  when  he  will  find 
himself  on  the  line  of  route  from  Tavistock  to  Chagford  (R.  10,  B)  q.v. 
The  line  comes  from  Row  Tor,  W.,  and  crosses  Broad  Down  to  the 
East  Dart). 

The  first  point  is  Two  Bridges.  Thence  bear  I,,  on  the  brow  of 
the  hill  behind  the  hotel,  to  Post  Bridge,  passing  Crockern  Tor  (Ex.  5) 
and  the  Powder  Mills  (L)  on  the  way.  Bellaford  Tor  (Ex.  44)  is  R.,  a 
little  beyond  the  latter.  Cross  the  East  Dart  and  ascend  Meripit  Hill 
<Ex.  45)  to  Newhouse,  or  as  it  is  now  called,  the  Warren  House  Inn. 
1 4-  m.  beyond  this  the  Chagford  road  branches  I,. 

[To  Chagford.  For  the  first  |  m.  the  road  runs  over  the  common, 
and  then  descends  to  Jurston,  just  beyond  which  the  Bovey  is  crossed 
at  Jurston  Bridge.  It  then  ascends  to  Meldon  Hill,  over  the  side  of 
which  the  rambler  makes  his  way,  with  the  common  L.  Beyond  this 
is  Nat  Tor  Down,  which  he  leaves  R.,  and  then  descends  into  Chagford, 
with  Padley  Common  L.  See  Chagford  District.] 

From  the  junction  the  Moreton  road  runs  on  to  Moor  Gate 
{Ex.  21),  4m.  from  the  town,  where  it  leaves  the  moor,  i  m.  further 
on  is  Beetor  Cross  (Ex.  22),  where  the  visitor  bears  L.,  but  not  into  the 
narrow  road  leading  to  Beetor  Farm.  Pass  over  Worm  Hill,  at  the 
bottom  of  which  the  Bovey  is  crossed,  i  m.  beyond  this  is  Bughead 
Cross,  from  which  Moreton  is  distant  another  mile. 

R.  5. — To  Bovey  Tracey.  E.  by  N.  (A)  Dartmeet,  Ponsworthy, 
Cockingford  Mill,  Pudsham  Down,  Newhouse,  Hemsworthy  Gate,  P.T. 
1 6£  m.  T.B.,  via  Prince  Hall,  \j\  m.  (B)  Two  Bridges,  Higher 
Cherry  Brook  Bridge,  Bellaford  Bridge',  West  Shallowford,  Rowden  Down, 
Dunstone  Down,  Blackslade,  Hemsworthy  Gate,  P.T.  17  m.  T.B.  15^  m. 
(C)  Post  Bridge,  Runnage,  Grendon  Bridge,  Gore  Hill,  Widecombe, 
Hemsworthy  Gate,  P.T.  18.  T.B.  16^  m.  Reverse,  R.  42. 


Route  5.     Princetown  and  Two  Bridges  to  Bovey  Tracey.       73 

Route  A  is  the  most  convenient. 

[Objects  between  the  starting  points  and  Dartnieet  and  Post 
Bridge  are  described  in  Exs.  4,  42  ;  objects  beyond  Grendon  Cot  and 
Dartmeet,  in  Exs.  28,  41  ;  and  those  near  and  beyond  Hemsworthy 
Gate,  in  Exs.  2?,  26.] 

(A)  Prom  P.T.  by  Tor  Royal  Lodge  (T.  8)  to  Bull  Park  ;  across 
Tor  Royal  Newtake,  passing  the  Crock  of  Gold  (Ex.  4)  to  Swincombe 
Newtake  and  Swincombe  Ford.     Thence  to  Hexworthy,   as  in  T.  S, 
and  down  to  Hexworthy  Bridge.     Pass  up  between  Huccaby  and  the 
chapel  and  through  the  gate  at  the  top  of  the  hill,  then  turn  R.  to 
Dartmeet.     (Hexworthy  District).     From  T.B.  by  the  Ashburton  road 
past  the  entrance  to  Prince  Hall  (Ex.  4)  and  on  to  Lower  Cherry  Brook 
Bridge   and  Dunnabridge   Pound.      Thence  on  by  the  enclosures  of 
Brimpts,  noticing  Huccaby  in  the  valley,  R.,  and  down  to  Dartmeet. 
(Or  the  track  from  Prince  Hall  Lodge  to  Hexworthy  and  Huccaby  may 
be  followed,    T.    10).      Up   Dartmeet   Hill,   passing  the   Coffin  Stone 
(Ex.  41),  and  on  to  Ouldsbroom  Cross,  where  the  Ashburton  road  turns 
R.      Straight  on   (the  next  road  L.   goes  to  Sherwell  and   Babeny) 
across  Sherberton  Common,   and  leaving  this  at  Lock's  Gate  Cross, 
descend  to   Ponsworthy,   on  the  road  to  Widecombe.     Through  the 
hamlet  and  up  the  hill,  and  ij  m.  on  take  the  turning  R.     This  lane 
runs  by  Cocklngford  Mill  (Ex.  26),   and  up  the  hill  by  Stone  Cross, 
which  is  about  J  m.  from  the  mill.     Then  keep    I,.,    passing    over 
Pudsham  Down  to  Ruddycleave  Bridge  ;  cross  this  and  strike  N.E. 
up  over  the  common  to  Newhouse  (Ex.  26,  R.  42).     Thence  onward 
with  the  ruirs  L.  and  Rippon  Tor  high  on  the  R.,  to  Hemsworthy  Gate, 
first  turning  R.  (Exs.  25,  26). 

(B)  To  Hemsworthy  Gate,  via  Bellaford.     Two  Bridges,  as  in  R.  4  ; 
thence  to  Higher  Cherry  Brook  Bridge,  2  m.  on  the  Post  Bridge  road. 
Cross  this  and  enter  gate  R.,  following  the  track  by  the  wall  over 
Lakehead  Hill  to   Bellaford  Bridge  (T.    18).     The  next  point  is  the 
Walla  Brook,  beyond  Riddon  Ridge,   i-J-  m.,  which  stream  should  be 
struck  between  Riddon  and  Babeny,  the  course  being  S.E.     (See  re- 
marks on  crossing  this  in  R.  42).     Thence  over  the  hill  a  trifle  S.  of  E. 
to  the  road  close  to  West  Shallowford.     Cross  the  West  Webburn 
below  the  farm  (T.  52),  and  pass  up  the  side  of  Jordan  Ball  to  Rowden 
Down  (S.  Ex.  86).     Keeping  R.  the  rambler  will  pass  through  the  stroll 
on  the  E.  side  of  the  down  to  the  road,  which  he  will  follow  for  a  short 
distance  S.E.,  and  then  strike  across  Dunstone  Down,  E.,  to  Higher 
Dunstone,  passing  close  to  Wind  Tor  on  the  way.     Thence  we  follow 
the  Widecombe  road  for  about  100  yards,  and  turning  R.  to  Lower 
Dunstone,  cross  the  East  Webburn  below  it.     A  little  beyond  Chittle- 
ford  we  enter  a  field,  L.  (S.  Ex.  87),  and  passing  in  front  of  Blackslade, 
gain  the  stroll  above  Tunhill  (Ex.  26).     Thence  strike  E.N.E.  to  Pil 
Tor  ,  £  m.,  and  E.  by  N.  to  Hemsworthy  Gate,  4  m. 

(C)  To  Hemsworthy  Gate  via  Punnage  Bridge.     From  Two  Bridges 
through  Post  Bridge,  as  in  R.  4,  turning  R.  from  the  main  road  just 
before  it  enters  on  the  common  (Ex.  44).     Follow  the  lane  to  Runnage 
Bridge,    and   thence   across   Soussons   Common   to   Ephraim's   Pinch, 
passing  through  the  gate  to  Grendon  Bridge.     This  road  is  the  old 
Church  Way  (T.   76).     Cross  the  Webburn  and  up    to    Hill    Head. 
Descend  by  Blackaton  Farm,  and  crossing  the  Blackaton  Brook,  leave 
the  road  and  ascend  the  narrow  way  up  Gore  Hill  (Ex.  28)  to  Blacka- 


74          Route  6.     Princetown  and  Two  Bridges  to  Ashburton. 

ton  Down.  There  is  a  green  path  over  this,  running  S.E.,  by  which 
the  head  of  Church  Lane  is  reached.  Descend  this,  and  at  the  bottom 
turn  R.  to  Widecombe,  which  is  close  by.  Leaving  the  Church  R. 
ascend  Widecombe  Hill,  with  Bonehill  Rocks  L..  Top  Tor  R.,  and  follow 
road  to  Hemsworthy  Gate.  If  driving  it  will  be  necessary  to  keep 
to  the  road  at  Blackaton,  which  is  carried  round  Bittleford  Down. 

From  Hemsworthy  Gate  the  road  runs  E.,  with  Rippon  Tor  high 
on  the  R.  Skirting  the  head  of  Hound  Tor  Combe,  it  goes  under 
Saddle  Tor,  L.,  and  then  bends  N.E.  A  green  path  here  runs  over 
the  down  by  which  the  pedestrian  may  shorten  the  distance  a  little. 
The  road  descends,  with  Punchaford  Ball  R.,  and  Hey  Tor  L.,  to  the 
Moorland  Hotel  (Ex.  25).  i  m.  further  on  it  leaves  the  commons, 
and  leads  directly  to  Bovey  Tracey  Station,  which  is  3  m.  distant. 

R.  6.— To  Ashburton  and  Buckfastleigh.  E.  by  S.  (A)  Dartmeet, 
Ouldsbroom  Cross,  Pound's  Gate,  New  Bridge,  Holne  Bridge,  P.T.  13+  m., 
or  via  Two  Bridges,  14^  m.,  T.B.  13  m.,  to  Ashburton. 

(B)  Hexworthy,    Saddle    Bridge,    Holne,    Holne    Bridge,    P.T.,    via 
Swincombe,  i2\  m.,  T.B.  13^  m.,  to  Ashburton. 

(C)  White   Works,  Sandy   Way,  Aune  Head,  Ringleshutts,  Holne, 
Holne  Bridge,  P.T.  13^  m.,  T.B.  14  m.,  to  Ashburton. 

Reverse,  R.  49. 

[Objects  are  described  (A)  in  Exs.  4,  27,  28,  41,  42  ;  (B)  in  Exs. 
4,  43,  Holne  Moor  Section,  and  S.  Ex.  96  ;  (C)  in  Exs.  3,  43,  and  as 
in  B.] 

(A)  To  Ouldsbroom  Cross  via  Dartmeet,  as  in  R.  5  (A).     Turn  R. 
and  follow  road  past  Ouldsbroom  Farm  to  Uppacott  (Ex.   28),   and 
thence  on  to  Pound's  Gate  (Ex.  27,  28).     Down  the  hill,  with  Leigh  Tor 
on  the  L,.,  turning  R.  at  the  foot,  and  skirting  Deeper  Marsh,  to  New 
Bridge.     Up  the  hill,  with  Holne  Chase  on  the  L.,  then  down  Holne 
Chase  Hill  to  Holne  Bridge,  whence  road  leads  direct  to  Ashburton, 
distant  2  m. 

(B)  To  Hexworthy  from  P.T.  and  T.B.  as  in  R.  5  (A)     Take  the 
Holne  road,  running  S.E.  from  the  hamlet  to  .Saddle  Bridge  (Hexworthy 
District},  distant  f  m.     Cross  the  Wo  Brook,  and  ascend  Combestone 
Tor  Hill.     Pass  tor  on  L.  and  on  by  Hangman's  Pit  to  the  Paignton 
Reservoir.     Thence  follow  the  road  to  Holne  Moor  Gate.     Descend  the 
hill,  and  take  first  turning  to  the  L.     Holne  village  lies  R.  a  little  further 
on.     Pass  this,  and  reach  top  of  Holne  Chase  Hill.     Descend  to  Holne 
Bridge. 

(C)  Leave  P.T.  by  Castle  Road  (T.  7,  Ex.  3)  for  White  Works. 
Thence  as  in  Ex.  3  to  the  confluence  near  Fox  Tor  Farm  enclosures. 
(This  point  may  be  reached  from  T.B.  by  way  of  Prince  Hall  and 
Moorlands  (Ex.  4).     From  the  latter  the  rambler  should  cross  the  E. 
side  of  Tor  Royal  Newtake,  in  a  direction  due  S.,  keeping  the  wall  some 
distance  on  the  L.     The  Swincombe  river  is  i^  m.  from  Moorlands). 
Cross  stream,   and  follow  up  that  branch  of  the  Swincombe  flowing 
down  from  the  S.E.,  keeping  it  on  the  R.     Soon  the  old  track  known 
as  Sandy  Way  (T.   56)  will  be  struck,  and  will  lead  the  rambler  by 
Aune  Head  Mire  (Ex.  43)  to  the  deserted  Ringleshutts  Mine,  on  Holne 
Moor.     Thence  a  road  leads  to  the  highway  very  near  to  Holne  Moor 
Gate.     (See  B.  ante). 

[If  the  rambler  is  bound  for  Buckfastleigh  he  does  not  turn  L. 


Route  7.    Princetown  and  Two  Bridges  to  South  Brent.        75 

below  Holne  Moor  Gate,  as  in  B.,  but  keeps  straight  down  the 
steep  Langaford  Hill.  The  lane  runs  by  Hawson,  which  lies  L.,  and 
shortly  afterwards  forks.  Either  way  leads  to  Buckfastleigh,  but  the 
R.  branch  is  the  shorter  way,  though  not  so  well  adapted  for  driving.] 

R.  7. — To  Brent,  S.E-,  Ivybridge,  S.  by  E.,  and  Cornwood,  S. 
Siward's  Cross,  The  Plym,  Ducks'  Pool,  Red  Lake  Ford,  Western  Whita- 
burrow,  Shipley,  12  m.  T.B.  add  i-i-  m. 

Branch  to  Ivybridge  from  the  Plytn  :  Ernie  Head,  Green  Lake 
Bottom,  Valley  of  Erme  to  Hartord  Bridge,  12%  in.  T.B.  add  i-t  m. 

Branch  to  Cornwood  from  Siward's  Cross  :  Hart  Tors,  Shaver- 
combe,  Shell  Top,  Pen  Beacon,  gk  m.  T.B.  add  i4-  m. 

From  T.B.  the  most  direct  route  to  Siward's  Cross  is  by  way  of 
Round  Hill  Farm  and  Peat  Cot  as  in  Ex.  3.  Reverse,  Rs.  58,  59. 

[The  district  through  which  these  two  routes  run  is  described  as 
follows  : — Between  P.T.  and  the  Plym  in  Exs.  3,  37  ;  between  the  Plym 
and  the  Erme  in  Exs.  33,  35  ;  from  the  Erme  to  Shipley  in  Exs.  30,  32  ; 
and  from  the  Erme  to  Harford  Bridge  in  Exs.  32,  33.  See  also  T.  I.] 

To  the  common  via  Ivybridge  Lane,  and  on  by  South  Hisworthy 
Tor  to  Siward's  Cross  as  in  Ex.  2.  (Here  the  Cornwood  route  branches. 
See  post).  The  next  point  in  Plym  Ford,  which  lies  beyond  the  ridge 
in  front  of  the  rambler  in  a  direction  S.S.E.,  and  one  mile  distant.  A 
reave  will  be  seen  running  up  the  hill  to  the  cairn  on  Eylesbarrow 
(Ex.  37),  but  this  must  be  left  well  to  the  R.,  and  the  distance  between 
it  and  the  rambler  gradually  increased  as  he  ascends.  If  he  chooses 
he  may  follow  the  track  leading  from  near  Nun's  Cross  Farm  (see  T.  i), 
to  Plym  Ford,  but  the  distance  will  then  be  rather  greater.  (At  the 
ford  the  track  to  Ivybridge  diverges  from  the  Brent  route  :  we  will 
here  describe  the  latter).  The  first  point  is  a  large  stream  work  on  the 
Black  Lane  Brook,  nearly  i-i-  m.  distant,  its  direction  being  E.S.E.  by 
E.  This  course  the  rambler  accordingly  follows  up  the  hill,  leaving 
-some  rocks  known  as  Great  Gnats'  Head  (Ex.  37)  a  little  to  the  R. 
When  on  the  summit  of  the  hill,  and  i  m.  from  the  ford,  the  line  of 
route  passes  near  Ducks'  Pool,  which  will  be  seen  L.  Care  must  be 
taken  in  ascending  this  hill  not  to  bear  too  much  to  the  L.,  or  the 
rambler  will  get  on  to  the  fen  surrounding  the  source  of  the  Plym  ;  it  is 
better  that  he  should  err  by  keeping  a  little  too  much  to  the  R.  When 
Ducks'  Pool  is  passed  the  stream  work  will  soon  be  sighted.  The 
rambler  has  now  to  make  for  Red  Lake  Ford  (T.  i,  Ex.  30),  and  crossing 
the  stream  work  will  strike  S.E.  over  Green  Hill,  with  the  Erme  in  the 
valley  R.  (the  river  is  not  yet  seen),  and  Stall  Moor  rising  beyond  it. 

[Green  Hill  may  also  be  reached  from  Princetown  by  way  of 
White  Works  and  Fox  Tor.  To  the  first-named  T.  7  is  "followed  ; 
thence  the  way  lies  to  the  ford,  as  in  Ex.  3  ;  up  Fox  Tor  Gert,  S.  of 
the  tor,  to  Fox  Tor  Head,  where  Black  Lane  is  struck  (T.  75)  ;  down 
this  path  to  the  stream  work  with  Green  Hill  L.  This  is  the  best 
route  for  riders.] 

Middle  Mires,  which  is  really  a  shallow  gully,  will  be  crossed  4-  m. 
from  the  stream  work,  and  J  m.  further  on  Red  Lake,  where  also  is  a 


76          Route  7.    Princetown  and  Two  Bridges  to  Ivybridge. 

large  working  of  the  old  miners,  will  be  reached.*  The  ford  is  nearly 
at  the  head  of  these  remains,  and  as  the  track  leading  to  it  is  plainly  to 
be  seen,  the  rambler  will  not  very  well  miss  it.  On  crossing  the  ford 
he  will  find  himself  on  the  Abbots'  Way  (T.  i ),  with  a  good  path  all  the 
way  to  the  moor  gate  at  Shipley.  Follow  the  Abbots'  Way  for  -J  m.  to 
the  Crossways,  where  the  ruined  Zeal  Tor  tramroad  (T.  60)  intersects 
it  at  right  angles.  Here  leave  the  Abbots'  Way,  and  turn  R.  into  the 
tram-road,  and  follow  it  till  you  lose  it  on  the  brow  of  the  hill  above 
Shipley.  For  a  notice  of  this  tram-road  see  Ex.  30.  The  road  from 
Shipley  to  Brent  runs  down  the  valley  with  the  river  on  the  L.  *  m. 
outside  the  moor  gate  Didworthy  Bridge  is  seen  L.  Here  the  rambler 
has  a  choice  of  paths  to  the  village.  He  may  either  go  straight  on, 
and,  passing  through  the  hamlet  of  Aish,  descend  to  Lydia  Bridge 
(Brent  District),  or  he  may  cross  Didworthy  Bridge,  and,  passing 
through  the  yard  at  the  back  of  the  Sanatorium  (Ex.  29),  reach  a 
path  that  will  lead  him  by  the  hedge  across  two  fields  to  a  narrow 
bridle  path,  which  will  bring  him  to  Wash  Gate.  Here  a  road  runs  up 
to  Lutton,  where  he  will  turn  R.,  and  descending  Splatton  Hill  will 
soon  be  led  to  the  village. 

[To  Ivybridge.  The  route  from  Plym  Ford  is  at  first  along  the 
branch  of  the  Abbots'  Way  (T.  i),  which,  however,  is  not  here  very 
well  defined.  It  runs  up  the  hill  from  the  river  in  a  direction  S.  by  E. 
to  Broad  Rock  (Ex.  34),  which  is  about  i  m.  distant,  S.E.  Great 
Gnats'  Head  is  seen  L.  in  ascending.  From  Broad  Rock  the  course 
is  S.E.  for  2  m.,  when  the  Erme  will  be  struck  near  Green  Lake  Bottom, 
on  its  R.  bank,  opposite  to  Stony  Bottom  (Ex.  33).  Erme  Head, 
marked  by  a  wilderness  of  stones,  will  be  seen  on  leaving  Broad  Kock, 
and  must  be  kept  L,.,  the  way  lying  across  the  side  of  the  hill  that 
rises  from  the  R.  bank  of  the  river.  Horton's  Combe,  i  m.,  where  a 
little  stream  runs  down  L.,  is  crossed  near  its  head  ;  beyond  this  is 
Stinger's  Hill  (Ex.  33),  to  the  S.  of  which  Green  Lake  Bottom  is 
situated.  If  preferred  the  Erme  may  be  followed  from  its  source  to  this 
point  instead  of  the  route  over  the  hill.  No  further  directions  are 
necessary,  as  the  Ernie  will  lead  the  rambler  to  Harford  Bridge  (Ex.  32) 
about  4  m.  below.  There  is  good  walking  near  the  river  on  the  R.  bank. 
When  in  sight  of  Piles  Wood  (Ex.  32),  which  is  on  the  L.  bank  under 
Three  Barrows  and  Sharp  Tor,  a  track  (T.  65)  running  under  Staldon 
Barrow,  will  be  struck.  In  Green  Lake  Bottom  a  stone  row  may  be 
seen  running  across  the  tin  work.  This  can  be  followed  to  the  fine 
stone  circle  on  Stall  Moor  (Ex.  33),  and  will  not  take  the  rambler  out 
of  his  way,  as  it  runs  parallel  to  the  Erme.  On  emerging  from  the  moor 
gate  at  Harford  Bridge  turn  L-  to  the  church,  and  follow  the  road  R. 
past  Broomhill,  Lukesland,  Erme  Wood,  and  Stowford  (Exs.  32,  33). 
(If  it  should  be  desired  to  visit  Erme  Pound  and  the  antiquities  near  it, 
the  Erme  must  be  followed  from  its  source,  the  rambler  keeping  on  the 
L.  bank.  Soon  after  crossing  Red  Lake,  where  it  falls  into  the  Erme, 
the  Pound  will  be  reached.  For  a  description  of  the  remains  near  it 
see  Ex.  32.  After  examining  these  the  river  can  be  crossed,  and  the 
route  just  sketched  followed  to  Harford  Bridge,  or  the  rambler  may 

*  The  clay  works  started  here  a  few  years  ago  have,  unfortunately, 
changed  the  aspect  of  this  spot,  which  previously  to  their  establish- 
ment was  one  of  the  most  secluded  in  the  south  quarter  of  the  forest. 


Route  8.     Princetown  and  Two  Bridges  to  Shaugh,  77 

make  his  way  to  Harford  Church,  by  Quickbeam  Hill  and  Sharp  Tor 
(Exs.  32,  33).  To  do  this  he  will  cross  Stony  Bottom  (Ex.  32),  the 
depression  down  which  Hook  Lake  runs  into  the  Erme,  at  a  point 
about  £  m.  above  that  river,  and  follow  a  southerly  course.  By  doing 
this  he  should  be  able  to  see  the  line  of  granite  posts  defining  the 
boundary  between  Harford  Moor  and  Ugborough  Moor  (Ex.  32),  and 
by  following  these  will  be  led  to  the  dip  between  Three  Barrows  and 
Sharp  Tor.  The  clay  railway  will  also  form  a  guide  across  this  part  of 
the  commons.  He  will  then  see  Harford  Church  in  the  valley,  about 
1 4-  m.  distant,  and  in  making  towards  it  must  be  sure  to  keep  above- 
trie  enclosures  on  the  R.  When  he  conies  abreast  of  the  Church  he 
will  see  a  moor  gate,  where  a  lane  runs  down  R.  directly  to  it. 

[To  Cornwood.  From  Siward's  Cross  follow  the  reave  (see  ante)- 
up  to  Eylesbarrow  (Ex.  37),  and  then  descend  the  hill  in  a  southerly 
direction  to  the  Plym,  passing  Higher  and  Lower  Hart  Tors.  The 
stream  should  be  struck  at  Plym  Steps  (Ex.  37),  where  the  Langcombe 
Brook  falls  into  it.  Then  up  the  hill  S.  by  W.  to  Shavercombe  Brook 
(Ex.  37),  i  m.  distant.  Cross  this,  and  continue  on  the  same  course, 
passing  above  Hen  Tor  (Ex.  37).  On  the  further  side  of  the  Plym, 
opposite  to  this  tor,  is  Ditsworthy  Warren  House,  which  is  in  full 
view.  One  mile  S.  of  Hen  Tor  is'  Shell  Top  (Ex.  34),  the  loftiest 
eminence  in  this  neighbourhood.  This  is  the  next  point,  and  on 
reaching  it  Pen  Beacon  (Ex.  34)  will  be  seen  below,  4  m.  distant  and 
in  a  direction  S.  by  E.  The  two  are  connected  by  a  reave.  This  may 
be  followed,  and  on  passing  the  Beacon,  a  course  S.S.E.  must  be 
followed  for  i  m.  to  Broker's  Plantation,  where  West  Brook  Gate 
opens  upon  a  path  leading  by  Rook  Farms  to  Heathfield  Down,  which 
is  close  to  the  village.  (Ex.  34). 

R.    S. — To   Shaugh   and   Plymptou.     S.S.W.     Nosworthy   Bridge, 
Shcepstor    Village,    Cadaford   Bridge,    P.T.    about   8£   m.    to   Shaugh ; 
12    m.    to   Plympton.     T.B.    add    i4-   m.     Branch   to   Cornwood   and~ 
Ivybridge.     Reverse,  R.  67. 

[Objects  between  P.T.  and  Nosworthy  Bridge  described  in  Exs.  2, 
39  ;  between  Nosworthy  Bridge  and  Cadaford  Bridge  in  Ex.  38  ; 
between  Cadaford  Bridge  and  Plympton  in  Ex.  36.] 

To  Crazy  Well  Bridge,  via  Cramber  Tor,  as  in  Ex.  2.  Thence 
descend  the  hill  southward  to  the  White  Works  track  (T.  2)  and  turn  R. 
About  -i  m.  on,  near  where  Raddick  Lane  comes  down  R.,  a  lane  branches 
L.  Strike  into  this,  and  in  another  \  m.  or  so  the  ruined  Nosworthy 
Farm  will  be  reached.  Cross  the  clapper  over  Newleycombe  Lake  L-, 
and  then  almost  immediately  turn  R.  to  the  Narrator  Brook  flowing 
from  Dean  Combe  (Ex.  39).  Cross  this  and  follow  the  path  with  the 
Burrator  Lake  R.  (Ex.  39,  T.  73)  to  Sheepstor  village,  which  is  i  m. 
distant.  Pass  down  near  the  church,  leaving  it  L-,  and  cross  the 
Sheepstor  Brook  just  below.  Pass  up  Portland  Lane,  running  S.,  to 
Ringmoor  Cot,  which  is  situated  L.  of  the  road.  Here  leave  the  road,, 
which  turns  a  little  to  the  R.,  and  follow  the  footpath  over  the  top  of 
Lynch  Down  (T.  72),  which  runs  S.,  to  Brisworthy  Plantation,  4  m. 
distant,  Ringmoor  Down  (Ex.  38)  being  on  the  L.  Just  beyond  this, 
at  the  corner  of  the  enclosures,  the  Tavistock  and  Cornwood  road  is. 
reached  (T.  69),  and  here  the  rambler  turns  L.  for  a  few  yards,  then. 


78          Route  8.     Princetown  and  Two  Bridges  to  Plympton. 

leaving  the  lane  to  Brisworthy  L-,  turns  sharp  to  the  R.,  just  afterwards 
again  bending  L.,  the  road  running  nearly  S.  Down  the  hill,  with  the 
Wigford  Down  Clay  Works  R.,  to  Cadaford  Bridge  (Exs.  36,  38).  At 
the  S.  end  of  it  the  road  branches  L.  to  Cornwood,  R.  to  Shaugh  and 
Plympton. 

[The  Cornwood  road  runs  up  to  the  grounds  of  Lee  Moor  House 
(Ex.  36),  passing  Blackaton  Cross  on  the  top  of  the  hill.  It  then  goes 
down  to  the  Torry  Brook  (Ex.  36),  which  it  crosses,  and  ascends  the 
hill  to  Tolchmoor  Gate  (Ex.  36).  Soon  after  it  again  descends,  and 
nearly  i  m.  from  the  gate  Quick  Bridge  is  crossed.  Further  on  the 
road  is  carried  over  the  Piall  Brook  (Ex.  34),  beyond  which  it  skirts 
Heathneld  Down  and  enters  Cornwood  village.  The  road  to  the  station 
runs  R.  ;  that  to  Ivybridge,  3  m.  distant,  L.]  / 

For  Plympton  and  Shaugh  the  rambler  ascends  the  hill  R.  from 
Cadaford  Bridge,  and  on  the  top  passes  Shaden  Plantation  R.,  shortly 
afterwards  reaching  Brag  Lane  End.  Here  he  turns  R.  for  Shaugh 
(Shaugh  District),  which  is  near  by.  If  his  destination  be  Plympton  he 
keeps  straight  on  to  Niel  Gate,  i  m.  distant,  where  he  leaves  the  common. 
£  m.  further  on  Browney  Cross  is  passed  (Ex.  36),  and  \  m.  beyond 
this  the  road  crosses  the  Lee  Moor  Railway.  Plympton  Station  is 
3  m.  distant. 

[The  road  from  P.T.  to  Yelverton  has  been  described,  as  far  as 
Goad's  Stone,  in  Ex.  i.  Beyond  that  waymark  it  climbs  over  the 
shoulder  of  Peak  Hill  (Ex.  39),  and  shortly  after  the  descent  on  the 
further  side  is  commenced  it  enters  upon  the  enclosed  land,  i  m. 
beyond  this  it  passes  through  Dousland,  and  in  another  mile  Yelverton 
is  reached.] 


C.  R.  1,  2.    Princetown  and  Two  Bridges  to  Cranmere. 


79 


ROUTES   TO   CRANMERE. 

(The  Pool  is  described  in  Part  III.     Directions  for  reaching 
it  are  given  in  each  district). 

C.  R.  i  and  2.— From  PRINCETOWN  AND  TWO  BRIDGES, 
7-V  m.  from  T.  B.  (A)  via  East  Dart.  Higher  White  Tor,  as  in  Ex.  5, 
2±  m.  from  T.  B.  Leave  it  R.  Thence  N.  by  Lower  White  Tor  to 
Cherry  Brook  above  Hollow  Combe,  and  across  Broad  Down  to  the 
stream-work  at  Broad  Marsh  on  the  East  Dart,  2  m.  (Or  the  course 
may  be  N.N.E.  from  the  Cherry  Brook  as  in  R.  lob,  in  which  case  the 


N.W. 


Cranmere. 
FROM   £   MH,E   WEST   OF   E.    DART   HEAD. 


Dart  will  be  reached  at  Sandy  Hole,  and  must  be  followed  up  through 
the  pass  to  the  stream- work.  This  will  add  another  |  m.)  About  J  m. 
above  the  point  where  the  Dart  should  be  struck  the  river  bends  R., 
flowing  from  the  N.  Follow  it  to  its  source — sheep  paths  on  L.  bank 
—2  m.  From  this  point  Cranmere  is  -i-  m.  distant  N.W.,  or  N.W.  by 
W.  from  the  highest  spring,  which  comes  from  a  heathery  hollow  in 
which  there  is  a  small  rock.  This  hollow  is  in  the  higher  corner  of  the 
swampy  source,  R.  in  ascending.  Between  the  river  head  and  the  pool 
the  ground,  which  is  spongy,  but  not  difficult  to  pass  over,  rises  gently 
to  the  top  of  the  Cranmere  ridge,  so  that  the  goal  is  not  in  sight.  When 
the  summit  of  the  ridge  is  reached  High  Willes  with  the  deep  cleft 
marking  the  valley  of  the  West  Ockment,  comes  into  view.  Make  for 
this  and  the  pool  will  be  struck. 

(B)  71  m.  from  T.B.  Valley  of  the  West  Dart  to  the  bend  J  m. 
above  the  wall  that  crosses  under  Row  Tor  (Ex.  5).  Leave  the  river  L. 
and  strike  N.N.E.  for  nearly  J  m.  to  the  East  Dart,  which  should  be 
reached  at  Kit  Steps,  at  the  head  of  the  stream-work  near  Broad 


8o 


C.  R.  1,  2.    Princetown  and  Two  Bridges  to  Cranmere. 


Marsh.     Thence  as  in  A.  (A  or  B  form  the  first  part  of  the  route  from 
\P.  B.  to  Belstone  ;  see  R.  3.     Reverse,  R.  29). 

(C)  via  Cut  Hill,  8£  m.  from  P.T.  ;  7^  from  T.B.     The  route  to  Cut 
Hill  from  P.T.  and  T.  B.  is  given  in  Ex.   n.     Thence  to  East  Dart 
Head,  see  R.  3,  also  R.  63.     From  Dart  Head  to  the  pool,  see  A. 

(D)  via  Cowsic  Head.     7^  m.  from  T.  B.  ;  9  m.  from  P.  T.     From 
T.B.  to  head  of  Cowsic,  see  Ex.  5.     From  P.T.  the  first  point  is  Rundle 
Stone  ;  thence  to  New  Forest  Corner  ;  thence  N.E.  over  the  S.  side  of 
Black  Dunghill  to  the  Cowsic,  near  the  Bear  Down  wall.     Follow  the 
stream  to  its  head.     Thence  due  N.  over  the  ridge  to  the  Tavy,  which  is 
struck  a  little  below  its  source.     (Cut  Hill  is  R.)     The  next  point  is 
Fur  Tor,  N.N.W..  which  must  be  kept  L.     Thence  as  in  E. 

(E).  From  P.  T.  via  Walkham  Head,  9  m.  (This  is  an  easy 
route).  Rundle  Stone  and  New  Forest  Corner,  as  in  Ex.  6.  Turn  R. 
to  the  Prison  leat.  Thence  as  in  R.  3  to  Walkham  Head  and  Tavy 

Great  Black  Cranmere. 

Kneeset.  Ridge.  x 


FROM   LITTLE   KNEESET.       LOOKING   N.E. 

Hole.  E.N.E.  to  Fur  Tor,  which  keep  L.  ;  and  descend  Cut  Combe 
to  Fur  Tor  Wood*  ;  R.  bank  of  Cut  Combe  Water  ;  when  it  bends  L. 
leave  it  ;  strike  N.  across  Rush  Bottom  and  over  eastern  side  of  Little 
Kneeset  to  Black  Ridge  Water,  rather  over  4  m.  from  Cut  Combe 
Water  ;  this  should  be  struck  where  two  branches  meet.  Follow  up 
L.  branch  to  source.  (Should  the  R.  in  ascending  be  followed  it  will 
not  throw  the  rambler  out  much).  Rising  ground.  Cranmere  is  -\  m. 
N.N.E.  If  ground  is  bad  ascend  Little  Kneeset,  and  cross  it  N.W.  by 
N.  to  Black  Hole.  Follow  up  the  branch  of  the  Black  Ridge  Water 
that  comes  down  L-  or  N.  This  branch  joins  the  other  less  than  ^  m. 
due  N.  of  the  summit  of  Little  Kneeset,  1,665  feet.  Great  Kneeset  is 
about  |-  m.  northward.  Follow  this  branch  nearly  to  its  source,  £  m., 
under  Great  Kneeset,  and  then  strike  E.  by  N.  along  the  edge  of  Kneeset 
Pan — Black  Ridge,  fen,  R.  ;  the  pan,  good  ground,  L.  This  will  lead 
directly  to  the  pool). 

Return  routes  to  P.  T.  and  T.  B.  are  shown  in  R.  27  to  Hollow 
Combe ;  also  by  way  of  Tavy  Head  and  Cut  Hill,  in  R.  29 ;  and  from 
Cut  Hill  in  Ex.'  1 1 . 


*  The  name  still  attaches  to  this  spot,  though  no  wood  now  exists 
here.     Oak  has  been  found  buried  in  the  peat  near  by.     (Ex.   1 1). 


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82  ROAD    DISTANCES   TO    HEXWORTHY. 


HEXWORTHY    DISTRICT. 

DISTANCES.  BY  ROAD:  ASHBURTON,  via  Holne,  8-?r  m.  ; 
via  Dartmeet,  9|  m.  BOVEY  TRACEY,  via  Dartmeet,  14  in. 
BUCKFASTLEIGH,  ;4-  m.  ;  to  Station,  8J  m.  CHAGFORD, 
1 5f  m.  DARTMEET,  ~i\  m.  HOLNE,  4$  m.  IVY  BRIDGE,  via 
South  Brent,  17^  m.  LYDFQRD,  via  Moor  Shop,  19  m.  MORETON, 
17$  m.  OKEHAMPTON,  via  Post  Bridge,  26  m.  ;  tna  Moor  Shop, 
27  m.  PLYMPTON,  via  Prinoetown,  20?  m.  ;  via  Ivybridge,  23  m. 
POST  BRIDGE,  via  Two  Bridges,  8f  m"  PRINCETOWN,  6|  m. 
RUNDLE  STONE,  7  m.  SHAUGH,  via  Dousland,  16  m.  SOUTH 
BRENT,  via  Buckfastleigh,  \z\  m.  TAVISTOCK,  via  Two  Bridges 
and  Rundle  Stone,  13  m.  TWO  BRIDGES,  si  m.  WARREN 
HOUSE  INN,  ii  m.  WIDECOMBE,  6+  m.  YELVERTON,  via 
Two  Bridges  and  Princetown,  12^  m. 

NEAREST  RAILWAY  STATIONS:  ASHBURTON,  8^  m.  MORE- 
TON,  171  m.  PRINCETOWN,  6|-  m. 


Important  Points  and  Landmarks. 

Aune  Head — Bellaford  Tor — Black  Lane — Dartmeet — Fox  Tor — 
Hapstead  Ford — Horn's  Cross — Petre's  Bound  Stone — Prince  Hall 
Bridge — Pupers.  Places  of  Interest.  Cater's  Beam — Childe's  Tomb — 
The  Coffin  Stone — Combestone  Tor — Dunnabridge  Pound — Gorge  of 
the  Dart — Huccaby  Cleave — Piskies"  Holt — Prince  Hall — Sherburton 
Firs — Wo  Brook  Foot — Yar  Tor.  Prehistoric  Antiquities.  Corndon 
Tor  :  cairns — Rows  on  Sherwell  Down — Holne  Lee :  tumuli — Mardle 
Ring :  hut  enclosure  on  the  Mardle — Money  Pit :  kistvaen  near  Yar  Tor 
— Saddle  Bridge :  enclosures — Sharp  Tor  Hut  Circle — Snowdon :  cairns 
and  enclosures — Swincombe  Valley  :  hut  circles — Yar  Tor  Hill :  huts. 
Mining  Remains.  Aune  Head :  stream  works  and  tinners'  huts — Black 
Lane :  stream  works  and  tinners'  huts — Deep  Swincombe :  blowing 
nouse  and  other  remains — Dry  Lakes  :  old  workings — Gobbet :  old 
workings — Hangman's  Pit:  workings— The  Mardle  :  workings — S win- 
combe  Valley :  workings — Week  Ford  :  blowing  house. 

Hexworthy  is  one  of  the  old  forest  settlements,  and  originally 
consisted  of  five  holdings  (see  Ancient  Tenements  in  the  Terms  Section). 
One  form  of  the  name  is  Hextworthy,  and  in  1344  we  find  Robert  de 
Hextenworth  referred  to  as  a  holder  of  land  in  the  forest.  In  1379 
there  is  mention  of  Bysouthexworthi,  which  was  probably  one  of  the 
enements.  The  present  form  of  the  name  as  used  by  the  moormen 
is  Haxary, 


EXCURSION   41.       THE  FOREST  INN.  83 

The  area  over  which  these  rambles  extend  is  not  large,  much 
of  the  district  being  noticed  in  the  excursions  from  Princetown, 
Ashburton,  and  Brent,  besides  which  it  is  also  crossed  by  a  number 
of  routes.  The  visitor  will,  however,  be  able  to  lengthen  his  walks 
if  he  desires  to  do  so  by  connecting  the  present  excursions  with  others 
previously  described  as  here  indicated. 

In  Ex.  41  that  part  of  the  district  east  of  the  Dart  between  Babeny 
and  Rowbrook  is  noticed  ;  this  abuts  on  the  ground  covered  by  Ex.  28. 
Ex.  42  embraces  the  part  between  the  East  Dart  and  the  Swincombe 
river,  and  abuts  on  Exs.  44,  5,  4.  Ex.  43  takes  in  that  between  the 
Swincombe  river  and  the  Wo  Brook,  and  abuts  on  Exs.  3,  29.  Holne 
Moor  is  described  in  the  Brent  and  Ivybridge  District. 


Excursions  from  Hexworthy. 

[Tracks:  2,  8,  10,  53  to  56,  75,80,81.  Routes  passing  through 
the  district :  5a,  42  ;  6abc,  49  ;  27,  63  ;  33,  64.] 

Ex.  41. — The  Forest  Inn,  Huccaby,  Dartmect  [Gorge  of  the  Dart, 
3^  m.  from  Dartrneet  to  Wellsfoot  Island],  Babeny,  Corndon  Tor,  Yar 
Tor,  Sharp  Tor,  Dartmcet  Hill,  The  Coffin  Stone,  8  m. 

From  the  Forest  Inn  at  Hexworthy  the  beholder  looks  upon  one 
of  the  finest  scenes  on  Dartmoor,  though  it  is  not  quite  as  it  was  when 
we  first  knew  it,  when  in  the  little  settlement  across  the  combe  only 
rough  granite  walls  and  thatch  were  to  be  seen.  In  the  valley  the  West 
Dart  conies  sweeping  round  a  low  promontory  on  which  are  some  old 
farm  enclosures  known  as  The  Byes.  Huccaby  Farm  stands  on  the 
further  bank,  and  above  this  are  the  Brimpts  Plantations,  and  beyond, 
the  crests  of  Corndon  Tor  and  Yar  Tor. 

From  this  comfortable  little  hostelry  the  rambler  will  follow  R.  53 
down  the  hill  towards  the  river,  passing  Jolly  Lane  Cot,  the  last  of  the 
dwellings  to  be  erected  under  the  old  custom  of  building  a  house  between 
sunrise  and  sunset,  and  thereby  claiming  the  land  on  which  it  stood, 
and  also  the  enclosure  that  could  be  formed  round  it.  [Hundred  Years, 
Chap.  I.]  Across  the  river  is  Huccaby  House,  the  former  residence 
•of  Mr.  Robert  Burnard,  F.S.A.,  whose  researches  on  Dartmoor  have 


Brimpts. 


Corndon     Yar 
Tor         Tor. 


Dartmeet 
Hill. 


FROM   THE   FOREST   INN,   HEXWORTHY. 


84  HEXWORTHY    DISTRICT. 

thrown  much  light  on  the  subject  of  its  pre-historic  antiquities,  as  well 
as  upon  its  ancient  mining.  Mr.  Burnard  may  be  regarded  as  the  pioneer 
of  spade  work  among  the  rude  stone  remains,  and  both  singly  and  in 
conjunction  with  the  Rev.  S.  Baring-Gould,  and  the  Rev.  Irvine  K. 
Anderson,  of  Mary  Tavy,  has  done  good  service  in  this  direction. 

Hexworthy  Bridge  takes  the  place  of  a  clam,  but  it  is  probable 
that  the  forerunner  of  the  latter  was  a  clapper.  Here  the  road  runs 
over  the  Marsh,  as  it  is  called,  towards  St.  Raphael's  Chapel.  An  old 
track  (T.  2)  is  carried  from  this  to  Week  Ford,  at  Wo  Brook  Foot.  By 
following  it  the  Piskies'  Holt  may  be  reached.  Its  situation  is  marked 
by  four  sycamores  [Pixies,  Chap.  I.]  Below  it  the  West  Dart  flows 
through  Huccaby  Cleave,  often  called  Cleave  Combe,  or,  as  the  moor- 
men  say,  Clay  Combe.  On  the  I/,  as  we  proceed  is  Huccaby,  an  ancient 
tenement.  The  final  syllable  is  sounded  by  the  moor  folks  so  as  to 
rhyme  with  my,  and  the  name  has  probably  some  relation  to  the 
Byes  on  the  other  side  of  the  river.  Older  forms  of  it  are  Hokecaby 
and  Hookerby.  We  pass  up  the  hill  and  turn  R.  at  the  gate.  A  little 
further  on  I/,  is  Brimpts  Gate.  This  is  one  of  the  ancient  tenements, 
and  in  1 307  is  referred  to  as  Bremstonte.  Three  hundred  and  twenty 
years  later  it  appears  as  Brymst,  and  still  later,  in  1702,  as  Brimpston. 
Thence  our  way  takes  us  down  Hart  Hole  Lane  to  Dartmeet.  Looking 
up  stream  the  woods  and  plantations  of  Brimpts  are  seen  clothing  the 
hillside  L.  On  the  R.  is  Yar  Tor.  Close  to  the  bridge  on  this  side 
the  remains  of  a  clapper  will  be  seen.  This  was  destroyed  by  a  flood 
in  1826.  About  twenty-five  years  ago  it  was  partly  "restored,"  but 
some  of  the  stones  have  been  again  displaced.  Below  the  bridge  is 
the  confluence  of  the  two  Darts.  On  the  hillside  S.  is  Combestone 
Farm  (see  Holne  Moor  Section  in  the  Brent  District  in  Part  IV.);  on 
the  L.  is  Dartmeet  Hill. 

[The  GORGE  OF  THE  DART,  3^  m.  from  the  bridge  to  Wellsfoot 
Island.  To  trace  the  Dart  through  the  deep  valley  below  Dartmeet 
Bridge  will  reward  the  rambler.  He  should  make  his  way  down  by  the 
L.  bank.  (On  the  R.  bank  there  is  a  fisherman's  path  from  Holne  Cot 
upward,  which  is  open  on  certain  days  as  stated  in  S.  Ex.  96). 

On  leaving  the  bridge  there  is  a  fine  view  of  Huccaby  Cleave, 
through  which  the  West  Dart  comes  down  to  meet  the  eastern  branch. 
On  our  L.  is  Dartmeet  Hill  ;  R.  the  tongue  of  land  on  which  are  the 
enclosures  of  Combestone  Farm,  and  below  this,  on  the  same  side,  is 
Combestone  Wood.  Below  Combestone  Island  the  river  bends  L.  or  E. 
Under  Rowbrook  Farm,  L.,  is  that  part  of  the  valley  known  as  Langa- 
marsh  Pit.  Here,  close  to  the  stream,  is  Lug  Tor,  sometimes  called 
Lucky  Tor,  and  also  the  Raven  Rock.  It  is  a  mass  of  granite  draped 
with  ivy,  and  resembles  a  ruined  castle.  Some  times  it  is  spoken  of  as 
the  Eagle  Rock.  (cf.  Bench  Tor,  in  the  Holne  Moor  Section).  Close 
to  it  is  Black  Pool  and  a  couple  of  small  islands,  and  a  little  stream  that 
flows  from  East  Combe.  A  short  distance  below  this  the  Wennaford 
Brook  comes  in  from  S.,  and  not  far  up  the  valley  from  which  it  issues 
is  the  dam  at  the  lower  end  of  the  Paignton  Reservoir.  (Holne  Moor 
Section  in  Brent  and  Ivybridge  District).  Now  the  Dart  sweeps  north- 
eastward round  the  promontory  on  which  Bench  Tor  is  situated  R. 
Below  the  tor  is  White  Wood.  Opposite  to  the  extremity  of  the 


EXCURSION   41.     VALLEY  OF  THE  DART.  85 

promontory  Simon's  Lake  falls  into  the  river,  and  here  are  the  boulders 
known  as  the  Broad  Stones.  To  "  heer  the  cry  o'  the  Brad  Stones  " 
is  a  sign  of  coming  foul  weather.  A  little  further  down  below 
Mil  Tor  L.,  is  Mil  Tor  Wood,  near  the  lower  end  of  which  is 
Mil  Pool,  and  a  miry  spot  known  as  Stony  Marsh.  Under  Bench  Tor, 
but  on  the  L.  bank  is  Hockinston  Tor,  and  close  to  it  Hockinston 
Marsh.  Below  Sharrah  Pool  is  Sharrah  Pool  Marsh,  at  the  head  of  a 
group  of  three  islands,  Bel  Pool,  Little  Bel  Pool,  and  Long  Island.  At 
the  lower  end  of  the  latter  is  a  fine  waterfull.  Here  on  the  R.  bank  is 
Ford  Newtake.  Half-a-mile  further  down,  and  under  Holne  Wood,  is 
that  part  of  the  river  called  Hannaford  Stickles,  not  far  below  which,  at 
Wellsfoot  Island,  the  Dart  bends  E.  and  emerges  from  the  gorge. 
Below  the  next  bend  its  course  is  N.  under  Cleave  Wood  R.  to  New 
Bridge  (Exs.  27,  28). 

From  Bel  Pool  Island  the  rambler  may  climb  the  steep  hili  to 
Dr.  Blackall's  Drive,  N.E.  (S.  Ex.  95).  Here  he  will  turn  L.  and  follow 
it  north  westward  to  Bel  Tor  Corner  (Ex.  28),  and  there  again  turning 
L.  will  make  his  way  by  Ouldsbroom  to  the  head  of  Dartmeet  Hill, 
and  descend  to  the  bridge.  Distance  from  and  to  Dartmeet,  if  the 
ramble  does  not  extend  beyond  Bel  Pool  Island,  6  m.] 

From  Dartmeet  Bridge  we  follow  for  a  short  distance  the  path 
running  up  the  valley  under  Yar  Tor  to  Sherwell  (T.  53).  Across  the 
stream  some  portion  of  the  ancient  sylvan  honours  of  Brimpts  is  seen. 
Many  years  ago  a  number  of  oaks  were  felled  here  for  ship  timber, 
though  they  were  not  used  for  that  purpose.  On  the  brow  of  the  hill 
is  the  clump  of  trees  to  which  the  name  of  The  Seven  Sisters  has  been 
given.  Below  may  be  seen  the  ruins  of  Dolly's  Cot.  To  this  retired 
spot  a  certain  moorland  Benedict  brought  his  newly-wedded  wife,  in 
order  to  place  her  out  of  the  reach  of  those  who  admired  her  rather 
more  than  he  cared  for.  This  was  in  the  days  when  Sir  Thomas 
Tyrwhitt  was  the  master  of  Tor  Royal  (Ex.  3),  and  some  of  the  guests  at 
his  bachelor  house  parties  seem  to  have  been  attracted  by  the  "  beauty  ' ' 
of  the  moor.  I  find  it  has  been  stated  that  the  "  First  Gentleman 
in  Europe  "  was  one  of  the  guests,  and  that  he  made  love  to  Dolly.  It 
is  unfortunate  that  what  is  nothing  more  than  an  idle  story  should  be 
stated  as  a  fact.  As  is  well  known  George  IV.  was  a  friend  of  Tyrwhitt' s 
but  there  is  no  evidence  that  he  was  ever  at  Tor  Royal,  or  even  on 
Dartmoor,  either  as  Prince  Regent  or  King.  In  1788  the  prince  came 
to  Plymouth  to  see  his  brother,  the  Duke  of  Clarence,  off  on  a  voyage, 
but  Tor  Royal  was  not  then  built,  and  it  does  not  appear  that  His 
Royal  Highness  came  into  Devonshire  after  that  date. 

We  leave  the  path  over  Yar  Tor  Down  under  the  tor  and  follow 
the  Dart  up  to  Babeny,  where  the  Walla  Brook  comes  into  it.  Over 
the  latter,  not  far  above  the  confluence,  is  a  very  interesting  clapper. 
This  consists  of  three  openings  ;  the  stone  over  the  eastern  one  is 
7  feet  4  inches  long,  and  3  feet  10  inches  wide  ;  that,  over  the  centre 
opening  is  9  feet  10  inches  long,  but  much  narrower  ;  and  the  third 
5  feet  9  inches  in  length.  Above  Babeny  is  Mill  Hill,  which  forms  the 
southern  slope  of  Riddon  Ridge,  over  which  we  have  already  con- 
ducted the  rambler  (R.  5,  42b).  In  1302  or  1303  the  holders  of  the 
tenements  in  the  forest  built  a  mill  at  Babeny  at  their  own  cost,  the 
king  supplying  the  timber,  which  was  felled  in  his  wood.  At  this  mill 


86  HEXWORTHY    DISTRICT. 

each  tenant  had  to  do  service,  as  appears  from  an  account  of  the  prince's 
manors  of  the  22nd  March,  1344.  Babeny  has  been  mentioned  as  one 
of  the  "  villages  "  the  inhabitants  of  which  petitioned  Bishop  Brones- 
combe  in  1260  to  allow  them  to  pay  their  tithes  to  the  church  of  Wide- 
combe,  which  they  attended,  their  own  being  so  far  away  (see  T.  18). 
It  is  sometimes  called  White's  Babeny,  and  a  similar  prefix  is  borne 
by  a  ruined  farm  in  the  locality.  This  is  White's  Slade,  on  the  L. 
bank  of  the  East  Dart  opposite  Lough  Tor  Hole  Farm  (Ex.  44).* 

Turning  eastward  we  climb  the  hill  between  the  enclosures  to 
Sherwell,  one  of  the  ancient  vills.  In  Edward  the  First's  time  there 
is  mention  of  a  Hamlin  de  Sherwell,  who  held  land  at  Dunnabridge. 

Thence  we  make  our  way  to  the  summit  of  the  lofty  Corn  Down, 
•£  m.  E.,  where  are  several  fine  cairns.  Southward  is  Corndon  Tor, 
and  still  further  S.  Sherwell  Down,  or  as  it  is  often  called,  Sherberton 
Common  (Ex.  28).  Sherwell,  by  the  way,  is  always  Sherell  on  the 
moor.  Here,  near  the  Babeny  road,  is  a  double  stone  row,  with  appear- 
ances of  a  third  line  between  the  others,  and  not  far  off  is  another 
double  row.  S.W.  of  Corndon  Tor,  but  on  the  western  side  of  the 
Babeny  road,  is  the  kistvaen  known  as  Money  Pit.  One  of  the  side 
stones  and  one  end  stone  remain,  as  well  as  the  covering  slab,  which  is 
of  a  lonzenge  shape.  This  kist  is  enclosed  within  a  circle,  of  which  nine 
stones  are  standing  ;  it  is  i2-\  feet  in  diameter.  Between  Corndon 
Tor  R.  and  Yar  Tor  L.  there  is  a  fine  view  of  the  eastern  side  of  the 
forest,  with  the  ancient  enclosures  of  Riddon  Farm  on  the  further  side 
of  the  Walla  Brook  valley.  In  the  opposite  direction  Sharp  Tor,  with 
its  bold  outline,  is  the  chief  feature  in  the  scene,  while  beyond  is  Holne 
Moor  and  the  distant  in-country.  From  Yar  Tor,  which  is  qiu'te  close 
to  the  kist,  N.W.,  the  view  is  much  extended.  But  apart  from  this 
the  tor  should  be  visited,  as  although  not  rising  high  above  the  turf, 
some  of  the  piles  are  very  striking. 

From  Money  Pit  we  make  our  way  to  Sharp  Tor,  passing  Oulds- 
broom  Cross  L.  Here  formerly  stood  the  stone  cross  elsewhere 
spoken  of  as  now  serving  as  a  gate-post  at  Lower  Town  Farm.  [Crosses, 
Chap.  XVI.  See  also  Ex.  27.]  There  is  mention  of  John  of  Ollesbrom 
in  the  fourteenth  century,  and  that  is  probably  the  correct  form  of  the 
name.  Keeping  the  farm  enclosures  L.  we  strike  across  the  common 
to  the  tor,  which  we  shall  find  to  consist  of  two  separate  piles  rising 
from  a  large  conical  base,  the  southernmost  being  the  larger  and  higher. 
There  is  a  rock  basin  on  this,  but  not  a  particularly  good  example. 
Mil  Tor  to  the  S.E.  we  have  elsewhere  noticed  (Ex.  28).  E.  of  this  are 
a  number  of  reaves  forming  rectangular  enclosures,  and  a  fine  hut 
circle,  the  wall  of  which  is  about  five  feet  thick.  It  is  constructed  of 
very  large  stones,  one  of  them  being  9  feet  long  and  over  5  feet  wide.  It 
is  this  hut  to  which  we  have  referred  as  probably  resembling  the  small 
enclosure  formerly  existing  near  Shilstone  Tor  (Ex.  18).  Reaves  and 
hut  circles  are  found  on  other  parts  of  this  common. 

On  the  side  of  the  hill  from  which  Sharp  Tor  rises  is  the  solitary 
farm  of  Rowbrook.  This  moorland  dwelling,  with  the  wild  valley 

*  In  the  time  of  James  I.  we  have  mention  of  a  reave,  as  le  rewe, 
in  this  locality.  It  is  named  in  connection  with  Wenford  Lake,  which 
forms  one  of  the  boundary  points  of  the  manor  of  Spitchwick.  Wen- 
ford  Gate  (Vennyfer  Yeat)  is  mentioned  in  Elizabeth's  time. 


EXCURSION   41.       THE   COFFIN   STONE.  87 

below  it,  is  the  scene  of  the  story  of  Jan  Coo,  which  I  gathered  many 
years  ago  from  the  late  Mr.  Richard  Cleave,  of  Hexworthy,  and  which 
I  have  related  in  my  Tales  of  the  Dartmoor  Pixies,  Chap.  VII.  (1890). 
The  farm  is  approached  by  a  track  branching  from  the  road  at  Bel  Tor 
Corner  (Ex.  28),  and  is  carried  down  the  side  of  the  combe  through 
which  runs  the  little  Simon's  Lake. 

On  leaving  Sharp  Tor  we  strike  N.W.,  with  the  ruined  cottage  at 
the  head  of  East  Combe  below  us  L.,  and  shall  regain  the  road  at  the 
top  of  Dartmeet  Hill.  On  each  side  of  this  are  a  number  of  reaves. 


Sharp  Tor. 


Holne  Moor. 

Bench  Tor. 


FROM   THE    ROAD    AT    TOP    OF    DARTMEET    HII.L.      BOOKING    DUE    S. 

and  on  the  R.  many  scattered  hut  circles.  A  little  way  down  a  green 
track  will  be  seen  I,.  By  following  this  we  shall  be  led  to  an  object 
long  associated  with  an  old  custom.  This  is  known  as  the  Coffin  Stone, 
but  it  really  consists  of  two  blocks  of  granite.  Here  the  bearers  rest 
the  coffin  when  a  corpse  is  being  borne  from  this  part  of  the  moor  to 
Widecom.be  for  burial.  On  the  surface  of  the  stones  several  initials 
and  small  crosses  are  incised  [Crosses,  Chap.  XVI.]  Near  here,  but  on 
the  other  side  of  the  road,  is  a  small  enclosure  with  a  hut  circle  at  one 
end  of  it.  Descending  to  the  bridge  we  shall  return  to  Hexworthy 
(as  in  R.  42).  the  centre  of  the  most  interesting  and  attractive  part 
of  the  forest. 


88 


HEXWORTHY    DISTRICT. 


Ex.  42. — Huccaby  Tor,  Stone  Row,  Lough  Tor,  Dunnabridge  Pound, 
Sherburton,  Swincombe,  6|  m. 

Our  first  point  is  the  gate  above  Huccaby,  as  in  the  preceding 
excursion,  and  here  we  turn  I,,  with  Snider  Park  Plantation  R.  A 
short  distance  on  is  Huccaby  Cottage,  whence  a  track  runs  northward 
to  Post  Bridge  (T.  81).  Here  we  enter  upon  the  commons,  but  instead 


S.E. 


Huccaby. 
FROM   THE   ROAI>   NEAR   HUCCABY   COTTAGE. 


of  following  the  track  shall  strike  L.  to  Huccaby  Tor,  which,  however, 
presents  nothing  remarkable,  and  thence  Is.W.  to  the  wall  of  some 
enclosures  on  the  sides  of  the  little  combe  down  which  Cocks'  Lake 
runs  on  its  brief  journey  to  the  Dart.  Here  we  strike  N.  and  make  our 
way  to  the  scanty  remains  of  the  old  Brimpts  Mine  buildings.  Not 
far  from  these  is  a  fallen  menhir,  from  which  runs  a  double  stone  row, 
and  near  by  are  vestiges  of  other  monuments.  Still  proceeding  north- 
ward, but  keeping  the  wall  R.,  we  shall  soon  reach  Lough  Tor,  close 
to  which  we  come  upon  the  rectangular  enclosure  known  as  Lough  Tor 
Pound.  The  gateway  is  on  the  side  nearest  the  tor,  and  the  walls  are 
high.  This  the  moormen  used  to  speak  of  as  a  "  sheep  measure." 
Its  capacity  being  known,  when  it  was  filled  with  these  animals  there 
was  no  need  of  counting  them  to  ascertain  their  number  !  North 
and  east  of  the  tor,  from  which  there  is  a  fine  view  of  the  moor,  the 
ground  drops  steeply  down  to  that  part  of  the  East  Dart  valley  bearing 
the  name  of  Lough  Tor  Hole — the  Lafter  Hall  of  the  moormen — and 
here  is  the  farm  also  so  called  (T.  81,  Ex.  44). 

Ttfrning  from  the  pile  we  strike  S.W.  for  about  1  m.  to  the  track 
leading  from  Post  Bridge  to  Dunnabridge  (T.  80),  and  follow  it  to  the 
latter  place,  keeping  the  wall  R.  We  have  already  noticed  Dunna- 
bridge Pound  in  the  section  on  Crockern  Tor,  in  the  Princetown  District, 
and  have  referred  to  the  story  of  the  so-called  Judge's  Chair.  This 
obiect  w'll  be  seen  immediatelv  within  the  gate  ;  there  is  little  doubt 


EXCURSION    42.      DUNNABRIDGE    POUND.  89 

that  it  is  really  a  dolmen.  The  wall  of  the  pound,  like  that  of  Erme 
Pound  (Ex.  32)  is  built  on  the  line  of  a  more  ancient  enclosure.  That 
sepulchral  monuments  were  erected  on,  or  close  to.  the  walls  of  such  is 
proved  by  the  existence  of  the  kistvaen  at  the  end  of  the  stone  row  on 
Brown  Heath  (Ex.  32),  the  circle  enclosing  which  touches  the  vallum 
of  a  large  hut  pound.  Close  to  this  object  at  Dunnabridge  Pound 
a  slab  will  be  seen  in  which  are  several  circular  holes,  but  it  is  now 
broken  along  the  line  of  these.  It  appears  probable  that  this  once 
formed  the  side  of  the  sepulchral  chamber.  In  many  examples  of 
enclosed  dolmens  similar  holes  are  found.  If,  however,  the  visitor 
should  not  agree  with  this  opinion,  he  may  amuse  himself  by  supposing 
that  disturbers  of  the  peace  during  the  time  of  the  drifts  were  put  to  sit 
beneath  this  stone  canopy,  and  their  legs  secured  in  these  holes,  since 
we  find  the  reave  of  the  manor  of  Lydford  laying  out  a  certain  sum  in 
1620  for  the  repair  of  the  pound  walls,  gate,  and  stocks  at  Dunnabridge. 
The  enclosure  has  long  served  as  a  drift  pound.  In  1342  there  is 
mention  of  it  in  an  account  of  the  bailiff  of  Dartmoor,  where  the  sum 
of  threepence  is  shown  as  having  been  expended  for  a  lock  for  the  gate 
(see  Pound  in  Terms  Section).  Eastward  of  the  pound,  on  Dunnabridge 
Moor,  is  another  circular  enclosure,  the  wall  of  which  is  much  over- 
grown. 

The  bridge  near  the  pound  -has  been  built  during  recent  years. 
When  Mr.  Bray  visited  the  place,  in  1831,  he  was  surprised  at  finding 
no  bridge  there.  In  this  connection  it  is  well  to  remember  that  in  the 
earlier  forms  of  the  name  the  final  syllable  is  brig,  and  not  bridge. 
Across  the  road  is  Brownberry,  one  of  the  ancient  tenements  which 
now  belongs  to  the  poor  of  Brixham.  Quite  close  is  Dunnabridge 
Pound  Farm.  Near  the  bridge  is  a  track  leading  to  a  gate.  This  runs 
on  to  Dunnabridge  Farm,  which,  like  Brownberry,  was  one  of  the  old 
forest  holdings,  but  is  now  the  property  of  the  Duchy.  Here,  over  a 
water  trough  in  the  yard,  is  the  large  flat  stone  referred  to  in  the 
Section  on  Crockern  Tor.  That  this  was  brought  from  the  tor  there  is 
good  reason  to  believe.  It  was  by  confusing  Dunnabridge  Farm  with 
Dunnabridge  Pound  that  led,  in  all  probability,  to  the  report  that  the 
dolmen  was  brought  from  there.  The  farm  is  not  far  from  the  Dart, 
over  which,  but  higher  up  the  stream,  are  some  stepping-stones,  by 
means  of  which  Little  Sherburton  is  reached  from  this  side. 

To  the  R.,  or  N.,  of  the  read  running  westward  to  Two  Bridges  is 
the  farm  of  Smith  Hill.  The  house  stands  on  the  R.  bank  of  Cherry 
Brook,  which  is  there  spanned  by  a  clapper.  On  Smith  Hill,  between 
Cherry  Brook  and  the  Moreton  road,  a  small  feeder  takes  its  rise,  and 
is  sometimes  called  the  Smith  Hill  Brook.  Below  this,  at  Cherry 
Brook  Bridge,  is  another  feeder,  the  Muddy  Lakes  Brook,  which  has 
its  source  in  the  newtake  bearing  that  name. 

If  the  condition  of  the  Dart  be  suitable  the  rambler  may  proceed 
by  Dunnabridge  Farm  to  the  steps,  and  thence  to  Little  Sherburton, 
from  which  he  will  pass  up  S.  to  Swincombe  Newtake.  If  this  cannot 
be  done  he  will  descend  from  near  Brownberry  to  the  clam  and  make 
his  way  up  to  Sherburton,  as  in  R.  33,  and  will  readily  get  permission 
to  follow  the  lane  running  westward  from  the  house  to  the  newtake 
named.  Here,  on  the  R.,  in  the  corner  of  the  enclosure  abutting  on 
the  newtake,  are  the  remains  of  a  circle  consisting  of  ten  stones.  A 
reave  runs  from  it  down  to  Little  Sherburton. 


90  HEXWORTHY    DISTRICT. 

Striking  S.  over  Swincombe  Newtake  we  shortly  reach  Swincombe 
Ford,  and  thence  make  our  way  to  Hexworthy,  as  in  T.  8. 

[The  estate  of  Sherburton,  which  is  one  of  the  old  forest  tenements, 
is  situated  on  a  tongue  of  land  round  which  the  West  Dart  makes  a 


Bellaford  Tor. 


Lough  Tor. 


FROM   SWINCOMBE   NEWTAKE. 


Dunnabridge  Pound. 
BOOKING   N.    BY  E. 


bold  sweep,  its  course  being  northerly  on  the  W.  side  and  southerly  on 
the  E.  The  ground  rises  rather  steeply  from  the  river  in  places. 
There  were  formerly  three  tenements  here  called  Sherborne,  "  or 
lying  in  Sherborne."  This  form  of  the  name  is  found  as  early  as  1360  ; 
in  Queen  Elizabeth's  time  it  appears  as  Shurbora.  There  is  mention 
also  of  Sherborne  Wood  in  1358  ;  Sherborncroft  in  1416  ;  and  Sher- 
borne Foot  about  1521.  The  names  of  Sherling,  Shirebourne,  and 
Sherlond  are  also  met  with,  and  they  appear  to  refer  to  the  same  place.* 
On  the  N.W.  side  of  the  estate,  close  to  the  river,  are  traces  of  a  former 
building,  and  the  spot  used  to  be  known  as  Broom  Park.  Below  the 
house  at  Sherburton  the  Swincombe  runs  down  to  the  Dart,  and  over 
this  the  road  is  carried  by  means  of  a  clapper  of  two  openings' (R.  33). 
This  was  originally  only  of  sufficient  width  for  packhorses.  Advantage 
has  been  taken  of  a  rock  to  serve  as  a  foundation  for  the  centre  pier. 
The  imposts  are  supported  by  stones  placed  in  the  manner  of  brackets. 
A  short  distance  below  this  is  the  confluence  of  the  streams,  the  spot, 
which  is  a  charming  one,  being  marked  by  the  plantation  known  as 
Sherburton  Firs.  This  may  be  reached  from  Hexworthy  by  passing 
through  the  enclosures  N.  of  the  hamlet.  Below  this  is  Timber  Pool, 
so  called  from  an  oak  tree  brought  down  by  a  flood,  and  which  remained 
there  for  some  time  ;  near  it  is  the  patch  called  Black  Furzes,  which  is 
probably  the  Blackfursses  mentioned  in  a  bailiff's  account  in  1350.  The 
road  from  Sherburton  Bridge  to  Hexworthy  runs  over  Gobbet  Plain.] 

*  Previous  to  1301,  in  which  year  he  is  described  as  a  "  fugitive," 
Joel  Bird  held  a  ferling  of  land  "  at  Sherling,  in  Dartmoor."  In  1307 
Walter  Dernelof  held  half  a  ferling  and  four  acres  "  at  Shirebourne, 
in  the  King's  waste  of  Dartmoor  "  ;  and  in  1340  Abraham  Elyett  paid 
rent  sixpence,  for  two  acres  of  land  "  in  Dunbridgeford,"  and  one 
parcel  of  land  "  upon  Sherlond,  which  he  took  of  the  lord  to  hold  for 
the  term  of  his  life." 


EXCURSION    43.      THE  SWINCOMBE  VALLEY.  91 


Ex.  43. — The  Swincombe  Valley,  Deep  Swincombe,  Ter  Hill,  Aune 
Head,  The  Wo  Brook,  Down  Ridge,  Saddle  Bridge,  Week  Ford,  6J  m. 

For  a  short  distance  we  follow  the  route  to  Princetown  (R.  42,  T.  8). 
This  will  take  us  by  the  road  above  the  Forest  Inn  nearly  to  Gobbet 
Plain,  where  we  turn  L.  through  the  gate,  and  make  our  way  along  the 
lower  side  of  the  stroll  with  the  Arrishes  R.  Just  above  where  we  enter 
the  newtake,  and  on  the  higher  side  of  the  Wheal  Emma  Leat,  is  the 
Long  Newtake.  This  is  formed  on  the  site  of  an  ancient  pound,  and 
contains  a  number  of  hut  circles.  A  little  further  on  we  shall  desert 
the  track,  which  runs  down  to  Swincombe  Ford  and  the  Fairy  Bridge, 
and  strike  L.  by  some  hut  circles.  From  one  of  these  the  door  jambs 
have  been  removed — until  about  1878  the  pits  in  which  these  stood 
could  be  plainly  seen — and  appear  to  have  been  carried  to  the  enclosure 
below,  where  the  two  gate-posts  have  all  the  appearance  of  such  stones. 
The  Swincombe  valley  extends  from  Sherburton  Firs  to  Si  ward's  Cross, 
and  in  the  lower  part  of  it  hut  circles  are  numerous.  Whether  it  be 
the  combe  of  Sweyne,  or  the  combe  of  swine,  I  am  not  prepared  to  say, 
but  if  any  should  incline  to  the  latter  view  they  may  perhaps  consider 
that  there  is  some  evidence  in  favour  of  such  a  derivation  in  the  name 
of  a  little  mining  hut  in  Deep  Swincombe,  which  the  moor  people 
usually  call  the  Pigs'  House  !  Deep  Swincombe  is  a  small  lateral 
combe  that  we  presently  reach,  and  from  it  a  little  stream  issues  to 
fall  into  the  river  at  Swincombe  Ford.  On  reaching  it  we  shall  pass 
upward,  and  just  above  the  leat  shall  find  this  curious  hut.  The  hol- 
lowed stone  in  front  of  it  so  nearly  resembles  a  pigs'  trough  that  the 
name  given  to  the  place  seems  not  inappropriate.  To  a  sharp  pointed 
stone  not  far  off  the  name  of  Swincombe  Point  was  given  by  Will 
Mann,  formerly  of  Hexworthy. 

On  leaving  the  combe  we  strike  up  the  hill  W.  of  S.,  and  in  rather 
less  than  i  m.  shall  reach  Mount  Misery,  the  name  which  has  been  given 
to  the  higher  corner  of  Fox  Tor  Newtake.*  Here  is  an  old  cross,  and 
the  head  of  another.  A  short  distance  eastward  on  Ter  Hill — Terrell, 
as  the  moormen  call  it — are  two  others  (T.  2).  The  easternmost  one, 
which  is  a  very  fine  cross,  was  taken  to  Sherburton  many  years  ago 
by  the  late  Mr.  Richard  Coaker,  who  desired  to  preserve  it  there,  but 
was  brought  back  by  him  when  he  learnt  that  the  Duchy  authorities 
were  averse  to  its  removal.  [Crosses,  Chap.  X.] 

Leaving  the  summit  of  Ter  Hill,  1575  feet,  L-,  we  strike  S.E.  by 
S.  to  Aune  Head  Mire,  nearly  i  m.,  having  the  source  of  a  branch  of 
the  Swincombe  R.  and  the  springs  of  the  Wo  Brook  L.  If  we  keep  a 
little  to  the  R.,  that  is,  more  S.,  we  shall  come  upon  Sandy  Way,  and 
this  will  lead  us  directly  to  the  head  of  the  mire  (T.  56).  At  the  N.W. 
corner  of  this, and  near  the  path,  are  the  remains  of  a  small  rectangular 

*  The  name  of  Fox  Tor  attaches  to  several  objects  in  this  valley 
from  this  newtake  up  to  Fox  Tor  Gulf  and  Fox  Tor  Combe.  In  the 
newtake  are  one  or  two  kists  to  which  I  called  the  attention  of  the 
Ordnance  Surveyors  many  years  ago.  Others  will  be  found  on  the 
further  side  of  the  valley  in  Tor  Royal  Newtake  (Ex.  3),  and  in  May's 
Newtake  adjoining  it. 


92  HEXWORTHY    DISTRICT. 

building  of  the  kind  associated  with  the  tinners.  Also  close  to  the 
path,  and  not  far  from  the  mire,  is  the  large  boulder  known  to  the 
moormen  as  Luckcombe  Stone.  On  reaching  the  verge  of  the  swamp, 
which  is  of  considerable  extent,  we  shall  find  that  we  can  pass  down 
on  its  western  side  (R.  33,  64)  and  reach  the  point  where  the  Aune,  or 
Avon,  flows  from  it.  On  each  side  of  the  rivulet  the  ground  is  hard 
for  a  few  feet,  so  that  it  can  be  traced  to  the  spot  where  it  wells  up 
up  in  the  centre  of  the  morass.  A  short  distance  down  stream,  and  on 
its  W.  side,  is  another  mire,  which  bears  the  name  of  Little  Aune. 
Extending  south-westward  from  the  swamp  is  Nakers  Hill,  which  is 
really  a  flank  of  Cater's  Beam.  The  latter  drops  to  the  river  at  a  point 
rather  less  than  ^  m.  from  the  head  of  the  mire,  and  is  peninsulated  by 
the  Avon  and  Fish  Lake.  At  the  foot  of  the  Beam,  that  is  to  say,  along 
the  bank  of  the  Avon  to  its  confluence  with  Fish  Lake,  is  an  old  stream- 
work,  in  which  the  stone  heaps  are  much  overgrown  with  vegetation. 
Some  little  distance  from  the  L.  bank,  and  not  far  above  the  confluence, 
are  the  ruins  of  two  tinners'  buildings,  placed  so  closely  together  as  to 
leave  only  sufficient  room  for  a  man  to  pass  between,  and  in  this  narrow 
passage,  which  was  in  all  probability,  covered  in,  art  the  entrances 
Fish  Lake  rises  in  the  midst  of  the  fen,  its  source  being  usually  referred 
to  as  Fish  Lake  Mire,  but  before  reaching  the  Avon  runs  through 
some  hard  ground  which  extends  down  by  that  stream  to  Heng  Lake 
(Ex.  29),  between  which  and  the  confluence  is  another  stream- work 
(R.  64).  A  branch  of  Black  Lane  (T.  75)  runs  westward  from  Fish 
Lake  Head  across  the  fen.  East  of  the  Avon  below  its  springs  is 
Ryder's  Hill,  the  summit  of  which  bears  S.E.  by  E.  from  the  head  of 
the  mire.  On  this  is  Petre's  Boundstone,  described  in  the  Section 
on  Holne  Moor. 

Almost  due  N.  of  Aune  Head  is  the  source  of  the  Wo  Brook,  which 
in  the  first  part  of  its  course  runs  N.  between  Ter  Hill  on  the  W.  and 
Skir  Hill  on  the  E.  It  then  turns  and  flows  S.E.  to  Hooten  Wheals, 
from  which  it  runs  N.E.  past  Dry  Lakes,  when  it  again  turns  and 
pursues  a  northerly  course  to  the  West  Dart.  Its  name  is  probably 
the  Saxon  wog,  crooked,  or  serpentine,  which  well  describes  it.  From 
a  short  distance  below  its  source  to  Hooten  W7heals  it  runs  through 
Skir  Gut,  or  Gert,  though  the  valley  below  Skir  Ford  is  often  called 
Henroost  Gully.  We  strike  a  little  E.  of  N.  from  Aune  Head  to  the 
summit  of  Skir  Hill  (on  the  moor  simply  called  Skir),  from  which  a  fine 
view  of  the  eastern  side  of  Dartmoor  presents  itself.  On  the  R.  we 
soon  notice  a  rocky  hollow  into  which  we  turn,  and  shall  follow  the 
little  stream  that  runs  through  it  down  to  the  Wo  Brook  at  Hooten 
Wheals.  About  £  m.  L.,  or  W.,  of  this  is  a  kistvaen.  Hooten  Wheals 
is  an  old  tin  work,  but  is  now,  like  Henroost,  a  part  of  the  mine  started 
here  within  recent  years.  On  the  further  side  of  the  Wo  Brook,  that 
is,  above  the  northern  bank,  is  Down  Ridge,  across  which  pass  two 
tracks,  one  running  out  to  Aune  Head  (T.  54),  and  the  other  being  a 
part  of  the  monks'  path  from  Buckland  to  the  E.  side  of  the  moor 
(T.  2).  The  latter  is  marked  by  two  crosses,  which  show  its  direction 
where  it  approaches  Horse  Ford  [Crosses,  Chap.  X.]  On  the  X.  slope 
of  Down  Ridge,  close  to  the  gateway  where  the  Aune  Head  track  enters 
upon  it,  are  the  remains  of  a  large  stone  circle. 

We  turn  R.  and  follow  the  Wo  Brook  down  to  Dry  Lakes,  where 
the  forest  boundary  runs  up  the  hill  past  Wellaby  Gulf  to  Petre's 


EXCURSION  43.     WEEK  FORD.  93 

Boundstone,  and  on  crossing  this  ancient  working  shall  find  ourselves 
on  Holne  Moor.  Just  below,  we  also  cross  the  Wheal  Emma  Leat, 
and  reach  Horse  Ford.  This  is  paved,  and  on  the  side  nearest  the 
venville  common  the  letter  H.,  denoting  Holne,  is  cut  on  one  of  the 
stones.  Above,  R.,  on  Horn  Hill,  is  Horn's  Cross  (Holne  Moor  Section). 
Keeping  near  the  Wo  Brook  we  make  our  way  down  to  Saddle  Bridge, 
whence  the  road  runs  below  the  enclosures  known  as  Slade  direct  to 
Hexworthy. 

The  old  track  across  the  forest  (T.  2)  can  be  plainly  seen  on  the 
R.  bank  of  the  Wo  Brook  below  Saddle  Bridge.  This  crosses  the 
West  Dart,  into  which  the  Wo  Brook  falls,  at  Week  Ford,  immediately 
above  the  confluence.  The  rambler  should  on  no  account  omit  to  visit 
this  spot.  It  is  one  of  the  most  delightful  little  nooks  on  the  moor. 
Dwarf  trees,  ferns,  moss,  and  heather,  grey  boulders,  and  rippling 
water  all  combine  to  form  a  charming  picture.  Below  its  meeting- 
place  with  the  Wo  Brook  the  Dart  runs  through  Huccaby  Cleave  to 
Dartmeet,  passing  Clay,  or  Cleave  Brake,  and  the  deep  Otter  Pool. 
At  Week  Ford  is  an  old  blowing-house,  in  which  an  oak  is  now  growing. 
The  building  is  called  Beara  House  in  the  locality,  and  is  also  often 
referred  to  as  The  Mill.  There  are  some  stones  here  with  hollows 
sunk  in  them,  which  probably  once  served  as  mortars.  On  the  hillside 
just  above  is  a  hut  circle  to  which  a  gable  end  has  been  added  at  some 
later  t'me.  It  used  to  be  told  in  the  neighbourhood  that  here  the  old 
men  hid  their  tools  at  the  time  when  dragons  haunted  the  valley. 
Just  above  this  the  visitor  will  gain  the  Hexworthy  road. 

On  the  down  not  far  from  the  Forest  Inn  is  Queen  Victoria'.s 
Cross.  This,  as  the  inscription  upon  it  will  show,  was  set  up  in  1897 
to  commemorate  the  Diamond  Jubilee  of  her  late  Majesty. 

To  Aune  Head  direct,  see  T.  54. 

The  Routes  to  Cranmere  from  Two  Bridges  and  Post  Bridge  are 
applicable  to  Hexworthy.  But  the  most  direct  Route  from  the  latter 
is  by  way  of  Arch  Tor.  The  first  point  will  be  Dunnabridge  Pound, 
which  may  be  reached  either  by  following  the  road  through  Huccaby, 
or  by  crossing  the  Dart  at  the  clam  below  Sherburton.  From  Dunna- 
bridge Pound  the  Post  Bridge  track  is  first  followed,  but  is  left  when 
the  rambler  is  near  Bellaford  Tor.  He  should  then  strike  L.  to  the 
road,  and  crossing  it  make  for  a  small  clatter  on  the  further  side  of 
Gawler  Bottom.  Just  above  this  is  a  footbridge  over  the  Powder  Mills 
Leat.  Cross  this,  and  keeping  N.  by  W.  pass  up  to  Rowtor  Gate. 
Pursue  the  same  course  over  Broad  Down,  and  when  the  East  Dart  is 
reached  the  rambler  will  be  near  Sandy  Hole,  and  the  instructions  given 
in  C.  R.  17  must  be  followed. 


94  ROAD    DISTANCES   TO    POST    BRIDGE. 


POST   BRIDGE    DISTRICT. 

DISTANCES.  BY  ROAD:  ASHBURTON,  via  Grendon  Bridge, 
ii|  m.  BOVEY  TRACEY,  via  do.,  13!  m.  BUCKFASTLEIGH, 
via  do.,  14  m.  CHAGFORD,  7  m.  DARTMEET,  8*  m.  GREN- 
DON BRIDGE,  3  m.  GRIM'S  POUND,  via  Grendon  "Bridge,  4!  m. 
HEXWORTHY,  via  Two  Bridges,  8J  m.  HOLNE,  via  Hexworthy, 
13  m.  IVYBRIDGE,  via  Dousland,  21  m.  LYDFORD,  via  Moor 
Shop,  17*  m.  MORETON,  8-J-  m.  NORTH  BOVEY,  -j\  m.  OKE- 
HAMPTON,  via  Chagford  and  Throwleigh,  17 '\  m.  PLYMPTON, 
via  Dousland,  19  m.  PRINCETOWN,  5  m.  " RUNDLE  STONE, 
5 1  m.  SHAUGH,  via  Dousland,  14*  ni.  SOUTH  BRENT,  via 
Hexworthy,  22^  ra.  ;  via  Princetown  and  Dousland,  26  m.  TA  VIS- 
TOCK,  1 1 4-  m."  TWO  BRIDGES,  tf-  m.  WARREN  HOUSE  INN, 
2\  m.  WIDECOMBE,  via  Grendon  Bridge,  8  m.  YELVERTON, 
ii  m. 

NEAREST  RAILWAY  STATIONS:  ASHBURTON,  12  m.  MORE- 
TON,  9  m.  PRINCETOWN,  5  m. 


Important  Points  and  Landmarks. 

Babeny  Bridge — Bellaford  Tor — Cator  Gate — Grendon  Cot — New- 
louse,  or  Warren  House  Inn — Rowtor  Gate — Sandy  Hole — Siddaford 
Tor — Teign  Head  Farm — White  Ridge.  Places  of  Interest.  Bellaford 
Clapper — Broad  Down  Falls — Dart  Valley — Dunnabridge  Pound — 
Laugh  Tor  Hole— Meripit  Hill— The  Sheepfold— Walla  Brook  Valley. 
Prehistoric  Antiquities.  Assacombe  Hill:  hut  circles  and  stone  row — 
Bovey  Combe  Head :  huts — Broad  Down :  hut  enclosures — Challacombe 
Down  :  stone  row — The  Grey  Wethers  :  stone  circles — Grirn's  Pound  : 
hut  enclosure — L,akehead  Hill :  enclosures  and  kistvaens — Roundy 
Park  :  kistvaen — Waters  Down  :  stone  row.  Mining  Remains.  The 
Barracks :  Mould  Stone — Broad  Marsh :  extensive  workings  and  tinners' 
huts  on  the  East  Dart — Dart  Valley:  workings — King's  Oven:  ancient 
smelting  place — Vitifer  Mine  :  old  workings. 

The  comparatively  modern  settlement  of  Post  Bridge  has  grown 
up  in  the  midst  of  a  group  of  ancient  forest  holdings,  and  its  name  is 
derived  from  the  clapper  spanning  the  East  Dart,  which  flows  at  the 


CLAPPER    AT   POST   BRIDGE.  95 

Ml 

foot  of  the  slope  on  which  the  place  is  situated.  I  have  heard  inhabi- 
tants of  Dartmoor  refer  to  the  old  tracks  as  post-roads,  and  the  clapper 
in  question  being  on  the  most  important  of  these,  the  forerunner  of  the 
present  highway  from  Plymouth  and  Tavistock  to  Chagford  and 
Moreton,  would  no  doubt  be  spoken  of  as  the  post-bridge.  Indeed,  we 
know  that  this  was  so  some  two  hundred  years  ago.  In  Owen's 
edition  of  Britannia  Depicta,  a  book  to  which  we  have  already  referred 
(T.  44),  and  which  was  published  in  1720,  the  bridge  is  mentioned. 
On  a  plan  showing  the  track  across  the  forest  from  Chagford  to  Tavis- 
tock the  East  Dart  is  marked,  though  not  named,  and  where  the  road 
crosses  the  river  are  the  words,  "  Post  Stone  Bridge,  3  Arches."  A 
road  branching  "  to  Withecomb  "  is  shown,  and  a  small  building  is 
figured,  the  latter  being  marked,  "  A  House  call'd  Merry  Pit."  This, 
as  its  situation  shows,  was  intended  for  Higher  Meripit.  The  example 
set  by  the  so-called  "  improvers  "  of  Dartmoor  is  the  neighbourhood 
of  Two  Bridges  was  followed  in  other  places,  and  Post  Bridge  was  one 
of  them.  Land  was  enclosed,  and  a  residence  was  commenced  at 
Stannon,  about  i  m.  from  the  high  road,  biit  this  was  only  partly 
completed,  and  was  afterwards  turned  into  a  cottage  ;  the  lodges  at 
the  entrance  are  still  to  be  seen.  Attention,  had,  however,  been 
directed  to  the  locality,  and  houses  were  built  there  for  the  men  em- 
ployed at  the  mines  near  the  upper  waters  of  the  Walla  Brook  and  the 
Webburn.  A  Wesleyan  Chapel  was  erected,  and  later,  in  1868,  the 
Mission  Chapel  of  St.  Gabriel.  The  little  place  gradually  grew,  and 
has  now  become  a  favourite  summer  resort.  There  are  good  postal 
facilities  and  telegraphic  communication. 

The  clapper,  which  is  situated  only  a  few  yards  below  the  present 
county  bridge,  which  takes  the  place  of  it,  is  the  finest  example  of  these 
interesting  objects  on  the  moor.  It  is  42  feet  8  inches  long,  and  con- 
sists of  three  openings,  and  the  buttresses  and  piers  are  formed  of  large 
blocks  of  granite  carefully  fitted,  and  dry  laid.  The  upper  ends  of 
the  piers  are  roughly  pointed,  in  order  to  offer  as  little  resistance  as 
possible  to  the  rush  of  water  during  a  freshet.  These,  which  are  rather 
more  than  2  feet  thick,  project  about  18  inches  on  each  side  of  the 
roadway.  The  latter  is  formed  of  four  immense  slabs,  one  being  laid 
over  the  western  opening,  one  over  the  eastern,  while  two  span  the 
centre  water-way.  The  two  former  are  each  1 5  feet  2  inches  in  length, 
one  being  6  feet  9  inches  in  width  and  the  other  6  feet  5  inches.  The 
two  centre  slabs  are  smaller,  but  each  is  over  12  feet  long.  They  vary 
in  thickness  from  about  8  inches  to  i  foot.  The  height  of  the  'bridge 
from  the  bed  of  the  river  to  the  top  of  the  centre  stones  is  8 .',-  feet  ; 
the  ends  are  a  little  lower,  as  the  roadway  is  slightly  arched.  When  we 
first  knew  the  clapper  the  northernmost  of  the  centre  slabs  lay  in  the 
bed  of  the  stream.  In  1874  I  learnt  from  an  old  man  whom  I  met  on 
the  spot  that  it  had  been  intentionally  thrown  off  about  fifty  years 
before  that  time.  Enquiries  which  I  afterwards  made  in  the  locality 
resulted  in  several  versions  of  the  cause  of  its  overthrow  being  given  me, 
but  later  on  I  discovered  the  facts,  and  the  man  who  displaced  the  stone. 
I  also  found  that  my  aged  informant  was  right  as  to  the  time  when  it 
was  thrown  down.  This  was  not  done  in  a  mischievous  spirit.  The 
intention  was  to  throw  off  the  slabs  in  the  hope  that  they  would  fall 
on  their  edges,  and  by  resting  against  the  buttresses  form,  as  it  were, 
a  wall  across  the  river.  The  water  was  to  find  its  way  between  them. 


96  POST    BRIDGE    DISTRICT, 

The  object  of  all  this  was  to  prevent  ducks  from  going  too  far  down 
stream  !  Fortunately  the  first  stone  that  was  thrown  off  fell  on  its 
face  instead  of  its  edge,  and  the  project  was  abandoned.  It  is  only 
fair  to  state  that  this  was  done  by  a  very  young  man,  and  that  he 
afterwards  regretted  it.  He  lived  to  see  it  replaced.  This  was  done 
in  1880,  at  the  instance  of  the  Duchy  authorities,  the  work  of  lifting 
the  stone  into  its  former  place  on  the  piers  being  executed  by  the 
Messrs.  Duke,  of  the  Tor  Granite  Quarries,  at  Merivale.  But  the  slab 
does  not  quite  occupy  its  original  position.  It  is  now,  as  an  inhabitant 
once  said  to  me  when  speaking  of  it,  "  upside  down  and  inside  out." 

The  neighbourhood  of  Post  Bridge,  like  the  Hexworthy  District, 
is  partly  described  in  excursions  from  other  centres,  and  is  also  crossed 
by  several  of  our  routes.  The  area  that  has  still  to  be  noticed  is 
therefore  not  large,  but  the  rambles  can,  of  course,  be  extended  by 
linking  them  with  those  to  which  we  have  referred. 

Ex.  44  embraces  that  part  of  the  district  southward  of  the  Prince.- 
town  and  Moreton  road,  extending  from  Bellaford  Tor  to  the  Warren 
House  Inn,  and  this  abuts  on  ground  noticed  in  Ex.  42,  S.  Ex.  85,  and 
Ex.  22.  In  Ex.  45  that  part  of  the  district  northward  of  the  road 
from  the  Warren  House  Inn  to  the  East  Dart  is  described  ;  this  abuts 
on  Ex.  21,  20,  and  S.  Ex.  58.  In  Ex.  46  is  noticed  the  district  north 
of  the  road  between  the  East  Dart  and  the  Cherry  Brook,  which  abuts 
on  Ex.  5.  Grim's  Pound,  which  is  noticed  in  Ex.  22,  may  be  reached 
by  road  via  Runnage,  Grendon  Bridge,  and  Challacombe,  4-f-  m.,  or  by 
Bush  Down  and  Shapley  Common,  ql  m.,  or  by  the  pedestrian  from 
the  Warren  House  Inn,  as  described  in  Ex.  45. 


Excursions  from  Post  Bridge. 

[Tracks:  18,  44  to  47,  76,  to  81.  Routes  passing  through  the 
district :  4,  35  ;  5bc,  42  ;  10,  lob,  36  ;  18,  44  ;  25,  45  ;  26,  52  ;  27,  63  ; 
33,  64;  34,  71-] 

Ex.  44. — Lakehead  Hill,  Bellaford  Tor,  Bellaford  Bridge,  White'-s 
Slade,  Riddon  Ridge,  Cator  Common,  Soussons  Common,  The  Warren 
House  Inn,  10  m.  (ii  m.  less  if  the  return  be  made  via  Runnage 
Bridge). 

Near  the  W.  end  of  the  bridge,  and  on  the  S.  side  of  the  road,  is  a 
gate  opening  on  the  enclosed  Lakehead  Hill,  and  from  this  an  old  track 
leads  by  Bellaford  Farm  and  Lough  Tor  Hole  to  the  road  above  Huccaby 
(T.  81),  another  path  running  up  the  slope  more  to  the  R.  and  going 
past  Bellaford  Tor  to  Dunnabridge  Pound  (T.  So).*  Entering  this  we 
shall  make  our  way  to  the  ruined  building  which  we  see  near  the  bank 
of  the  river.  This  was  erected  as  a  dwelling-place  for  miners,  and  is 
locally  known  as  The  Barracks.  Mr.  Robert  Burnard  discovered  a 
mould-stone  here,  and  also  learnt  that  a  blowing-house  formerly  stood 
on  the  spot,  and  that  the  tinners  in  this  part  of  the  moor  used  to  bring 


*  That  these  tracks  are  of  considerable  antiquity  is  certain,  as 
they  form  the  direct  means  of  communication  between  some  of  the  old 
,  forest  tenements — Meripit,  Bellaford,  Brownberry,  and  Dunnabridge. 
In  the  hunting  reports  the  hill  they  cross  is  usually  referred  to  as  Naked 
Hill.  It  should  be  Lakehead  Hill  as  above. 


EXCURSION   44.       LAKEHEAD    HILL. 


-  97 


their  ore  here  to  be  smelted.     The  mould  may  be  seen  just  in  front  of 
the  ruin.     Another,   which  was  subsequently  found  here  is  close  to 
the  wall  of  a  little  outbuilding  at  the  S.  end  of  the  yard.     The  visitor 
will  notice  that  certain  garden  flowers,  the  lilac  and  geranium,  still  „ 
haunt  the  decayed  walls. 

Leaving  this  spot  we  shall  make  our  way  S.  over  I/akehead  Hill, 
on  which  are  several  objects  of  antiquarian  interest.  Not  far  from  the 
Princetown  road  R.  is  the  pound  known  as  Kraps  Ring,  which  contains 
several  hut  circles.  The  fallen  wall  covers  a  space  about  12  feet  wide, 
but  on  the  N.  side  it  is  not  quite  perfect.  It  is  placed  between  two 
others,  but  these  have  been  so  despoiled  that  little  more  than  low  banks, 
hardly  traceable  in  places,  now  remain.  At  the  lower  end  of  the 
northernmost  pound  is  a  dilapidated  kistvaen.  Near  Kraps  Ring,  on 
the  S.W.,  is  a  fine  hut  circle,  23  feet  in  diameter,  and  close  to  it  another 
about  the  same  size,  though  not  in  such  a  good  state  of  preservation, 
but  yet  having  the  door  jambs  erect.  Higher  up  the  hill  are  some 
sepulchral  remains.  Among  these  is  a  circle  of  slabs,  of  which  a  few 
seem  to  be  missing,  19  feet  in  diameter,  and  a  kistvaen  in  a  good  state 
of  preservation.  About  a  furlong  S.S.E.  of  this  is  another,  but  much 
dilapidated.  Only  the  two  side  stones  of  the  kist  remain,  but  these 
are  each  nearly  6  feet  long.  The  gate  of  Bellaford  Newtake  is  about 
midway  between  this  and  Bellaford  Tor,  which  bears  S.W.  by  S.  A 
short  distance  from  the  kist  is  a  cairn,  and  a  ruined  kist  within  a  double 
circle  ;  some  of  the  monuments  have  been  restored.  The  remains  of 
stone  rows  are  seen  in  connection  with  these  ancient  graves. 


White  Ridge. 


Birch  Tor. 


Post  Bridge. 
FROM   I.AKEHEAD   HII.I,.      LOOKING   N.E. 

Passing  through  the  gate  in  the  wall  of  the  newtake,  by  the  side  of 
which  runs  the  ancient  Lich  Path  (T.  18),  we  make  our  way  to  Bellaford 
Tor,  noticing  as  we  go  the  vestiges  of  a  large  enclosure  and  the  remains 
of  two  hut  circles.  Bellaford  (i4-  m.  from  P.  B.),  is  a  fine  cluster  of 
rocks,  and  forms  a  very  prominent  feature  in  the  view  from  any  elevated 
point  in  the  central  parts  of  the  forest.  On  the  summit  is  a  small 
rocking-stone,  and  another,  a  thin  slab,  is  to  be  found  on  the  slope 
between  the  tor  and  the  gate  below  it,  S.E.  (This  gate  is  in  the  corner 
of  the  newtake,  and  on  the  track  leading  to  Dunuabridge.  Two  granite 

Hi 


98  POST    BRIDGE    DISTRICT. 

posts  are  to  be  seen  in  the  wall  close  to  it,  in  which  are  notches  for  bars, 
similar  to  others  that  have  been  noticed  during  our  rambles.  But 
these  posts  are  higher  than  is  usually  the  case,  and.  it  has  been  thought, 
belonged  to  a  drift  gate,  an  idea  which  the  proximity  of  Dunnabridge 
Pound  and  Lough  Tor  Pound  renders  probable).  A  gold  coin  was 
found  on  the  tor  by  a  young  man  of  the  neighbourhood  about  1870, 
but  I  could  not  discover  its  nature  further  than  that  it  was  of  early 
date.  The  view  from  the  tor  is  good.  The  plantation  seen  N.E.  is 
called  the  Cranery.  Once  a  year,  in  April,  the  great  Dartmoor  picnic 
is  held  on  the  rocks,  the  occasion  being  the  last  day  (Friday  always) 
of  the  Dartmoor  Harrier  Week.  Then  "  old  Bellavur  "  becomes  the 
centre  of  a  scene  of  animation.  Hundreds  of  spectators,  some  driving, 
some  on  foot,  cover  the  slopes,  while  hounds,  horses  and  riders  engage 
in  the  chase  around  it. 

Our  next  point  is  Bellaford  Bridge.  This  may  be  reached  by  cross- 
ing the  head  of  Cranery  Bottom  E.,  and  descending  to  the  Dart,  and 
following  it  upward,  but  there  is  no  public  path  that  way.  This 
bottom  appears  to  have  been  formerly  called  Bellaford  Combe,  and 
there  is  a  newtake  there  now  of  that  name.  In  the  Lydford  Court 
Rolls  of  the  seventh  of  James  I.  the  little  steam  flowing  from  this 
combe  is  referred  to  as  "  Torrente  de  Beltaburr  combe,  Anglice  Bella- 
vur combe  lake." 

Retracing  our  steps  we  once  more  enter  upon  Lakehead  Newtake, 
and  turning  R.  into  the  Lich  Path  pass  over  the  crest  of  the  hill  and 
descend  towards  the  farmhouses.  There  are  two  of  these,  Bellaford 
and  Lake,  both  being  ancient  tenements. 

Bellaford  Bridge  is  about  i|-  m.  below  Post  Bridge.  The  most 
direct  way  to  it  from  the  latter  is  by  the  path  running  past  The  Bar- 
racks (T.  81).  On  the  lower  side  of  it  is  a  clapper  of  three  openings, 
but  unfortunately  the  stone  that  spanned  the  centre  one  is  missing. 
It  was  thrown  off  intentionally,  and,  as  in  the  case  of  the  displaced 
stone  at  Post  Bridge,  I  discovered  many  years  ago  who  it  was  that  did 
this.  \Dev.  Alps,  Chap.  IV."]  A  stream  falls  into  the  Dart  close  by. 
This  is  known  as  the  Dury  Brook.  It  rises  above  Lower  Meripit,  and 
about  i  m.  below  that  farm  passes  Dury,  which  latter  is  situated  to 
the  N.  of  the  road  running  eastward  from  the  bridge.  Both  these  are 
ancient  tenements.  In  1689  Dury  was  held  on  lease  by  John  Tickell, 
whose  son  Jonathan  was  vicar  of  Widecombe.  We  may  follow  the 
road  to  the  Walla  Brook,  where  it  leaves  the  forest,  or  we  may  make 
our  way  down  the  L.  bank  of  the  Dart  to  White's  Slade.  f  m.  below 
Bellaford  Bridge.  We  have  already  referred  to  this  place  (Ex.  41), 
which  is  situated  opposite  to  the  farm  of  Lough  Tor  Hole.  Neither  of 
these  are  forest  tenements.  Lartercombfoote  and  Larterhole  are 
mentioned  about  1609  ;  this  is  the  moorman's  form  of  the  name  of  the 
spot  to-day.  In  1702  these  appear  as  Laughter  Combe  and  Laster 
Hole,  and  are  given  as  the  names  of  newtakes.*  White's  Slade  has  long 
been  a  ruin.  It  is  generally  spoken  of  as  Snails'  House,  and  to  it 
attaches  a  story  similar  to  the  one  related  of  a  blowing-house  on  the 
South  Teign,  to  which  we  have  referred  in  S.  Ex.  56.  \Dev.  Alps., 
Chap.  IV.]  This  tells  us  how  two  spinsters  who  dwelt  here  aroused 

*  Among  other  newtakes  named  in  that  year  are  Bradrings,  Win- 
ford,  Broad  Oak,  Cocks  Lake,  Dead  Lake,  and  Holeshead. 


EXCURSION  44.     SNAIL'S  HOUSE.     PIZWELL.  99 

the  curiosity  of  the  few  gossips  in  the  sparsely  populated  neighbour- 
hood by  their  mysterious  way  of  living.  They  never  did  any  work  in 
the  garden,  nor  had  they  any  cattle,  and  no  food  was  ever  seen  to  be 
taken  to  the  house.  Yet  they  always  presented  a  buxom  appearance. 
At  length  it  was  discovered  that  they  subsisted  on  black  slugs,  which 
they  gathered  on  the  moor.  The  secret  being  out  the  women  pined 
and  died,  and  the  dwelling  fell  to  ruin.  Near  by  are  some  hut  circles. 

[For  about  i^  m.  below  Bellaford  Combe  Lake  the  Dart  pursues 
a  straight  course  through  the  valley,  or  "hole,"  the  farm  to  which  the 
latter  gives  name  being  about  the  middle  of  this.  The  river  then  bends 
slightly  and  flows  under  Little  Newtake  Plantation  and  Brimpts 
Northern  Wood.  It  then  turns  southward  to  Dartmeet.  The  Walla 
Brook  comes  down  from  the  N.  and  runs  into  the  Dart  by  the  wood 
named.  A  short  distance  above  the  confluence  the  Walla  Brook  is 
spanned  by  the  interesting  clapper  noticed  in  Ex.  41,  and  a  little 
further  up  is  Babeny.  The  latter  is  about  i  m.  S.E.  of  White's  Slade. 
Nearly  i  m.  N.  of  Babenj^  is  Riddon,  an  ancient  tenement,  the  holder 
of  which  in  the  time  of  Elizabeth  was  more  than  once  presented  at  the 
Lydford  Court,  as  indeed  other  tenants  not  infrequently  were,  for  not 
keeping  a  certain  gate  and  walls  in  repair,  and  also  for  not  appearing 
to  serve  the  queen.  This  farm  and  Babeny  are  noticed  in  R.  5b,  42), 
which  crosses  Riddon  Ridge  between  Bellaford  Bridge  and  Corn  Down. 
Rather  less  than  i  m.  N.  of  Riddon  is  Pizwell  Bridge.  This  spans  the 
Walla  Brook  to  which  the  road  comes  from  Bellaford.] 

Leaving  White's  Slade  we  shall  make  our  way  over  Riddon  Ridge, 
our  course  being  N.E.  by  N.,  and  in  i  m.  shall  reach  Pizwell  Bridge, 
which  is  a  clapper  of  three  openings,  but  of  comparatively  modern 
construction.  Crossing  the  stream  we  shall  leave  the  road  which  runs 
onward  past  Cator  (S.  Exs.  85,  86)  to  Corn  Down,  along  the  eastern 
foot  of  which  it  is  carried  by  West  Shallowford  and  Corndonford  to 
Locks'  Gate  Cross  (R.  5  a),  and  turning  L.  by  Pizwell  Cottage  and  the 
plantation,  shall  make  our  way  northward  over  Cator  Common.  On 
the  R.  or  E.,  are  the  plantations  known  as  the  Grendon  Strips,  and 
our  way  will  take  us  to  the  northern  end  of  the  one  nearest  to  us.  As 
we  approach  this  point  Pizwell,  referred  to  in  1260  as  a  village,  as  we 
have  already  seen  (T.  18),  will  be  observed  L.  Of  all  the  ancient 
holdings  on  the  moor  none  is  perhaps  so  interesting  as  this  small  group 
of  farms.  The  buildings  with  their  thatched  roofs  probably  present 
the  same  appearance  as  they  did  some  centuries  ago.  In  1300  the 
name  appears  as  Pishull.  A  few  years  later  we  find  an  entry  in  the 
account  of  John  de  Tresympel,  custodian  of  the  forest,  concerning 
"  one  clawe  of  land  containing  8a.  land  at  Pishull."  This  refers  to  the 
addition  of  a  newtake,  and  it  is  stated  to  be  the  duty  of  the  holder, 
John  Renewith,  to  manure  it  in  the  following  year.  In  1346  another 
enclosure  was  made  there  by  John  French.  This  name  frequently 
occurs  in  the  various  records  of  the  forest,  and  is  still  found  there. 
Immediately  below  the  dwellings  is  Pizwell  Ford. 

Near  the  corner  of  the  strip  of  plantation  R.  is  a  double  circle, 
which,  were  it  not  so  overgrown,  would  be  very  interesting.  The 
outer  one,  which  is  45  feet  in  diameter,  consists  of  granite  slabs, 
partially  hidden  by  heather  and  hirze.  The  inner  one,  which  is  almost 


IOO 


POST    BRIDGE    DISTRICT. 


entirely  hidden,  is  about  20  feet  in  diameter.  In  the  centre  is  a  hollow 
in  which  there  may  once  have  been  a  kist. "  This  circle  is  about  £  m. 
S.S.W.  of  the  gate  across  the  road  between  Runnage  Bridge,  W.,  and 
Grendon  Cot,  E.,  and  which  is  placed  near  the  foot  of  the  hill  known 
as  Ephraim's  Pinch.  The  story  attaching  to  the  latter  was  first  related 
to  me  by  Mr.  Edward  Coaker,  formerly  of  Hexworthy.  A  man  named 
Ephraim  laid  a  wager  that  he  would  carry  a  sack  of  corn  from  Wide- 
combe  to  Post  Bridge,  a  distance  of  five  miles,  without  dropping  it. 
On  reaching  this  hill,  after  accomplishing  three-and-a-half  miles  of  his 
journey,  he  found  the  pinch  too  much  for  him,  and  was  obliged  to 
throw  his  burden  upon  the  ground. 

[S.  of  the  road  between  Ephraim's  Pinch  and  Grendon  Cot,  E., 
is  the  Grendon  estate  (S.  Ex.  85)  ;  N.  of  it  is  Soussons  Warren,  the 
warren  house,  a  solitary  dwelling,  being  in  view.*  A  path  leads  to  it 
from  below  the  gate,  and  there  is  another  from  Runnage  Bridge.  A 
path  also  leads  from  the  house  to  Challacombe,  £•  m.  from  it  (T.  47, 
Ex.  22,  S.  Ex.  85).  S.  of  the  road  between  Ephraim's  Pinch  and 


Lakehead  Hill. 


Bear  Down    Longaford 
Tor.  Tor. 


Pizwell. 
FROM   SOUSSONS   COMMON.      LOOKING   W. 

Runnage  Bridge,  W.,  is  Grendon  Common  and  Cator  Common,  over 
which  we  have  made  our  way,  and  across  the  former  a  track  runs  from 
the  corner  of  the  plantation  to  Pizwell.  N.  of  the  road  is  Soussons 
Common,  which  extends  nearly  to  the  Warren  House  Inn.  Not  far 
from  the  road,  on  the  N.,  and  about  midway  between  the  "  pinch  "  and 
the  bridge,  is  a  very  perfect  circle.  It  is  27  feet  in  diameter,  and  in  all 
probability  once  enclosed  a  kist,  though  only  a  hollow  is  to  be  seen  in 
the  centre  now.  There  are  22  stones,  varying  in  height  from  2  feet 

*  Whether  this  is  a  corruption  of  an  old  name  or  of  a  comparatively 
modern  one  is  not  certain.  South  Sands  has  been  suggested  as  one 
from  which  it  may  have  been  formed,  but  does  not  commend  itself  to 
us.  Nearly  forty  years  ago  I  heard  the  common  spoken  of  as  South  Stone 
Common.  I  possess  a  map  on  which  it  is  shown  as  South  Shute  Com- 
mon. The  affluent  of  the  Webburn  draining  by  Scudely  Bogs  seems 
once  to  have  been  known  as  Shute  Lake.  Further  south,  and  nearer 
the  Walla  Brook,  are  Langlake  Mires. 


EXCURSION   44.       SOUSSONS   COMMON.  101 

downward ;  a  few  being  no  more  than  one  foot  high.  They  are  placed 
from  one  foot  to  2\  feet  apart,  and  only  one  appears  to  be  missing. 
Runnage  Bridge  is  a  clapper,  but  like  the  one  near  Pizwell  Cottage,  is  of 
comparatively  modern  date,  and  is  furnished  with  parapets.  There 
are  three  openings.  At  the  W.  end  of  the  bridge  a  track  runs  S.  by  the 
Walla  Brook  to  Pizwell,  whence  it  goes  on  to  Dury  ;  the  lane  leading  to 


Birch  Tor. 


Challacombe 
Down. 


Hameldon. 


FROM   SOUSSONS    COMMON.      LOOKING  N.E. 


these  farms  is  a  little  further  on.  Close  by  is  the  entrance  to  Runnage, 
N.  About  midway  between  the  bridge  and  the  highway  at  Higher 
Meripit,  a  road  branches  L.,  or  S.W.  This  goes  to  Post  Bridge  by  way 
of  Lower  Meripit,  reaching  the  highway  at  the  Wesleyan  Chapel.] 

Turning  L,.  from,  the  corner  of  the  plantation  into  the  Runnage 
road,  which  is  on  the  line  of  the  old  Church  Way  (T.  76),  we  speedily 
come  in  sight  of  the  circle  just  described,  and  if  the  visitor  does  not 
propose  to  return  direct  to  Post  Bridge  he  may  strike  northward  from 
it  over  Soussons  Common,  which  is  in  the  parish  of  Manaton.  On  the 
L.  is  Runnage,  which  is  named  as  an  ancient  tenement  in  conjunction 
with  Warner.  The  latter,  however,  does  not  now  exist,  but  some 
scanty  ruins  northward  of  the  farm  go  by  the  name  of  Walna  Buildings, 
and  no  doubt  indicate  its  site.  About  £  m.  N.  of  the  circle  are  the 
tumuli  referred  to  in  R.  26,  and  a  little  beyond  these,  on  the  R.,  is  the 
Golden  Dagger  Mine,  and  just  here  we  enter  upon  the  common  lands 
of  North  Bovey.*  Bearing  L.  we  follow  the  Walla  Brook  upward  to 
the  point  where  it  is  crossed  by  a  footpath  corning  from  the  mine. 
This  we  follow  I/,  to  the  footbridge  over  the  leat,  as  directed  in  R.  26 
52,  and  speedily  gain  the  road  at  the  Warren  House  Inn.  Thence  our 
way  to  Post  Bridge  is  by  the  road  over  Meripit  Hill  (R.  35),  which  is 
noticed  in  our  next  excursion. 

*  These  barrows  were  examined  a  few  years  ago,  and  the  result 
communicated  to  the  members  of  the  Devonshire  Association  in  a 
Report  by  Mr.  Robert  Burnard.  In  two  of  them  various  objects  were 
found.  These  consisted  of  charcoal,  burnt  bones,  including  a  small 
piece  of  a  human  skull,  some  fragments  of  bronze,  a  flint  arrow-head, 
and  a  small  sherd  of  pottery. 


POST    BRIDGE    DISTRICT. 


Ex.  45. — Meripit  Hill,  Warren  House  Inn,  Waters  Down  [Assa- 
combe,  add  i  m.],  White  Rid°e,  Lade  Hill  Bottom  [Sandy  Hole,  add 
2  m.],  The  Sheepfold,  Stannon,  -j\  m-  (With  route  from  the  Warren 
House  Inn  to  Grim's  Pound  and  Hameldon). 

From  the  bridge  our  way  lies  up  the  hill  through  the  village 
Opposite  to  the  church  of  St.  Gabriel  we  shall  notice  the  lodges  at  the 
entrance  to  Stannon,  in  one  of  which  formerly  dwelt  an  old  woman 
who  was  known  as  the  Witch  of  Dartmoor.  A  little  further  up  a  road 
branches  R.  by  the  Wesley  an  Chapel,  and  leads  by  Lower  Meripit  to 
the  Runnage  road  (Ex.  44).  This  for-ms  a  part  of  the  old  Church  Way. 
Lower  Meripit  is  one  of  the  ancient  forest  tenements,  and  appears  on 
the  Court  Rolls  of  the  time  of  Elizabeth  as  Merepitt.  In  a  list  of 
Dartmoor  tenants  in  1 344  is  the  name  of  William  de  Meriput.  Higher 
Meripit  is  not  one  of  those  tenements,  but  it  is,  nevertheless,  an  ancient 
holding,  there  being  in  existence  a  lease  of  it  from  William  French  to 
Walter  French  and  John  French,  dated  the  loth  May,  1555.  The  old 
house  was  unfortunately  burnt  down  in  1907.  Meripit  was  one  of  the 
old  dwellings  in  which  a  common  entrance  served  alike  for  the  inmates 
and  the  cattle.  The  former  occupied  one  end  of  the  house,  while  to 
the  latter  was  apportioned  the  other.  The  parts  were  separated  by  a 
wall,  though  it  has  been  said  that  in  dwellings  of  this  kind  such  was 
sometimes  deemed  superfluous.  In  some  of  the  ancient  houses  in  this 
neighbourhood  it  can  be  seen  that  a  similar  arrangement  formerly 
existed.  Cf.  Collerewe,  S.  Ex.  56.  Passing  upward  with  this  L.  we 
gain  the  commons  just  above  where  a  road  branches  R.  to  Runnage. 
(Ephraim's  Pinch  and  Soussons  Common,  noticed  in  Ex.  44,  are  reached 
by  this  road,  or  by  the  one  through  Lower  Meripit). 

Our  road  now  passes  over  Meripit  Hill,  from  the  higher  part  of 

Princetown     N.  Hisworthy 
Church.  Tor. 


FROM   MERIPIT   HIM,.      BOOKING   S.W. 

which  we  have  a  view  of  the  forest  between  this  point  and  Princetown; 
Descending  the  hill  we  reach  Stats  Bridge,  whence  a  path  runs  across 
the  common  L.  to  Stannon,  i  m.  W.  This  passes  close  to  Coal  Mires, 
in  which  name  we  probably  see  an  allusion  to  the  peat,  which,  as  will 


EXCURSION   45.       THE  WARREN  HOUSE  INN.  103 

be  noticed,  is  cut  in  this  locality.  Crossing  Stats  Brook,  which  is  some- 
times regarded  as  being  the  Walla  Brook  instead  of  its  tributary,  and 
the  Yitifer  Mine  leat  (taken  from  the  Dart  near  Sandy  Hole,  and  which 
is  elsewhere  met  with  on  our  rambles,  T.  79,  R.  lob),  we  ascend 
the  hill  towards  the  Warren  House  Inn.  The  ruins  seen  L.  of  the 

*<-  O-«*>v* 


road  are  the  remains  of  Wheal  Caroline. 

The  Warren  House  Inn,  which  was  formerly  known  as  Newhouse, 
takes  the  place  of  a  building  that  once  stood  on  the  other  side  of  the 
road.  On  a  tablet  in  the  wall  is  the  inscription  :  "  I.  Wills,  Septr.  18, 
1845."  The  statement  has  been  made  that  the  house  now  non- 
existent was  one  of  the  oldest  on  the  moor,  but  apparently  with  no 
better  grounds  than  the  opinion  of  a  former  tenant  of  Bear  Down  Farm, 
as  related  by  the  Rev.  E.  A.  Bray.  As  the  forest  tenements  are  the 
most  ancient  buildings  on  Dartmoor  this  is,  of  course,  incorrect.  No 
house  is  shown  as  existing  here  in  Owen's  Britannia  Depicta,  1720. 
The  old  house  was  generally  regarded  as  being  the  scene  of  Mrs.  Bray's 
story  of  the  corpse  which  was  "  salted  in  "  in  order  to  preserve  it  until 
the  disappearance  of  the  snow  that  <_overed  the  moor  permitted  of  its 
removal  for  burial.  The  late  Mr.  Richard  Cleave,  of  Hexworthy,  gave 
me  several  particulars  respecting  the  story,  for  which  there  certainly 
seems  to  be  some  foundation,  that  he  had  obtained  from  his  father 
[Crosses,  Chap.  XIV.]  At  one  period  of  his  life  Jonas  Coaker,  long 
known  as  the  Dartmoor  poet,  kept  the  inn  at  Newhouse,  and  once  had 
a  very  exciting  experience  with  a  party  of  miners  who  invaded  his 
premises.  Jonas  was  compelled  to  seek  safety  on  the  moor  while  the 
men  helped  themselves  to  his  liquor.  From  the  road  near  the  inn  the 
small  newtakes  said  to  resemble  the  four  aces  on  the  cards  are  plainly 
seen  eastward  (Ex.  22,  S.  Ex.  87).  King's  Oven,  which  is  quite  near  to 
the  inn,  is  described  in  Ex.  21,  and  other  objects  in  the  vicinity  are 
noticed  in  S.  Ex.  58. 

4  m.  distant,  and  R.  of  the  Moreton  road,  is  Bennet's  Cross, 
described  in  Ex.  22,  and  from  this  the  route  to  Grim's  Pound,  also 
described  in  that  excursion  is  given.  A  more  direct  way  from  the  inn 
is  to  strike  E.  across  the  common  towards  the  gap  in  the  ridge  (Ex.  22), 
beyond  which  the  pound  can  be  seen.  The  distance  is  less  than  2  m., 
or  about  4  rn.  from  Post  Bridge.  The  way  to  Hameldon  Cross  from 
the  pound  is  described  in  S.  Ex.  60,  and  the  hill  itself  in  the  section 
devoted  to  it  in  the  Bovey  Tracey  District.  L.  of  the  Moreton  road  is 
Bush  Down  and  the  Lakeland  Valley,  with  Castle  Hill,  above  Hurston 
Castle,  Ex.  21.] 

Behind  the  Warren  House  Inn  is  Water  Hill,  or  Waters  Down,  as 
it  is  more  often  called,  and  to  this  we  shall  now  make  our  way.  We 
pass  upward  by  the  E.  side  of  the  house,  and  striking  N.W.  shall  reach 
the  cairn  mentioned  in  Ex.  21  in  about  \  m.,  not  far  from  which  is  the 
stone  row  also  noticed  in  that  excursion.  From  this  point  we  shall 
strike  westward  for  i  m.  to  the  corner  of  Stannon  Newtake,  f-  m.  N. 
by  W.  of  the  summit  of  Meripit  Hill.  A  short  distance  from  this,  and 
near  the  Vitifer  Mine  leat  is  a  single  row  of  stones  running  northward 
from  the  wall. 

[Assacombe  is  due  N.  from  the  corner  of  Stannon  Newtake. 
This  is  described  in  Ex.  21,  and  is  also  noticed  in  the  Tracks  Section, 
T.  77.  Should  this  be  included  in  the  ramble  it  will  increase  the  dis- 
tance by  about  i  m.  Then  on  leaving  the  Assacombe  row  the  visitor 


io4  POST   BRIDGE    DISTRICT. 

will  strike  up  the  hill  W.  by  S.,  and  passing  over  the  northern  side  of 
White  Ridge  (R.  lob)  will  reach  the  upper  end  of  Lade  Hill  Bottom 
near  Beach  Holt.  The  distance  from  one  combe  to  the  other  is  about 
i*jn.3 

Leaving  the  wall  of  Stannon  Newtake  we  strike  W.  by  N.,  and  in 
about  i  m.  shall  reach  the  same  point  as  will  the  rambler  in  coming 
from  Assacombe. 

[If  the  excursion  be  extended  to  Sandy  Hole,  which  will  increase 
the  distance  by  about  2  m.,  a  S.W.  course  from  the  head  of  Lade  Hill 
Bottom  must  be  followed  for  i  m.,  when  the  point  where  the  Vitifer 
Mine  leat  is  taken  in  will  be  reached  (R.  lob).  Sandy  Hole  Pass  is 
just  above  this.  Here  the  Dart  is  confined  within  walls  built  of  large 
granite  blocks,  apparently  for  the  purpose  of  storing  the  water,  a  dam, 
or  hatch,  having  probably  been  placed  at  the  lower  end.  Northward 
of  the  pass  is  Winney's  Down  ;  above  the  pass  is  Broad  Marsh,  where 
is  an  extensive  stream- work,  at  the  lower  end  of  which  is  an  old  tinners' 
building.  For  Cut  Hill  the  river  should  be  crossed  at  the  head  of  the 
pass,  and  followed  up,  R.  bank,  to  where  the  Cut  Hill  stream  comes 
into  it,  as  described  in  Ex.  46.  In  the  angle  formed  by  the  Dart  and 
the  stream  named  is  a  small  tinners'  hut.  (The  route  by  Drift  Lane 
and  Broad  Down  is  the  best  for  Cut  Hill  from  P.  B.,  Ex.  46).  In 
returning  from  Sandy  Hole  the  rambler  should  keep  near  the  river.  A 
short  distance  below  the  Hole  is  a  fine  waterfall,  and  in  the  gorge 
through  which  the  river  runs  when  it  bends  N.  there  is  a  cache  on 
the  R.  bank.  When  it  abruptly  turns  S.  the  rambler  will  find  himself 
at  the  lower  end  of  Lade  Hill  Bottom.] 

Turning  southward  from  the  head  of  Lade  Hill  Bottom  we  follow 
the  little  stream  nearly  to  the  Dart.  Our  course  is  then  S.E.  to  the 
deserted  building  known  as  The  Sheepfold,  \  m.  distant.  This  consists 
of  a  spacious  courtyard,  said  to  cover  three  quarters  of  an  acre.  It  is 
oblong  in  shape,  and  the  wall  is  of  considerable  height  and  thickness. 
Every  9  or  10  feet  a  large  granite  post  is  let  into  it.  The  entrance  is  at 
the  N.  end,  and  at  the  S.  are  the  ruins  of  a  dwelling-house,  one  gable 
still  standing.  In  the  yard  are  a  number  of  small  courts,  or  pens,  which 
I  learnt  many  years  ago  had  once  been  roofed  in,  and  were  used  as 
cattle  shelters.  The  place  was  built  by  a  Scotchman  for  the  purpose  of 
folding  Scotch  sheep,  and  was  burned  down  between  1820  and  1830, 
when,  it  is  said,  a  child  perished  in  the  fire.  (I  have  never  been  able 
to  ascertain  the  exact  date).  [Hundred  Years,  Chap.  III.] 

Stannon  Tor,  1,517  feet,  rises  close  by  the  Sheepfold,  and  about 
f-  m.  S.  is  Hartland  Tor,  1,368  feet,  and  either  may  be  conveniently 
included  in  the  excursion.  Should  the  visitor  decide  upon  ascending 
the  latter  he  will  afterwards  make  his  way  to  Hartland  Farm,  one  of 
the  ancient  forest  tenements.  In  this  locality  are  the  vestiges  of 
several  pounds  and  hut  circles.  Near  Hartland  is  Ringhill.  In  the 
former,  in  February,  1801,  Jonas  Coaker  was  born;  in  the  latter,  in 
February,  1 890,  he  died,  and  was  buried  at  Widecombe.  Not  far  from 
the  farm,  at  Muck's  Hole  Gate,  is  a  blowing- house  with  a  mould-stone. 
The  gate  is  between  Ring  Hill  Newtake  and  Hartland  Moor,  and  not 
a  great  way  from  the  Stannon  Brook.  A  path  leads  from  the  farms 
to  Post  Bridge. 

Stannon  Tor  is  not  much  more  than  \  m.  from  the  cottage  to  which 
it  gives  name.  Making  our  way  to  the  latter  we  shall  there  cross  the 


EXCURSION   46.       BROAD    DOWN.  105 

Stannon  Brook,  and  follow  the  road  over  Stannon  Hill  to  the  lodges 
in  the  village.  The  reverse  of  this  is  the  best  route  to  the  Sheepfold 
from  Post  Bridge. 


Ex.  46. — Drift  Lane,  Roundy  Park,  Broad  Down  [Sandy  Hole, 
add  i  m.],  Hollow  Combe,  The  Cherry  Brook,  6  m. 

In  the  section  dealing  with  the  old  tracks  on  the  moor  we  have 
spoken  of  Drift  Lane  (T.  78),  a  path  which  branches  from  the  high  road 
not  far  from  the  western  end  of  the  bridge,  and  runs  up  by  the  side 
of  the  Dart.  This  we  shall  now  follow,  having  the  Archerton  enclosures 
L.,  and  shall  be  led  past  Still  Pool,  and  Hartland  Farm  on  the  opposite 
bank.  The  path  then  turns  away  from  the  river,  and  about  £  m- 
beyond  this  point  is  an  enclosure  to  the  R.  of  it,  the  wall  of  which  is 
built  on  the  Ime  of  a  much  older  one.  This  is  known  as  Roundy  Park. 
It  contains  a  few  hut  circles,  and  close  to  the  wall  is  a  fine  kistvaen. 
Some  of  the  stones  comprising  it  have  been  replaced.  Two  fragments 
of  flint  were  found  in  it,  and  some  bone  charcoal,  as  well  as  a  cooking- 
stone  which  had  been  used  to  trig  one  of  the  end  stones.  Still  following 
the  path,  which  passes  up  the  hill  towards  Rowtor  Gate,  we  cross  a 
little  stream,  to  which  the  name  of  Broad  Down  Brook  has  been  given, 
and  then  the  Powder  Mills  leat.  Here  on  the  slope  of  the  hill  R.  is  a 
large  enclosure  built,  like  the  smaller  one  just  noticed,  on  the  site 
of  an  ancient  pound.  It  contains  a  number  of  hut  circles.  These 
were  noticed  by  the  Rev.  Samuel  Rowe,  in  1827-8,  and  were  spoken 
of  by  him  later  as  being  in  Hamlyn's  Newtake.  Not  far  from  this 
group  is  a  small  pound,  which  bears  the  name  of  Broad  Down  Ring, 
locally  Broad'n  Ring,  the  down  being  not  infrequently  spoken  of  as 
Broad'n  Down.  This  arises  from  the  moorman's  habit  of  duplication. 
Mr.  Rowe  noticed  this  enclosure  also,  which,  he  says,  was  situated  in 
Templer's  Newtake.  Below  it,  and  close  to  the  Dart,  is  another 
pound  with  hut  circles. 

[Sandy  Hole  (T.  79,  R.  lob)  is  i  m.  N.W.  by  W.  of  Broad  Down 
Ring,  the  way  lying  over  the  side  of  Broad  Down.  In  going  from  Post 
Bridge  direct  to  Sandy  Hole  the  large  enclosure  with  the  hut  circles 
must  be  kept  R  ,  and  the  track  followed  up  the  hill  to  Rowtor  Gate, 
when  a  course  about  N.W.  by  N.  is  struck.  The  route  to  Cut  Hill 
from  Sandy  Hole  will  take  the  rambler  along  the  bank  of  the  Dart 
through  the  pass  above  it,  and  thence  by  the  great  stream  work  at 
Broad  Marsh  to  Kit  Steps,  near  which  crossing  place  the  river  bends, 
and  flows  from  the  N.  Here  it  receives  two  small  tributaries,  one 
from  the  W.,  the  other  from  N.W.  Between  these  is  good  hard  ground, 
forming  the  approach  to  Cut  Lane  (T.  79).  The  summit  of  the  hill 
must  be  kept  L.  in  ascending,  so  as  to  reach  the  ridge  to  the  N.  of  it.] 

Hollow  Combe,  to  which  we  shall  make  our  way  from  Broad  Down 
Ring,  is  i  m.  S.  of  Sandy  Hole.  If  the  excursion  be  extended  to  the 
latter  it  will  increase  the  distance  by  about  i  m. 

Prom  Broad  Down  Ring  we  shall  strike  W.S.W.  for  i  m.  towards 
Lower  White  Tor  with  Rowtor  Wall  R.,  to  the  Cherry  Brook, 
which  here  runs  down  through  the  deep  and  narrow  gully  bearing 


io6 


POST  BRIDGE  DISTRICT. 


the  name  of  Hollow  Combe,  and  which  seems  also  to  have  been  known 
as  Gawlers  Hole.  Not  far  below  the  head  of  this  the  brook  is  crossed 
by  the  great  reave  which  is  by  some  regarded  as  a  road,  and  to  which 
we  have  elsewhere  alluded  (see  Reave  in  Terms  Section).  It  runs  up 
the  steep  western  side  of  the  combe  to  Lower  White  Tor,  where  it 
terminates.  In  the  other  direction  it  can  be  plainly  traced  over  part 
of  Chittaford  Down  running  towards  the  Dart,  which  it  crosses  at 
Still  Pool,  and  thence  goes  through  Webbs'  Marsh  towards  the 
Wesleyan  Chapel,  to  be  seen  again  on  the  moor  beyond  the  village. 
Mr.  Robert  Burnard  has  given  some  interesting  particulars  concerning 
it  in  a  paper  read  before  the  members  of  the  Devonshire  Association. 

Nearly  i  m.  S.  of  Lower  White  Tor  is  Higher  White  Tor,  called 
in  the  neighbourhood  Whitten  Tor  (Ex.  5),  and  not  far  from  this,  and 
running  S.  from  it,  is  a  double  stone  row.  It  is  over  a  hundred  yards 
in  length,  but  has  been  much  despoiled,  no  doubt  by  the  builders  of 
the  newtake  walls  near  by.  Still  further  S.  is  Longaford  Tor,  con- 
spicuously placed  on  the  ridge  that  forms  the  eastern  side  of  the  valley 
in  which  the  oaks  of  Wistman  hide  themselves  (Ex.  5).  Westward  of 
the  Powder  Mills  are  a  couple  of  ruined  kistvaens. 

At  the  lower  end  of  the  combe  we  shall  take  leave  of  the  Cherry 
Brook,  which  we  have  met  on  so  many  of  our  excursions,  and  strike  S.E. 
over  Chittaford  Down  towards  Arch  Tor,  near  which  we  cross  the 
Powder  Mills  leat.  Below  this  is  Gawler  Bottom,  where  the  roots  of 
trees  and  bushes  of  various  kinds  have  been  found  by  peat  cutters. 
In  1892  an  object  of  antiquarian  interest  came  to  light  here.  This  was 
a  bronze  ferrule,  which  was  buried  some  four  feet  beneath  the  surface. 
(Cf.  Ex.  5).  Crossing  this  shallow  valley,  down  which  Gaw  Lake,  or 
Gawler  Brook,  runs  to  fall  into  the  Dart,  we  reach  the  Princetown  and 


Powder  Mills. 
FROM   ROAD   AT   I.AKEHEAD   HIM,.      LOOKING   W.    TO   N.W. 

Moreton  road,  and  turn  L-,  having  Lakehead  Hill  R.  Soon  we  arrive 
at  the  enclosures  of  Archerton,  in  the  midst  of  which  is  an  ancient 
pound,  now  planted  with  trees,  and  also  a  ruined  kistvaen.  When 
these  are  passed  we  find  ourselves  once  more  at  the  spot  whence  we 
started,  and  close  to  the  ancient  clapper  that  gives  name  to  the  village 
around  which  we  have  been  rambling. 


POST  BRIDGE  TO  CRANMERE. 


107 


ROUTES   TO   CRANMERE. 

C.  R.  15.— From  the  WARREN  HOUSE  INN,  6  m.  N.W.  over 
the  side  of  Waters  Down  to  the  head  of  Assacombe,  i£  m.  Thence 
over  White  Ridge  to  the  Grey  Wethers,  i4-  m.,  the  course  being  the 
same.  Follow  the  wall  of  the  Teign  Head  enclosures  northward  for 
i£  m.  to  White  Horse  Gate.  It  is  well  to  enter  the  enclosures  at  the 
Grey  Wethers,  keeping  the  wall  L.,  the  ground  being  better  there  than 
outside.  From  White  Horse  Gate  as  in  C.  R.  13. 

The  return  to  White  Horse  Gate  is  shown  in  C.  R.  13.  Thence  by 
the  wall  to  the  Grey  Wethers  ;  S.E.  over  White  Ridge  to  the  head  of 
Assacombe,  and  onward  to  Waters  Down. 

C.  R.  1 6.— From  POST  BRIDGE  via  Stannon,  6  m.  By  this 
route  it  is  possible  to  drive  to  White  Horse  Gate,  i4  m.  from  the  pool. 
By  the  road  leading  from  the  lodges,  over  Stannon  Hill  with  Stannon 
Bottom  L-.  i  m.  Thence  by  the  newtake  wall  to  White  Ridge  and 
on  to  the  Grey  Wethers,  if  m.,  the  direction  being  N.W.  by  N.  Turn 
L.  inside  the  gate  as  in  C.  R.  15  (see  T.  77). 

The  return  route  to  the  Grey  Wethers  is  shown  in  C.  R.  13,  15, 
Although  Stats  Brook  rises  over  2  m.  from  the  Grey  Wethers  the  name 
is  found  in  this  locality  in  the  ruin  known  as  Stats  House.  From  the 
circles  strike  S.E.  by  S.  over  the  shoulder  of  White  Ridge  to  Stannon. 
To  the  village  bv  the  road. 


Sittaford 
Tor. 


Hartland 
Tor. 


White 
Ridge. 


Stannon 
Tor. 


-- — -^— " -^-^<^^v»»^=.    — — = 


FROM  NEAR  ARCHERTON.   LOOKING  N.N.E. 


io8  POST  BRIDGE  TO  CRANMERE. 

C.  R.  17.— From  POST  BRIDGE  via  the  East  Dart  valley,  6  m. 
In  Ex.  46  the  route  to  Sandy  Hole,  and  the  stream-work  above  it,  has 
been  described.  At  the  head  of  the  latter  the  Dart  bends,  coming 
from  the  N.,  and  from  this  point  the  route  to  the  pool  is  shown  in 
C.  R.  i  a.  About  \  m.  above  the  bend  are  two  remarkable  miners' 
buildings  on  the  L.'bank  of  the  stream.  They  are  placed  side  by  side 
on  a  sort  of  plateau  amongst  fairly  tall  heather.  In  one  the  door 
jambs  are  still  erect.  Further  up  the  Dart,  and  on  the  same  bank, 
are  the  remains  of  two  other  little  buildings  of  the  same  character, 
one  close  to  a  tiny  feeder. 

The  return  from  Cranmere  is  shown  in  C.  R.  13,  which  will  bring 
the  rambler  to  the  head  of  the  Dart.  This  he  will  trace  downward  to 
Sandy  Hole,  and  thence  strike  S.E.  to  Drift  Lane. 

On  one  part  of  White  Ridge  hi  the  vicinity  of  the  Grey  Wethers 
some  guide  stones  may  be  seen.  These  were  erected  many  years  ago 
to  mark  the  track  over  which  a  miner,  who  lived  at  Stannon,  used  to 
pass  to  his  work  at  Knock  Mine  on  the  Taw.  (Ex.  17,  Part  II.,  and 
T.  38,  Part  V.)  The  path  from  the  Grey  Wethers  lay  along  by  the 
newtake  wall  past  White  Horse  Gate,  and  thence  over  the  ridge  to 
Taw  Head,  and  down  the  stream  to  the  mine.  Other  stones  may  be 
seen  in  this  central  part  of  the  moor  marking  places  where  a  way  has 
been  cut  through  the  peat.  These  crossing-places  were  formed  by  the 
late  Mr.  Prank  Phillpotts  for  hunting  purposes.  (See  end  of  Tracks 
Section,  Part  V.) 


Index. 


Abbots'  Way,  The        36,  68,  76 

Arch  Tor 93 

Archerton 105,  106 

Arrishes,  The      91 

Assacombe  Row,  The       . .    103 
Arrow  Head  Field     . .      . .     44 
Aune    Head,    42,    77,    92,    93  ; 
Mire,  91. 


Babeny         85,  99 

Bachelor's  Hall  . .  . .  46 
Barracks,  The  . .  . .  . .  96 

Beach  Holt         104 

Bear   Down,    54,    55  ;    Clapper, 

55  ;   Man,    53,    54,   55,    56; 

Tors,  55,  56. 

Beara  House       93 

Beetor  Cross       52 

Bel  Pool  Island,  85  ;  Little,  85 
Bel  Tor  Corner  ..  . .  85 
Bellaford  Bridge,  98  ;  Combe 

Lake,  99  ;  Tor,  97,  98. 

Bellamy,  J.  C 55,  61 

Bench  Tor 84 

Bennet's  Cross 103 

Black  Dunghill  . .      . .       70,  80 

Black  Furzes      90 

Black  Hole          61 

Black  Hole  (N.)         . .      . .     80 

Black  Lane         75 

Black  Pool          84 

Black  Ridge  Water  .  .  .  .  80 
Black  Tor  (Walkhampton),  34, 

67  ;  Fall,  34. 
Blackabrook,   The,  44,   54,  66  ; 

Clapper,  62. 

Blackall's  Drive,  Dr 85 

Board'u  House 48 

Bray,  Rev.  E.  A.,  55,  56,  64,  89 

Brim  Brook        71 

Brimpts,  83,  84,  85  ;  Wood,  99 

Brisworthy  77 

Broad  Amicombe  Hole     . .     71 


Broad  Down       105 

Broad  Hole         54 

Broad  Marsh      . .      . .     79,  105 

Broad  Rock        76 

Broad  Stones      85 

Bronze  Ferrule 106 

Broom  Park        90 

Brownberry         89 

Brown's  House 72 

Bull  Park 43 

Buller,  Sir  Francis     . .      . .  64 

Byes,  The 83 

C 
Cadaford  Bridge        . .       77,  78 

Castle  Hill 103 

Castle  Road        38 

Cater's  Beam      . .      . .       45,  92 

Cator  Common 100 

Cattle,  Scotch 6,  7 

Challacombe        100 

Cherry  Brook,  89,  105  ;  Head,  50 
Childe's  Tomb  ..  40,  41,  42 
Chittaford  Down  . .  . .  106 

Cholake,  The      46 

Church  Lane       74 

Church  Rock      63 

Church  Way       101 

Clay  Works,  Red  Lake      . .      76 

Cleave  Brake      93 

Cleave  Combe 84 

Cleave  Wood      85 

Coaker,  Jonas     . .     44,  103,  104 

Coal  Mires 102 

Cocks'  Lake,  88  ;  Menhir..      88 

Coffin  Stone        87 

Combeshead  Tor  . .  . .  33 
Combestone  Farm,  84  ;  Island, 

84  ;  Wood,  84. 
Conies'  Down,  53,  70  ;  Row,  53, 

54;  Tor,  71. 

Corn  Down 99 

Corndon  Tor       86 

Corndonford        99 

Countess  Amicia  60 


HO 


INDEX. 


Cramber  Tor 

Cranery  Bottom 

Cranmere 

Crazy    Well    Bridge, 

Pool,  31,  32 
Crip  Tor  Farm 
Crock  of  Gold 
Crockern    Farm, 

63,  64. 

Crovenor  Steps 
Crow  Tor     . . 
Cut  Hill 


D 

Dart,  Gorge  of  . . 
Dart  Hole   . . 
Dartmeet,  84  ;  Hill 
Davy  Town 
Dead  Lake 
Dean  Combe 
De  Redvers,  The 
Devil's  Bridge    . . 
Devil's  Frying-pan 
Devil's  Tor 
Devonport  Leat . . 
Dinger  Tor 
Ditsworthy  Warren 
Dolly's  Cot 
Double  Waters  . . 
Down  Ridge 
Down  Tor,  33  ;   Rows 
Drift  Lane  .  . 
Drivage  Bottom 
Dry  Lakes  .  . 
Duchy  Hotel 
Ducks'   Pool 
Dunnabridge  Farm,   89 

at,  64. 
Dunnabridge  Poi 

Dolmen  at, 
Dunstone  Down 
Dury 


Eagle  Rock 

East  Combe 

East  Tor      .  . 

East  Ockment  Farm 

Ephr aim's  Pinch 

Evlesburrow 


Rocks  in,  5  5 

F 

.  .      .  .      30 

Fairy  Bridge       46 

.  .      .  .      98 

Feather  Bed        4 

79,  80 

Fish  Lake  Mire          .  .      .  .     92 

;e,    31-    34; 

Fitz,  John  62 

Fitz's  Well          ..         61,  62,  66 

.  .      .  .      24 

Flat  Tor       53 

-  •       43.  46 

Ford  Newtake    85 

8  ;    Tor,    5  1  , 

Forest  Inn,  The         .  .      .  .      83 

Fowler,  G.  W  45 

..      ..      71 

Fox  Tor,  42  ;  Combe,  91  ;  Farm, 

48,  50,  51 

42,  43  ;  Gert,  75  ;  Gulf,  91  ; 

80,  104,  105 

Head,  75  ;  Mire,  39  ;  Cross 

in,  40  ;  Newtake,  91. 

Foxholes       50 

Frenchmen's  Road    ..      ..      21 

.  .      .  .      84 

Fur  Tor  Wood  80 

.  .      .  .      50 

84,  87 

G 

..      ..      25 

Gaveston,   Piers          .  .       31,  32 

..      ..     61 

Gawler  Bottom           .  .     93,  106 

••      ••      33 

Goad's  Stone      .  .      .  .       24,  78 

..      ..     60 

Gobbet  Plain      .  .      .  .       go,  gi 

21 

Golden  Dagger  101 

.  .         .  .        60 

Gore  Hill     73 

••      ••      53 

Granite  Quarries        .  .       24,  29 

35,  38,  43 

Great  Gnats'  Head   .  .      .  .      75 

..      ..      71 

Green  Hill  75 

..      ..      77 

Greena  Ball         61 

.-      ..      85 

Grendon   Common,    100  ;   Circle 

21 

near,  99  ;  Cot,  100. 

.  .        92 

Grey  Wethers     .  .      .  .   107,  1  08 

ffS           .  .       67 

Grim's  Pound     .  .      .  .     96,  103 

.  .     105 

Guide  Stones       28 

••      ••     35 

Gullet,  Mr  64 

.  .      .  .     92 

.  .      .  .     68 

H 

.  .      .  .      75 

Hameldon    103 

,   89  ;   Stone 

Hamlyn's  Newtake    .  .      .  .    105 

Hand  Hill   45 

,  64,  65,  88  ; 

Hanging  Rock    61 

Farm,  89. 

Hangman's  Pit  74 

-•      .-      73 

Hannaford,  John       .  .      .  .      56 

.  .     101 

Hannaford  Stickles    .  .      .  .      85 

Hart  Hole  Lane         .  .      .  .      84 

Hart  Tor  (Walkhampton),   30  ; 

Row    at,    30  ;    Brook,    34  ; 

.  .      .  .     84 

Huts,  67. 

.  .      .  .     84 

Hartland      Farm,      104,      105  ; 

.  .      .  .     24 

Tor,   104. 

n                71 

Hemsworthy  Gate     .  .      .  .      73 

.  .     IOO,    IO2 

Henroost      92 

..      ..      75 

Herne  Hole         

INDEX. 


Hexworthy,          82,      83,      87  ; 

Bridge,  84. 

Kingston  Hill  Rows          . .      33 
Hisworthy,   North,    16,    36,   66  ; 

South,  35  ;  Mound  near,  38 
Hockinston  Marsh,  85  ;  Tor,  85 
Hollow  Combe  .  .  52,  105,  106 
Hollow  Tor  .  .  .  .  20,  29 
Helming  Beam  . .  . .  54,  66 

Holne  Moor         83 

Holne  Wood        85 

Hooteu  Wheals  .  .      .  .     92 

Horn  Hill 93 

Horn's  Cross       93 

Horse  Ford         92 

Horse  Hole 52 

Horsey  Park       70 

Huccaby  Cleave,  84,  9^  ;  Farm, 

83  ;  Tor,  88. 
Hurston  Castle 103 


Inga  Tor,  24  ;  Kist  near         24 

Iron  Bridge         34 

Isabella  de  Fortibus..       59,  60 
Ivy  bridge  Lane          . .      .  .      35 

Jan  Coo       87 

Joan  Ford's  Newtake       .  .  43 

Jolly  Lane  Cot 83 

Jordan  Ball         73 

Judge's  Chair      .  .         64,  88,  89 

Judge's  Corner 65 

Jumbo,  The  Terrier          .  .  48 


King  Tor 24 

King's  Oven        103 

Kingsett       32,  33 

Kit  Steps 79,  105 

Kneeset  Foot,  Nose           . .      71 
Kraps  Ring         97 


Lade  Hill  Bottom     .  .      .  .  104 
Lakehead  Hill    . .      . .       96,  97 

Lakeland      103 

Langlake  Mires           .  .      . .  100 

Langamarsh  Pit         .  .      .  .  84 

Langcombe  Brook      .  .      .  .  77 

Langstone  Circle        .  .      .  .  59 

Lanson  Brook 46 


Laskey,  John      64 

Leedon  Tor         24 

Lether  Tor  Bridge,     32,  33,  67 

Lich  Path,  The          . .      .  .  98 

Lints  Tor 71 

Littaf ord  Tors    . .      . .       51,52 

Little  Newtake  Plantation  99 

Lock's  Gate  Cross     .  .      . .  99 

Long  Ash  Clapper     .  .      . .  26 

Long  Island        86 

Long  Newtake 91 

Longaford  Tor,   52,    106  ;  New- 
take,  50,  51. 

Look-out  Tor      36 

Lough     Tor     Hole,      88,      96  ; 

Pound,  88. 

Lower  Watern  Newtake   .  .  44 

Luckcombe  Stone      .  .      .  .  92 

Lug  Tor       84 

Lydford  Tor        56 

M 

Maiden  Hill         53 

Marsh,  The 84 

May's  Newtake  . .      .  .      91 

Meripit,    Higher,     101  ;    Lower, 

101,  102  ;  Hill,  72,  102. 
Merivale,    26,    63  ;    Antiquities, 

27,    28,    66  ;    Mining    Huts 

at,  26. 
Methern  Brook,  50;  Hill..      53 

Middle  Brook      51 

Middle  Mires       75 

Mil  Tor,  85  ;  Wood  . .      .  .      85 

Mill,  The 93 

Mill  Hill       85 

Mining  Huts,  Fox  Tor     .  .     42 

Mires 4 

Mis  Tor,     Great,     58,     59,     66  ; 

Little,  55  ;  Moor,  58. 

Money  Pit  86 

Moorland  Hotel          .  .      .  .      74 

Moorlands 45,    74 

Mount  Misery 91 

Mount  View  . .  .  .  29,  58 
Muck's  Hole  Gate  . .  .  .  104 
Muddy  Lakes  -Brook,  89  ; 

Newtake,  45. 

N 

Nakers  Hill          92 

Narrator  Brook  . .      .  .      77 

New  Forest,  54  ;  Corner,  70,  80 


INDEX. 


New  London       . .      . .       43,  44 

Newhouse 72,  103 

Newleycom.be  Lake  . .      . .      33 

Newtakes 98 

Nos worthy  Bridge     . .      . .     67 
Nun's  Cross,  37,  67  ;  Farm,  75 

O 

Ockery,  The        44 

Okel  Tor      25 

Older  Bridge       35 

Otter  Pool 93 

Ouldsbroom,  74,  8"!  ;   Cross,  86 

Over  Tor 26,  63 


Parson's  Cottage  ..  51,  56 
Peak  Hill,  67  ;  Pond  on  . .  22 
Peat  Cot  . .  . .  36,  38,  67 
Petre's  Boundstone  . .  . .  92 

Pigs'  House        91 

Piskies'  Holt       84 

Pizwell,  99  ;  Bridge  . .      . .     99 

Plague  Market 26 

Plym  Ford,  75  ;  Steps     . .      77 

Portland  Lane 77 

Post  Bridge  . .  94,  95,  96 
Pottery  Found  . .  . .  34,  56 
Powder  Mills,  106  ;  Leat  105 
Prince  Hall,  45  ;  Bridge  . .  45 
Princetown,  15  ;  Church,  68  ; 

Railway,  13,  14. 
Prison  Leat         70 


Q 

Queen  Victoria's  Cross     . .     93 
Quickbeam  Hill          . .      . .      77 


R 

Raddick  Hill,  34  ;  Lane  . .      33 

Raven  Rock       84 

Red  Cottages  . .  25,  29,  66 
Red  Lake  Clay  Works,  76 ; 

Ford,  75.' 
Riddon,  99  ;  Ridge   . .      . .     85 

Riddy  Pit 32 

Ring  Hill,  104  ;  Newtake,  104 
Ringleshutts  Mine  . .  . .  74 
Ringmoor  Cot,  77  ;  Down  77 
Roads  on  Moor  ..  u,  12 


Round  Hill,  44  ;  Farm     . .      38 

Roundy  Farm 32 

Roundy  Park  Kist    . .      . .    105 

Routrendle  24 

Row  Tor      51,  53 

Rowbrook    . .      . .         84,  86,  87 

Rowden  Down 73 

Rowtor     Gate,     51,     93,     105  ; 

Marsh,   5 1 . 

Royal  Hill 43 

Royal  Oak  Level  . .  . .  24 
Rue  Lake  (Dart)  . .  . .  46 
Rundle  Stone,  29,  55,  57  ; 

Tor,   17. 
Runnage  Bridge         . .  100,  101 

Rush  Bottom 80 

Ryder's  Hill        92 


Saddle  Bridge 74 

St.  Gabriel's  Chapel  . .  102 
St.  Raphael's  Chapel  . .  84 
Sand  Parks  . .  . .  39,  42 
Sandy  Hole,  79,  93,  104,  105,  108 
Sandy  Way  . .  . .  42,  74 

Scudely  Bogs      100 

Settlements,  Moorland      . .      1 1 

Seven  Sisters      85 

Shallow  Ford      59 

Shallowford,  West  . .  . .  99 
Sharp  Tor  (Walkhampton)  22 
Sharp  Tor  (Dart)  . .  .  .  86 
Sharrah  Pool  Marsh  . .  85 
Shavercombe  Brook  . .  77 

Sheepfold 104 

Sheepstor 77 

Sherberton  Common  .  .  . .  86 
Sher burton,  90  ;  Firs  . .  91 
Sherburton,  Little  .  .  . .  89 

Sherwill        85,  86 

Shnte  Lake         100 

Simon's  Lake      . .      . .       85,  87 

Siward,  Earl        36 

Siward's  Cross  . .  . .  36,  37 
Skir  Ford,  Gert,  Hill  . .  92 

Slade 93 

Smith  Hill,  89  ;  Brook  . .  89 
Snails'  House  . .  . .  98,  99 
Snider  Park  Plantation  . .  88 

Snow  Storms      29 

Soldiers'  Pond 21 

Soussons  Common  . .  100,  102 
Spader's  Cottage  . .  . .  65 


INDEX. 


Splatton  Hill       76 

vSpriddle  Combe,  70  ;  Lake       53 

Stanlake       22,  34 

Stannon,      102  ;     Brook,      105  ; 

Hill,  105  ;  Newtake,  103. 
Stats  Bridge,   102  ;  Brook,   103, 

107. 

Still  Pool 105,  106 

Stone  Implements     .  .      .  .      57 

Stonechat,  The 55 

Stony  Bottom 77 

Stony  Marsh        85 

Store,  The 60 

Strane,  The         39 

Stream  Hill  Ford      .  .      .  .      39 

Summer  Hill       53 

Swincombe,  The,  39,  42  ;  Farm, 

46,     67,     91  ;     Ford,     91  ; 

Xewtake,  89. 


Tavy  Hole 71 

Templer's  Newtake   .  .      . .  105 

Ter  Hill       91 

Thrushel  Combe         .  .      .  .  67 

Timber  Bridge 70 

Timber  Pool        90 

Tor  Royal  Kists        .  .      .  .  43 

Travellers'  Ford         . .      . .  54 

Trena  Bridge      44 

Two  Bridges       15 

Tyrwhitt,  Sir  T 85 


Vitifer  Leat        103 

Vixen  Tor 66 

W 

Wain  Tor 58 

Walkham,  The,  Huts  on,  63,  66 
Walkham  Head         . .      . .     70 


Walkhampton  Common,  21,  30, 

33  ;  Cross  on,  35. 
Walla,  or  Wella         ..      ..     60 
Walla  Brook,   85  ;   Clapper,   85, 

99- 

Walna  Buildings  .  .  .  .  101 
Ward  Bridge  . .  .  .  25,  66 
Warren  House  Inn  . .  100,  103 
Water  Hill,  Waters  Down,  103 

Webb's  Marsh 106 

Week  Ford          . .      . .       84,  93 

Wellaby  Gulf      92 

Wellsfoot  Island  ..  ..  85 
Wennaford  Brook  .  .  .  .  84 
Wheal  Anne  Bottom  .  .  39 

Wheal  Caroline 103 

Wheal  Emma  Leat,  9 1  ;  Weir,  39 
White  Horse  Gate  .  .  .  .  107 

White  Ridge       107 

White  Rock        14 

White  Tor  (Tavy),  69  ;  Menhir, 

59- 
White    Tor,    Higher,    52,    106 ; 

I/ower,  52. 

White  Wood       84 

White  Works,  36,  38,  39,  67 
White's  Babeny  . .  . .  86 
White's  Slade  . .  . .  86,  98 

WhithUl       25 

Widecombe         72 

Wild  Banks        ..      ..       50,  51 

Wind  Tor 73 

Windy  Post        68 

Winney's  Down 104 

Wistman's  Wood  . .  47,  48 
Wo  Brook,  The,  92  ;  Foot . .  84 


Yar  Tor       . .      . .        84,  85,  86 
Yes   Tor    (Walkhampton),    24 ; 
Huts  near,  66. 


Tviii. 


DARTMOOR   GUIDE. 


BIBBINGS'S  BURDOCK  PELL. 

4O    Years    before    the    Public. 

The  best  HERBAL  PURIFYING  MEDICINE  ever  compounded  for  old  or  " 
composed  of  Burdock,  Dandelion,  Chamomile,  Podophyllin,  and  the  finest  ri 
Rhubarb,  combined  with  other  gentle  vegetable  aperients.  They  cleanse  the  Blood  i 
all  impurities,  give  strength  and  tone  to  the  stomach  and  digestive  organs,  and  beak 
and  energy  to  the  whole  system.    A  marvellous  remedy  for  Eczema,  Pimples,  Blaci 
heads,  Erysipelas,  Bad  Legs,  and  all  skin  diseases.    A  ready  relief  for  Headflche,  Bile. 
Wind,  Spasms,  and  Constipation.    A  positive  cure  for  Jaundice  and  Liver  Complaint, 
Indigestion  and  Influenza.    Their  cleansing  and  solvent  action  prevents  the  formatior 
of  stone  in  kidneys  or  bladder,  and  eradicates  gall-stones  and  gravel  by  carrying  off  thi 
poisonous  uric  acid.    A  most  valuable  medicine  for  ladies  (especially  for  change  of  life) 
being  gently  purgative  with  marvellous  searching  and  purifying  properties.      Whe 
other  remedies  fail,  try  Bibbings's  Burdock  Pills.    Don't  wait— start  now.   The  first  dos 
will  convince  any  sufferer  who  wishes  to  FEEL  well.  LOOK  well,  and  KEEP  wel 
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Symons 

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A  mature  and  delicious  liquor,  the  juice  of 
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dry  or  sweet  with  a  body  and  flavour  due 
to  expert  blending  of  the  fruit.  The 
Champagne  of  Cyders ! 

Fruit  Mills— TOTNES,  DEVON, 
and    Ratcliff,    London,    £.,  etc. 

Or  of  all  best  Wine  Merchants. 


.GUIDE -TO  DARTMOOR: 

K  Topographical  Description 
of  the  Forest  and  Commons 


BY 

WILLIAM    CROSSING, 

AUTHOR    OF 

The  Ancient  Stone  Crosses  of  Dartmoor  and  Its  Borderland,  Amid  Devonia's  Alps 

Tales  of  the  Dartmoor  Pixies,  Gems  in  a  Granite  Setting,  A  Hundred 

Years  on  Dartmoor,  Folk  Rhymes  of  Devon, 

From  a  Dartmoor  Cot,  S-c. 


WITH     MAPS     AND     SKETCHES. 

A  NEW  EDITION   IN  FIVE  PARTS. 


PART  IV. 

Ashburton,  Brent,  Ivybridge,  and 
Cornwood  Districts. 


"  The  gush  of  wild-winds  as  they  spring 
Low  mumuring  round  thy  heathy  side, 

A  fresher  incense  seem  to  bring, 
A  purer  tone  of  joy  provide." 


SOPHIE  DIXON. 


JEieter : 

A.    WHEATON   &  Co.,  Ltd.,  Booksellers  and  Stationers, 
223   High  Street. 


OUT  OF  THE  LAND  OF  GORSE  AND  HEATHER 

TO 

THE   RIGHT   WORSHIPFUL 

THE    MAYOR   AND   MAYORESS   OF   PLYMOUTH, 
A.   EDMUND   SPENDER,   B.A., 

AND 

HELEN  FRANCES  SPENDER, 
GREETING. 


PREFACE  TO  THIRD  EDITION. 


THE  favourable  reception  accorded  to  the  former  editions  of  this  Guide 
has  rendered  a  further  issue  necessary.  In  this  some  considerable 
alterations  in  the  arrangement  have  been  made.  While  a  description 
of  Dartmoor  in  one  volume  had  much  to  recommend  it,  the  plan  was 
also  not  without  its  disadvantages.  The  ground  covered  being 
extensive  it  was  impossible  to  produce  such  a  book  as  the  author 
considered  the  subject  demanded  without  its  becoming  'rather  bulky, 
and  this  was  inconvenient  from  the  tourist's  point  of  view.  It  is  now 
divided  into  five  parts,  but  there  has  been  no  abridgement  of  matter. 
The  few  alterations  in  the  text  are  chiefly  of  the  nature  of  additions 
which  were  needed  in  order  to  bring  the  book  up  to  date. 

The  author  is  much  gratified  at  knowing  that  the  Guide  has  been 
found  helpful  by  the  tourist  in  the  past,  and  ventures  to  believe  that 
in  its  present  form  it  will  prove  of  still  greater  value  in  the  future. 

BI.ACK  DOWN,  DARTMOOR 
July,  1914. 


DARTMOOR    GUIDE. 


EXETER. 


POPLE'S 

NEW    LONDON    HOTEL 

(Visited  by  their  Majesties  The  King  and  Queen,  King  Edward  VII. 
and  Queen  Victoria.) 

Officially    appointed    by    the    "  Royal    Automobile    Club," 
and   the    "Automobile   Association." 


A  charming  i8th  Century  Hotel,  with  every  modern  comfort 
and  luxury.  Beautiful  covered  Courtyard  as  Lounge.  Near  the 
Cathedral  and  Railway  Stations.  Electric  Light.  Night  Porter. 

SPLENDID    MOTOR    GARAGE 

Adjoining  the  Hotel,  with   Lock-up   Private   Boxes  and 
Inspection    Pits. 

Telegrams:  " Pople,  Exeter."         Telephone:  146,  Exeter. 

R.     POPLE,    Proprietor. 


Houses 


Let 

Sold 

Built 

Repaired 

Painted 

Decorated. 


For  anything  to  do 
with  Houses  or 
Building 
Land  in 


The 


Communicate 
with 


/Vx   Howard, 

Contractor 
and  House  Agent 

ROCKVALE,  YELVERTON. 


PREFACE. 


DURING  recent  years  the  claims  of  Dartmoor  as  a  holiday  and  health 
resort  have  become  widely  recognized.  Those  to  whom  an  old  world 
region  is  an  attraction  will  find  in  it  a  field  of  surpassing  interest.  No 
district  in  England  of  similiar  extent  is  so  rich  in  pre-historic  remains, 
and  in  none  does  Nature  wear  a  wilder  aspect. 

To  this  elevated  tract  of  land  no  guide  book,  in  the  true  sense  of 
the  term,  has  hitherto  appeared.  It  has,  of  course,  been  noticed  in 
county  guides,  and  there  are  also  topographical  works  and  handbooks 
descriptive  of  it,  but  in  the  former  the  accounts  are  necessarily  super- 
ficial, while  in  the  latter  the  visitor  is  not  given  any  directions  for 
finding  his  way  over  those  parts  of  the  waste  remote  from  roads.  To 
enable  him  to  learn  what  Dartmoor  really  is  he  needs  something  beyond 
notices  of  the  more  celebrated,  because  more  readily  accessible,  places 
and  objects  of  interest.  He  should  be  led  from  the  beaten  track,  and 
wander  among  the  hills  where  signs  of  man's  occupancy  are  not,  where 
silence  broods  over  the  sea  of  fen,  and  the  pasture  grounds  of  the 
cattle  that  range  at  will  are  as  they  were  when  the  Norman  herdsman 
drove  his  beasts  there  ;  or  he  should  stray  into  solitary  combes 
encumbered  with  the  ruined  huts  and  fallen  rock-pillars  of  the  people 
who  once  made  this  wild  land  their  home.  As  my  acquaintance  with 
Dartmoor  is  a  life-long  one,  and  as  it  has  been  with  me  a  subject  of 
study  and  of  systematic  investigation  during  many  years,  it  is  with 
some  degree  of  confidence  that  I  take  upon  myself  the  task  of  con- 
ducting the  visitor  over  it,  and  leading  him  into  its  remoter  parts. 

This  book  is  the  first  to  give  a  complete  topographical  description 
of  Dartmoor,  and  the  reader  may  depend  upon  its  being  correct.  Its 
aim  is  to  furnish  the  visitor  with  an  account  of  all  that  is  to  be  found 
on  the  moor  worthy  of  note,  and  to  acquaint  him  with  the  best  means 
of  reaching  the  various  objects  from  any  point.  The  districts  into 
which  the  moor  has  been  divided  are  described  in  the  excursions,  and 


viii.  PREFACE. 

at  the  end  of  these  are  given  routes  to  each  of  the  other  districts.  By 
this  arrangement  the  moor  is  crossed  in  every  conceivable  direction, 
so  that  it  is  not  possible  to  find  any  part  of  it  that  is  not  noticed  some- 
where in  the  book.  For  the  sake  of  convenience  the  terms  used  in 
connection  with  the  forest  and  commons  are  given,  with  their  mean- 
ings, in  glossarial  form,  some  archaeological  terms  being  also  included. 

I  desire  to  express  my  thanks  to  Mr.  PHIIJP  GUY  STEVENS,  of 
Princetown,  for  the  series  of  pen-and-ink  sketches  he  has  been  at  such 
pains  to  furnish,  and  which  were  executed  on  the  spot.  It  is  hoped 
they  will  be  found  useful  as  a  means  of  helping  the  visitor  to  identify 
the  principal  tors  and  hills. 

If  I  gain  the  confidence  of  the  rambler  who  uses  this  book  my 
satisfaction  will  be  complete.  There  is  some  reason  for  me  to  hope 
that  I  shall  do  so,  as  I  venture  to  believe  that  he  will  discover  ere  we 
have  gone  far  on  our  wanderings  together  that  I  am  really  and  truly  a 
Dartmoor  man. 


CONTENTS, 
PART  IV. 

PAGE 

Road  Distances  to  Ashburton I 

„         „         Brent  and  Ivybridge        36 

Important  Points  near  Ashburton 2 

,,             ,,               Brent  and  Ivybridge          38 

,,             ,,     in  Southern  Dartmoor         76 

Excursion  26.     Prom  Ashburton        3 

27.  „             ,,              . .      -  9 

28.  „             „              14 

Holne  Chase  and  Buckland  Woods 17 

Shorter  Excursions  from  Ashburton,  88  to  98       22 

Ashburton  to  Ilsington        23 

,,         ,,     Widecombe 24 

Route  47.     Ashburton  to  Brent  and  Ivybridge 31 

48.         „         Plympton  and  Shaugh 31 

,,       49.         ,,         Princetown  and  Two  Bridges         32 

50.  „         Tavistock 33 

51.  ,,         Lydford        34 

52.  ,,         Okehampton        34 

53.  ,,         Chagford  and  Moreton 34 

54.  ,,         Bovey  Tracey *.      35 

The  Moors  of  Holne  and  Buckfastleigh 39 

Holne  to  Avon  Head 33 

Excursion  29.     From  Brent         45 

30-         ..         -              5i 

31.         ,,         „              61 

Shorter  Excursions  from  Brent.     99  to   1 1 1 64 

,,                      „             Wrangaton,   112 73 


x.  CONTENTS.     PART   IV. 

PAGE 
Golf  Links  near  Wrangaton  (from  Brent)       74 

„             „             „             (Ivybridge) 96 

Brent  to  Avon  Head  and  Hexworthy       106 

Holne  Moor  and  Hexworthy      108 

Ivybridge        31 

Excursion  32.     From  Ivybridge          77 

33-  „             ,.                  85 

34-  „             ,,                  9i 

Shorter  Excursions  from  Ivybridge,   113  to  119 96 

„  ,,         Cornwood,   120,   121 99 

Ivybridge  to  Brent       108 

,,  Cornwood       98 

,,  Avon  Head  and  Hexworthy 105,  106 

(For  Holne  Moor  the  first  point  is  Brent :  See  Brent  to  Holne  Moor). 

Cornwood  to  White  Hill  Corner        101 

White  Hill  Corner  to  Cadaford  Bridge 104 

Route  55.     Brent  and  Ivybridge  to  Plympton      100 

„        56.     Brent  to  Shaugh  100 

,,        57.     Ivybridge  to  Shaugh       101 

58.     Brent  to  Princetown       101 

,,        59.     Ivybridge  to  Princetown        103 

(Another  Route,  via  Cadaford  Bridge,  is  shown  in  Part  V.,  p.  19, 
vide  supra,  pp.  98.   101,   104). 

Route  60.     Brent  to  Tavistock          104 

,,        61.     Ivybridge  to  Tavistock  104 

„        62.     Brent  and  Ivybridge  to  Lydford         104 

,,       63.  ,,  ,,  ,,       Okehampton         104 

,,        64.  ,,  „  ,,       Chagford  and  Moreton       .  .  105 

65.  „  ,,  ,,       Bovey  Tracey       108 

,,       66.  ,,  ,,  „       Ashburton  108 

Routes  to  Cranmere  from  Southern  Dartmoor       loS 


DARTMOOR   GUIDE. 


MAPS. 

Sketch  Map  of  the  Moor facing  page     I 

Surroundings  of  Cranmere 106 

ONE     INCH     MAPS. 

12.  Ashburton  District       4 

13.  Ashburton  and  Hex-worthy  Districts       12 

14.  Brent  and  Ivybridge  District 36 

15-           •  „                 .-                 ..           46 

t6.  86 


The  numbers  of  the  Routes  and  Excursions  as  given  in  the  first 
edition  of  the  Guide  are  retained  throughout.  T.  signifies  Track  ; 
Ex.  or  S.  Ex.,  Excursion  or  Shorter  Excursion ;  R.,  Route  ;  and  C.  R., 
Cranmere  Route.  The  entire  length  of  each  Excursion  it  given ; 
Route  distances  are  given  one  way  only. 


«i.  DARTMOOR   GUIDE. 


SIDMOUTH    (Devon) 

The 


Fortfield    Hotel. 

Greatly  Enlarged.        New  Wings. 
Electric  Light  Throughout.  Lifts  to  all  Floors. 


E  of  the  most  comfortable  Hotels  on 
the  South  Coast.  Unequalled  posi- 
tion. Situated  in  its  own  charming 
Grounds.  Full  South  and  facing  sea; 
having  two  full-sized  Croquet  Lawns. 
Handsomely  furnished  by  Maple  &  Co. 
Complete  with  every  luxury  and  con- 
venience. Near  to  Brine  Baths  and 
convenient  to  Golf  Links.  Sanitary 
arrangements  perfect.  Large  and  com- 
modious bedrooms.  Handsome  private 
Suites  of  Apartments,  either  on  ground 
floor,  first  or  second  floors,  with  Bath- 
rooms and  Lavatories.  Corridors  carefully 
heated.  Spacious  Public  Rooms. 
Billiards.  High-class  Cuisine.  Selected 
Wines.  Moderate  and  inclusive  terms. 


Telephone  -r     -/r  i-  n 

NO.  39  A  anfr  on  application  to  Proprietor. 


GUIDE  TO  DARTMOOR. 

IN  FIVE  PARTS. 


Part  I.     PRINCETOWN,  Two  BRIDGES,  HEXWORTHY,  AND  POST  BRIDGE 
DISTRICTS. 

Deals  with  the  whole  of  the  central  part  of  the  Moor,  and 
contains  notices  of  Crazy  Well  Pool,  Siward's  Cross,  Childe's  Tomb, 
the  Merivale  Antiquities,  Mis  Tor,  Wistman's  Wood,  Dartmeet,  etc. 

Excursions  i  to  6  ;  41  to  46.  Shorter  Exs.  i  to  14.  Routes 
i  to  8.  Cranmere  Routes  i,  2,  15,  16,  17. 

Part    II.     TAVISTOCK,    LYDFORD,    OKEHAMPTON,    AND    STICKI,KPATH 
DISTRICTS. 

Describes  Northern  Dartmoor,  extending  from  Sampford 
Spiney  on  the  West  to  Throwleigh  on  the  East :  Notices  Brent 
Tor,  Lydford  Gorge,  Hill  Bridge,  Tavy  Cleave,  Fur  Tor,  the 
Island  of  Rocks,  Yes  Tor,  the  Belstone  Range,  Cosdon,  etc. 

Excursions  7  to  18.  S.  Exs.  15  to  47.  Routes  9  to  30. 
C.R.  3  to  ii. 

Part  III.     CHAGFORD,   MORETON,   IAJSTI.EIGH,   AND   BOVEY  TRACEY 
DISTRICTS. 

A  Description  of  Eastern  Dartmoor :  This  part  contains  a 
notice  of  Cranmere  Pool,  and  among  other  places  and  objects 
included  in  the  Excursions  are  the  Scorhill  and  Kes  Tor  Antiquities, 
Teign  Head,  Fernworthy,  Grim's  Pound,  Drewsteignton  Dolmen, 
Fingle  Bridge,  Lustleigh  Cleave,  Hey  Tor,  etc. 

Excursions  19  to  25.  S.  Exs.  48  to  87.  Routes  31  to  46. 
C.  R.  12,  13,  14. 


xiv.  DARTMOOR    GUIDE. 

Part     IV.      ASHBURTON,      BRENT,      IVYBRIDGE,      AND     CORNWOOD 
DISTRICTS. 

The  whole  of  Southern  Dartmoor,  so  rich  in  antiquities  and 
charming  border  scenery,  is  described  in  this  part.  Among  other 
places  noticed  are  Rippon  Tor,  Widecombe-in-the-Moor,  the 
Buckland  Woods,  Holne  Chase,  Brent  Moor,  Shipley,  the  Valley 
of  the  Erme,  Stowford  Cleave,  Hawns  and  Dendles,  etc. 

Excursions  26  to  34.  S.  Exs.  88  to  121.  Routes  47  to  66. 
Prom  the  southern  part  of  the  moor  the  starting  points  of  the 
Cranmere  Routes  are  Princetown,  Two  Bridges,  and  Post  Bridge, 
C.R.  i,  2,  1 6,  17.  These  are  given  in  Part  I. 

Part     V.      PI.YMPTON,      SHAUGH,      YELVERTON,      AND      DOTJSI,AND 
DISTRICTS. 

Describes  Western  Dartmoor  from  Cornwood  to  the  Walkham  : 
Shaugh  Bridge,  the  Dewer  Stone,  the  Plym  Valley,  Heavy,  Sheeps 
Tor,  and  the  Burrator  Lake.  This  part  also  contains  a  brief 
description  of  the  old  pack-horse  tracks  on  the  Moor,  to  which 
reference  is  frequently  made  in  the  book,  as  well  as  a  Dictionary 
of  Terms  used  in  connection  with  the  Forest  and  Commons. 

Excursions  35  to  40.  Routes  67  to  76.  For  Cranmere  Routes 
see  Princetown,  Two  Bridges,  and  Post  Bridge,  C.R.  1,2,  16,  17,  in 
Parti. 


Each  Part  contains  directions  for  reaching  Cranmere  Pool  from 
the  Districts  described  in  it. 


DARTMOOR   GUIDE. 


Where  reference  is  made  to  other  of  the  Author's 
books  the  titles  are  thus  abbreviated. 

'A  Hundred  Years  on  Dartmoor"      . .          . .          . .  100  Years. 

'  Gems  in  a  Granite  Setting "  ..          ..          ..  Gems. 

'  The  Ancient  Stone  Crosses  of  Dartmoor   and    Its 

Borderland"  ..          ..          ..          ..          ..  Crosses. 

'  Amid  Devonia's  Alps "  ..          ..          ..          ..  Dev.  Alps. 

'  Tales  of  the  Dartmoor  Pixies"  Pixies 


•SKETCH     MAP 


OKEM/^riPTo»N 


<s/e<£>vr 


/V.YMfTO/V 
PLYMOUTH 


/VY^ 
"&&70GE 


OF  DAPTMOOR 


GUIDE  TO  DARTMOOR. 


ASHBURTON   DISTRICT. 

DISTANCES.  BY  ROAD  :  A  USEWELL  CROSS,  2  m. 
BECKY  FALL,  via  Rewlea  Cross,  Halshanger  Cross,  and  I,ud  Gate, 
84-  m.  BICKINGTON,  3^  m.  BOVEY  TRACEY,  7$  m.  BRENT, 
see  South  Brent.  BUCKFASTLEIGH,  3  m.  BUCKLAND-IN- 
THE-MOOR,  3|  m.  CHAGFORD,  via  Welstor  Cross,  Swine  Down 
Gate,  and  Beetor  Cross,  I2f  m.  COCKINGFORD  MILL,  via  Buck- 
land,  5£  m.  COLD  EAST  CROSS,  via  Welstor  Cross,  3^  m.  ;  via 
Halshanger  Cross,  3f  m.  CROSS  FURZES,  via  Buckfastleigh,  6  m. 
DARTMEET,  8  m.  DEAN,  4  m.  DEAN  BURN  (Gate  near  Warn 
Bridge),  4^  m.  DEAN  PRIOR,  4f  m.  EXETER,  19  m.  GREN- 
DON  BRIDGE,  via  Cockingford  and  Bittleford  Down,  8|  m.  GRIM'S 
POUND,  via  do.,  io£  m.  HALSHANGER  CROSS.  2\  m.  HEM- 
BURY  CASTLE,  via  Gallant  le  Bower,  or  via  Dart  Bridge,  4^-  m. 
HEMSWORTHY  GATE,  via  Welstor  Cross,  4f  m.  HEXWORTHY, 
via  Dartmeet,  9^  m.  ;  via  Holne  Moor  Gate,  8-i-  m.  HEY  TOR  :  The 
road  runs  within  \  m.  of  the  tor,  and  this  point  is  the  same  distance 
from  Ashburton,  viz.,  6J  m.,  whether  it  is  approached  by  way  of 
Halshanger  Cross  and  Lud  Gate,  or  by  Welstor  Cross  and  Hemsworthy 
Gate.  HOLNE  BRIDGE,  2  m.  HOLNE  CHASE  LODGE,  2\  m. 
HOLNE  MOOR  GATE,  5  m.  (Reservoir  £  m.  further).  HOLNE 
VILLAGE,  4^  m.  ILSINGTON,  via  Halshanger  Cross  and  Bag  Tor 
Mill,  5 1  m.  ;  via  Owlacombe  Cross  and  Sigford,  5  m.  IVYBRIDGE, 
13  m.  LEUSDON,  via  Pound's  Gate,  5f  m.  LID  GATE  (for  Buck- 
fastleigh Moor),  7  m.  LUD  GATE,  via  Rewlea  Cross,  Halshanger 
Cross,  Bag  Tor  Mill  and  Pinchaford,  5f  m.  LYDFORD,  via  Two 
Bridges,  27  m.  MANATON,  9%  m.  MORETON,  via  Welstor  Cross, 
Swine  Down  Gate,  Langstone,  and  North  Bovey,  ii-|  m.  NEW 
BRIDGE,  3|  m.  NEWTON  ABBOT,  8  m.  OKEHAMPTON,  via 
Dartmeet,  Two  Bridges,  and  Moor  Shop,  35  m.  ;  via  Chagford,  23  m. 
PLYMOUTH,  via  Ivybridge,  23^  m.  PLYMPTON,  via  Ivybridge, 
194.  m.  POST  BRIDGE,  via  Grendon,  n|  m.  POUND'S  GATE, 
via  New  Bridge,  4f  m.  PRINCETOWN,  via  Dartmeet,  14^  m.  ;  via 
Holne  Moor,  16  m.  SCORRITON,  via  Holne,  5  m.  ;  via  Buckfastleigh, 
6  m.  SOUTH  BRENT,  8J-  m.  SWINE  DOWN  GATE,  7  m. 
TA  VI STOCK,  via  Dartmeet  and  Two  Bridges,  21  m.  TOTNES,  8  m. 
TWO  BRIDGES,  via  Dartmeet,  13  m.  ;  via  Holne  Moor,  14^  m. 
WELSTOR  CROSS,  2  m.  WIDECOMBE,  via  Buckland  and  Cocking- 
ford, 6f  m.  YELVERTON,  via  Princetown,  2<>£  m.  ;  via  Cornwood, 
24  m. 

BY  RAIL  :  ASHBURTON  is  the  terminus  of  a  branch  line  running 
from  the  main  line  of  the  G.W.R.  at  TOTNES,  g%  m.  The  inter- 
mediate stations  are  BUCKFASTLEIGH,  2\  m.  from  ASHBURTON, 
and  STA  VERTON,  si  m.  NEWTON  ABBOT,  via  TOTNES,  i8J  m. 
BRENT,  do.,  i6£  m.,  q.v.  for  stations  W. 


ASHBURTON    DISTRICT. 


Important  Points  and  Landmarks. 

Cold  East  Cross — Hemsworthy  Gate — Holne — New  Bridge — Pound's 
Gate — Welstor  Cross — Widecombe  (Part  III.)  Places  of  Interest.  The 
Coffin  Stone  (Part  I.) — Buckland  Beacon — Buckland  Woods — Dartmeet 
— Gorge  of  the  Dart — Hembury  Castle — Holne  Chase — Leusdon — 
Liswell  Meet — The  Nutcracker  (logan  on  Rippon  Tor).  Prehistoric 
Antiquities.  Money  Pit  (Part  I.):  kistvaen  near  Yar  Tor — Saddle 
Bridge:  old  enclosures—Sharp  Tor  Circles  (Part  I.) — Torhill :  huts 
and  reaves — Tunhill:  kistvaen — Yar  Tor  Hill:  huts. 

As  one  of  the  four  Stannary  towns  Ashburton  had  a  connection 
with  Dartmoor  during  several  centuries.  It  was  early  the  seat  of  the 
woollen  industry,  which  is  said  to  have  been  introduced  into  the  town 
by  the  monks  of  Buckfast,  which  house  was  founded  prior  to  the 
Conquest.  Bishop  Stapledon,  who  built  the  Chapel  of  St.  Laurence,  in 
1314,  obtained  for  the  town  a  charter  for  a  market  and  two  fairs.  Being 
a  royal  manor  the  inhabitants  were  granted  freedom  from  toll  in  all 
markets,  by  Henry  IV.  The  church  is  said  to  replace  a  structure 
erected  by  Ethelward,  son  of  William  de  Pomeroy,  in  1 137.  The  town 
does  not  appear  to  have  witnessed  any  very  stirring  events  during  the 
Civil  War,  but  Fairfax  arrived  there  with  his  army  in  1646,  on  the  day 
following  the  battle  on  Bovey  Heathfield,  the  general  staying  the  night 
at  the  Mermaid  Inn.  During  the  time  prisoners  of  war  were  confined 
on  Dartmoor,  between  1809  and  1815,  Ashburton  was  one  of  the  towns 
round  the  moor  in  which  officers  on  parole  were  permitted  to  reside.  In 
the  churchyard  is  a  stone  to  the  memory  of  one  of  these,  a  young 
frenchman.  It  is  near  the  door  of  the  tower,  on  a  little  knoll,  which  is 
Jknown  as  the  Strangers'  Hill.  The  inscription  on  it  runs  thus  : — 

ICI 

repose  Fra^ois  Guidon, 

natif  de  Cambrai  en  France, 

Sous  Lieutenant   au   46me.  Regt. 

de  Ligne.   Decede  le  18  /bre, 

1815,     Age  de  22  ans. 

Requiescat  in  pace. 

Two  Devonians  who  became  famous  were  natives  of  this  town  ; 
John  Dunning,  first  Lord  Ashburton,  and  William  Gifford,  founder  and 
editor  of  the  Quarterly  Review.  Another  who  belonged  to  the  town 
was  W.  Mann,  the  author  of  Rural  Employments  in  Spring,  a  poem 
published  in  1825. 

The  pleasing  situation  of  Ashburton,  which  is  surrounded  by  hills, 
renders  it  a  favourite  place  of  sojourn  with  the  visitor.  The  main 
road  from  Exeter  to  Plymouth  runs  through  it,  and  forms  the 
thoroughfares  called  East  Street  and  West  Street,  in  the  latter  of  which 
the  church  is  situated.  These  streets  are  crossed  at  their  junction  by 
another  thoroughfare,  the  southern  part  of  which  is  called  St.  Laurence 
Lane,  and  leads  to  the  railway  station  ;  the  other  part  is  North  Street. 
The  moor  is  approached  by  way  of  the  last-named. 


EXCURSION   26.      RUSHLADE   COMMON. 


Excursions  from  Ashburton. 

The  area  over  which  these  excursions  extend  is  bounded  on  the 
N.  by  a  line  drawn  from  Bag  Tor  Wood  to  Hemsworthy  Gate,  and 
thence  to  Blackslade  and  Dunstone,  being  that  which  forms  the 
southern  boundary  of  the  Bovey  District ;  on  the  W.  by  the  road 
running  from  Dunstone  through  Ponsworthy  to  Sherberton  Common, 
thence  to  the  Gorge  of  the  Dart  below  Mil  Tor,  and  down  that  river 
to  New  Bridge.  The  rambles  also  include  Holne  Chase  and  the  Buck- 
land  Woods,  as  well  as  Holne  village,  Hembury,  and  Buckfastleigh. 

[Tracks  49,  51,  52.     See  the  Section  in  Part  V.] 

Ex.  26. — Valley  of  the  Yeo,  Rushlade  Common,  Halshanger  Com- 
mon, The  Nutcracker,  Rippon  Tor,  Newhouse,  Foale's  Arrishes,  Whita- 
burrow,  Pudsham  Down,  Ruddycleave  Water,  Buckland  Beacon,  g\  m. 

Leaving  Ashburton  by  way  of  North  Street  we  soon  reach  Great 
Bridge,  at  the  end  of  the  town  where  the  road  to  Buckland  and  Holne 
turns  L.  over  the  Yeo.  We  do  not  cross  that  stream  here,  but  at 
Barnsey  Bridge,  a  little  further  on,  our  course  being  northerly.  Very 
soon  we  reach  Pitt  Farm,  where  our  road  bends  R.  to  Rew  Cross. 
We  take  the  L.  branch,  and  in  less  than  J  m.  reach  Rewlea  Cross, 
where  we  keep  straight  on  to  Lurgecombe  Mill,  and  again  meet  the 
Yeo.  Our  road  now  runs  up  a  narrow  valley,  with  very  steep  tree- 
covered  sides,  Boro  Wood  being  on  the  L.  and  Whiddon  Scrubbs  on 
the  R.  Half-a-mile  from  the  mill  we  cross  Waterleat  Bridge,  and  leaving 
the  Yeo  pass  up  the  hill  to  Rushlade.  We  turn  R.  at  the  farm 
buildings  into  the  road  that  runs  on  by  Halshanger,  but  shall  only 
follow  it  for  about  150  yards.  We  then  turn  L.  into  an  approach 
to  the  moor  called  Green  Lanes,  a  kind  of  narrow  stroll  running 
between  the  enclosures  and  leading  to  Rushlade  Common.  On  reach- 
ing the  latter  we  strike  the  road  coming  up  from  Halshanger  Cross  R. 
(S.  Ex.  88),  and  which  is  carried  along  the  verge  of  the  down  close  to 
the  plantation  known  as  The  Belt,  with  the  enclosures  of  Welstor  L. 
This  will  lead  us  to  Water  Rushes,  where  the  Yeo  comes  down  from 
Halshanger  Common.  The  road  runs  on  to  Cold  East  Cross  (R.  42,  53), 
and  thence  by  Pudsham  Down  and  Dunstone  Down  to  Blackaton 
and  the  forest  (S.  Ex.  86,  85),  but  we  leave  it  on  crossing  the  stream, 
and  enter  the  gate  R.  Just  within  this  is  a  mire,  which,  however, 
we  shall  avoid  by  striking  northward.  (The  Summer  House, 
described  in  S.  Ex.  89,  is  situated  on  the  further  side  of  the  Yeo,  due 
E.  of  the  gate).  Passing  up  the  slope,  and  bearing  a  little  to  the  L-, 
i.e.,  W.  of  N.,  we  at  length  reach  a  dilapidated  wall,  through  one  of 
the  many  breaks  in  which  we  shall  make  our  way,  and  keeping 


4  ASHBURTON    DISTRICT. 

it  on  the  R.  continue  the  ascent  of  the  hill.  This  wall  runs  upward  towards 
Rippon  Tor,  and  it  will  shortly  bring  us  to  an  outlying  pile  on  which 
is  a  curiously-poised  stone  that  once  moved  with  very  slight  pressure, 
but  has  now  nearly  lost  its  logging  power.  It  is  about  i  m.  from 
Water  Rushes,  and  stands  in  a  corner  formed  by  the  wall  we  have 
followed  and  another  coming  up  from  near  Newhouse  L,.,  which  place 
it  overlooks.  (This  second  wall,  which  is  carried  over  the  hill  in  a 
direction  from  N.W.  to  S.E.,  separates  the  two  commons  of  Halshanger 
and  Horridge,  and  also  marks  the  boundary  between  the  parishes 
of  Ashburton  and  Ilsington).  The  logan  is  known  as  the  Nutcracker, 
and  seems  to  be  the  one  mentioned  by  Polwhele  as  existing  between 
Widecombe  Church  and  Rippon  Tor.*  He  says:  "It  is  called  the 
Nutcrackers,  having  been  the  resort  of  the  common  people  during  the 
nut  season,  for  the  purpose  of  cracking  their  nuts."  That  the  author 
in  question  should  have  believed  that  the  country  people  took  the  trouble 
to  bring  nuts  to  Rippon  Tor  in  order  to  crack  them  is  certainly  sur- 
prising, but  that  he  did  not  tell  us  the  Druids  did  likewise  is  much  more 
so.  But  he  may  have  suspected  that  these  ancient  seers  preferred 
to  crack  jokes,  and  that  the  only  nuts  they  cared  anything  about  were 
chestnuts.  A  hundred  yards  S.E.  of  the  pile,  but  on  the  other  side 
of  the  wall,  is  a  low  cairn. 

In  the  corner  formed  by  the  two  walls  we  shall  notice  a  gate,  and 
passing  through  this  shall  make  our  way  to  Rippon  Tor,  which  we  see 
just  above  us.  This  fine  height  attains  an  elevation  of  1,563  feet, 
and  is  a  conspicuous  object  from  numberless  points  on  the  moor^ 
while  its  frontier  situation  renders  it  equally  so  from  the  lowlands. 
The  view  from  it  is  similar  to  that  gained  from  Hey  Tor,  but  is  more 
extensive  towards  the  S.W.  (Ex.  25),  where  Brent  Hill  and  the  Eastern 
Beacon,  instead  of  being  partly  hidden,  fully  reveal  themselves. 
(Brent  District).  Westward,  towards  Princetown,  a  great  stretch  of 
forest  is  seen,  with  North  Hisworthy  rising  against  the  sky  (Prince- 
town  District),  and  extending  from  it  towards  the  north  a  long  range  of 
dusky  moor.  To  the  S.  and  S.W.  a  considerable  tract  of  cultivated 
country  is  seen,  embracing  much  of  the  South  Hams  ;  the  estuary  of 
the  Teign  forms  a  striking  feature  eastward  ;  while  woodlands  and 
fields  roll  away  further  east  and  to  the  north,  till  the  moor  again 
fills  up  the  scene.  At  the  foot  of  the  hill,  to  the  N.,  the  long  Hound 
Tor  Combe  is  seen  to  great  advantage,  with  Lustleigh  Cleave  at  its 
further  end,  and  the  tors  that  rise  on  either  side  of  it  (Ex.  23,  24,  25). 
We  are  too  far  off  to  discern  the  pixies  on  Holwell  Lawn,  even  should 
the  hour  be  propitious  for  their  gathering  there,  as  gossip  used  to 
say  was  sometimes  their  wont,  but  we  may  possibly  see  a  buzzard 
circling  round  Hey  Tor.  The  late  Prebendary  Wolfe,  who  had  a 
residence  at  Leighon  (Ex.  24),  once  observed  as  many  as  thirteen  of 
these  birds  settling  down  upon  the  rcoks  near  the  house,  and  knew 
of  several  instances  of  their  nesting  in  this  valley.  He  was  also  able 
to  speak  of  ravens  breeding  there.  The  golden  eagle,  it  is  said,  was 

*  Polwhele's  Historical  Views  of  Devonshire,  1793.  The  mention 
of  Widecombe  Church  might  be  thought  to  point  to  the  Ruggle  Stone 
(S.  Ex.  87),  but  equally  so  the  mention  of  Rippon  Tor  points  to  the 
rock  in  question.  Moreover,  the  name  given  by  Polwhele  is  that  by 
which  this  logan  has  long  been  known. 


6  ASHBURTON    DISTRICT. 

seen  in  this  part  of  the  moor  by  two  ramblers  when  on  their  way  from 
Rippon  Tor  to  Hey  Tor  in  May,  1891. 

Rippon  Tor  consists  of  a  number  of  scattered  piles  of  rocks,  though 
none  of  them  are  striking.  But  the  visitor  will,  nevertheless,  be  well 
rewarded  for  making  the  ascent,  for  besides  the  magnificent  view  the 
spot  is  full  of  interest.  Here  the  dwellers  in  the  huts  that  stud  the 
slopes  in  the  vicinity  of  the  hill  brought  their  honoured  dead  for  burial 
(as  they  did  to  other  elevated  situations  on  the  moor),  and  here  in  a 
later  day,  but  one,  perhaps,  remote  from  us,  the  stone-hewer  came  to 
fashion  the  symbol  of  Christianity.  Three  cairns  may  be  seen  here, 
one  of  them,  which  is  formed  among  the  rocks  on  the  summit,  being 
90  yards  in  circumference,  and  quite  near  to  it,  and  almost  covered 
with  turf,  is  a  kistvaen.  A  large  reave  runs  from  this  cairn  down  the 
hill  in  a  north-westerly  direction  towards  Hemsworthy  Gate,  270  feet 
below,  and  rather  less  than  4-  m.  away,  and  from  thence  is  continued 
for  some  distance  over  the  common.  About  30  yards  N.N.W.  of  the 
summit  of  the  tor  is  one  of  the  most  curious  of  the  stone  crosses  of 
Dartmoor.  It  is  cut  in  relief  on  a  block  of  granite  only  slightly  raised 
above  the  ground,  and  it  has  been  suggested  that  this  was  done  in  the 
belief  that  the  holy  symbol  would  free  the  spot  from  any  heathen 
superstitions  that  may  have  attached  to  it.  However  this  may  be, 
it  seems  hardly  probable  that  this  cross  was  ever  intended  to  be  set 
up,  seeing  that  it  would  have  been  an  easier  task  to  fashion  one  for  such 
a  purpose  from  a  smaller  and  more  shapely  block.  The  length  of  this 
cross  is  6  feet  8  inches.  [Crosses,  Chap.  XVI.]  Under  the  cairn,  and 
about  30  yards  from  the  cross,  is  an  unfinished  mill-stone,  and  another 
may  be  seen  close  to  an  overhanging  rock  on  the  great  reave.  The 
former  is  4  feet  in  diameter,  and  the  latter  5  feet.  (cf.  S.  Ex.  56,  105  ; 
Ex.  29). 

Bidding  adieu  to  this  elevated  spot,  we  descend  the  hill  westward 
with  the  wall  I,.,  and  at  the  bottom  shall  reach  a  gate  opening  on  the 
Ashburton  and  Chagford  road  (R.  53).  On  passing  through  it  we 
shall  notice  by  the  side  of  the  way  a  flat  rock  which  forms  a  bond- 
mark  of  Ashburton  parish.  On  its  surface  is  the  letter  A  with  the  date 
1793,  the  characters  being  rather  large  and  deeply  cut.  Here  we  are 
close  to  the  scanty  remains  of  Newhouse.  These  consist  only  of  a  few 
low  walls  marking  the  site  of  a  dwelling,  and  some  enclosures  near  it 
with  a  dozen  weather-beaten  thorn  bushes.  Newhouse  was  formerly 
an  inn,  but  did  not  suffer  extinction,  as  will  readily  be  imagined,  in 
consequence  of  being  kept  open  during  prohibited  hours  ;  it  was  burnt 
down.  In  the  days  when  the  woollen  manufacture  at  Chagford  was 
in  a  nourishing  state  wagons  from  the  factory  there  often  passed 
this  way,  while  much  lime  was  also  formerly  carried  over  the  road 
from  Ashburton  to  the  neighbourhood  of  the  former  town.  In  the 
morning  the  farmers'  men  who  came  to  fetch  this  would  drive  at  a 
rapid  pace  over  the  down  in  order  to  reach  the  kilns  as  early  in  the  day 
as  possible,  and  thus  avoid  being  kept  waiting  for  their  load.  Then 
they  would  get  on  their  way  and  waste  at  Newhouse  the  time  they 
had  saved  by  being  early  at  Ashburton.  It  was  quite  a  common 
thing,  at  certain  times,  to  see  a  large  number  of  carts  drawn  up  in  the 
road  near  this  solitary  hostelry  while  their  drivers  quenched  their  thirst 
within. 

The  Ashburton  boundary  line  crosses  the  road,  and  runs  north- 


EXCURSION    26.      FO ALE'S    ARRISHES.  7 

westward  from  the  flat  rock  to  another  mark  about  1 50  yards  distant, 
an  upright  stone  called  Grey  Goose  Nest,  and  one  of  a  line  running 
about  S.W.  and  N.E.  To  this  we  now  make  our  way,  and  on  arriving 
find  ourselves  at  the  northernmost  point  of  Ashburton,  with  Ilsington 
on  our  R.  and  Widecombe  in  front  of  us,  the  stone  marking  the  meeting- 
place  of  the  three  parishes.  Crossing  the  line  (which  runs  S.W.  to 
Blackslade  Ford  less  than  £  m.  distant,  and  N.E.  to  Stittleford's 
Cross,  ±  m.  away,  and  close  to  Hemsworthy  Gate,  S.  Ex.  82,  90)  we 
enter  upon  Blackslade  Down,  and  leaving  Blackslade  Mire  L.,  shall 
follow  an  old  reave  running  up  the  slope  N.W.,  and  be  led  directly  to 
the  enclosures  known  as  Foale's  Arrishes.  These  have  been  already 
briefly  noticed  in  S.  Ex.  87.  They  are  formed  by  a  number  of  small 
reaves,  much  overgrown,  which  intersect  each  other  at  right  angles, 
and  in  the  spaces  thus  formed  there  are  a  few  hut  circles.  These  also 
occur  on  the  outside  of  the  low  walls.  It  was  at  Foale's  Arrishes  that 
a  certain  villager  once  decided  to  settle,  and  though  his  neighbours 
tried  to  persuade  him  to  remain  where  he  was,  set  out  one  day  with  the 
avowed  intention  of  erecting  a  shelter  on  the  spot,  and  passing  the 
remainder  of  his  days  there.  But  like  Cyrus,  who,  as  Persian  legends 
say,  having  gone  into  retirement,  suddenly  disappeared,  the  labourer 
was  never  seen  again.  Whether  he  was  spirited  away  by  the  pixies, 
or  fell  a  prey  to  the  Evil  One,  who  is  said  to  take  an  airing  occasionally 
on  Tor  Hill,  on  the  slope  of  which  the  Arrishes  are  situated,  nobody 
could  say  ;  all  that  was  certain  was  that  the  neighbourhood  knew  him 
no  more. 

About  £  m.  S.W.  of  these  enclosures  is  the  ancient  grave  near 
Blackslade,  sometimes  referred  to  as  the  Tunhill  kistvaen.  This  is 
noticed  in  S.  Ex.  87,  as  also  are  the  tors  in  this  part  of  the  moor.  We 
make  our  way  to  the  kist,  our  line  being  very  nearly  the  same  as  that 
described  in  R.  42  B,  and  on  reaching  it  find  ourselves  on  the  old 
Tunhill  Road  (T.  51). 

[This  road  runs  down  the  stroll  W.  and  forks  ;  the  R.  branch 
going  to  Tunhill,  the  L.  to  Blackslade.  From  the  latter  a  road  runs 
to  Chittleford  and  on  to  Dunstone.  Vide  R.  42  B.] 

From  the  kist  we  may  either  cross  the  road  and  strike  southward 
to  the  fine  cairn  known  as  Whittaburrow,  and  then  turn  R.  to  a  track 
running  by  the  side  of  the  enclosures,  and  so  reach  Pudsham  Down, 
or  we  may  follow  the  Tunhill  road  S.E.  as  far  as  Blackslade  Ford,  and  then 
take  the  Blackslade  Water  for  our  guide.  In  either  case  Ruddycleave 
Bridge  will  be  our  next  point.  The  former  route  will  lead  us  by  the 
track  N.  of  Wittaburrow  southward  to  the  road  that  comes  up  R. 
from  Chittleford  and  Widecombe,  past  the  entrance  to  Scobitor 
(Scobitor  Rocks  are  within  an  enclosure  near  the  house).  This  we 
follow  across  Pudsham  Down  to  a  guide-post,  where  we  join  the  road 
coming  R.  from  Stone  Cross  and  Cockingford  (R.  5  A).  Turning  ~L,. 
we  descend  the  hill  with  the  enclosures  of  Ruddycleave  R.  to  the  bridge. 

If  we  follow  the  Tunhill  road  we  reach  Blackslade  Ford  in  about 
£  m.,  close  to  which,  on  the  R.,  is  a  small  cairn.  On  the  L.  one  of  the 
walls  belonging  to  the  old  enclosures  of  Newhouse  comes  down  the 
hill.  Just  below  the  ford  is  a  tiny  rivulet  on  the  R.  called  William's 
Well,  and  from  this  point  the  wall  of  the  enclosure  R.  forms  both  the 
boundary  of  Blackslade  Manor  and  of  Widecombe  parish.  A  few  trees 
will  be  noticed  at  Burrow  Corner,  where  the  wall  turns  up  westward. 


8  ASHBURTON    DISTRICT. 

Choosing  a  path  on  the  L.  bank  of  the  Ruddycleave  (the  Blackslade 
Water  mentioned  above  is  merely  that  part  of  the  same  stream  nearer 
its  source)  we  shall  now  follow  it  downward,  and  at  the  distance  of  ^  m. 
from  the  ford  shall  reach  the  bridge,  which  is  of  clapper  construction. 

[The  Tunhill  road  runs  from  the  ford  up  the  side  of  the  common 
sometimes  called  Yarder,*  in  a  south-easterly  direction  to  the  Chag- 
ford  and  Ashburton  highway,  which  it  strikes  about  \  m.  S.  of  New- 
house  (T.  51).  If  the  rambler  decides  to  return  that  way  he  will,  on 
reaching  the  road,  turn  R.,  and  passing  over  Dry  Bridge,  soon  arrive 
at  Cold  East  Cross.  The  latter  point  he  may  also  gain  from  Ruddy- 
cleave  Bridge  by  following  the  road  up  the  hill  E.S.E.  for  about  \  m. 
A  few  hut  circles  will  be  seen  close  to  the  road  soon  after  leaving  the 
bridge.  From  Cold  East  Cross  the  return  to  Ashburton  may  be 
made  by  way  of  Green  Lanes  or  Welstor  Cross  (R.  32).  The  former, 
which  is  the  more  direct,  will  be  the  reverse  of  the  route  by  which  we 
reached  the  commons.  Take  the  I,,  branch  and  follow  the  road,  with 
the  wall  L.  to  The  Belt  (ante),  and  near  the  end  of  this  strike  R.  through 
the  stroll  to  Rushlade.  Thence  down  the  valley  S.,  as  in  S.  Ex.  81, 
reaching  the  Yeo  at  Waterleat  Bridge.  This  stream  will  then  become 
the  rambler's  companion  to  Lurgecombe  Mill,  whence  he  will  continue 
S.  past  Rewlea  Cross  to  the  town. 

For  Welstor  Cross  take  the  road  R.  at  Cold  East  Cross,  and  follow 
it  S.,  passing  along  the  eastern  verge  of  Buckland  Common,  with  the 
enclosed  land  and  Higher  Plantation  L.  At  Welstor  Cross,  where 
is  a  guide-post,  bend  L.  and  descend  the  hill  to  Rewdown  Cross, 
marked  also  with  a  guide-post.  Keep  straight  on  to  Rewlea  Cross, 
and  then  turn  R.  to  the  town,  or  the  corner  may  be  cut  by  taking  the 
footpath  across  the  fields  R.  a  few  score  yards  beyond  Rewdown 
Cross,  and  which  reaches  the  road  at  Pitt  Farm  and  Tucking  Mill. 
Another  way,  from  Welstor  Cross,  the  distance  being  about  the  same, 
is  by  striking  R.  at  that  point  to  Ausewell  Cross,  which  is  close  by, 
and  then  turning  L.,  as  the  guide-post  will  show.  The  way  runs 
down  the  hill  past  Druid  (L)  to  Water  Turn,  where  the  road  L.  must 
be  taken.  Keep  onward  S.E.  (there  are  guide-posts  here)  to  Head- 
borough,  £  m.  beyond  which  is  Great  Bridge,  on  the  outskirts  of  the 
town.] 

From  Ruddycleave  Bridge  we  shall  strike  southward  over  the 
common,  gradually  leaving  the  stream,  which  runs  down  the  valley  R., 
and  make  our  way  to  Buckland  Beacon,  i  m.  from  the  bridge.  This 
is  noticed  in  S.  Ex.  92,  to  which  the  visitor  is  referred.  After  having 
looked  upon  the  fine  view  commanded  from  this  rock,  we  strike  east- 
ward to  a  gate  in  the  wall,  and  crossing  Welstor  Common  to  another 
gate,  reach  the  road  and  turn  R.  to  Welstor  Cross.  The  route  to  the 
town  from  this  point  has  been  described  above. 

*  So  named  from  the  remark  of  a  visitor  at  Newhouse,  who,  on 
being  shown  the  largest  of  the  enclosures,  observed  that  the  individual 
who  formed  it  had  not  been  particular  to  a  yard  or  two,  but  had  helped 
himself  freely  to  the  common  land,  and  wondered  he  had  not  taken  in 
the  piece  of  common  in  question. 


EXCURSION   27.      BUCKLAND-IN-THE-MOOR. 


Ex.  27. — Buckland-in-the-Moor,  Cockingford,  Bittleford,  Pons- 
worthy,  Leusdon,  Lizwell  Meet,  Spitchwick,  Pound's  Gate,  Leigh  Tor, 
New  Bridge,  13^  m. 

(The  commons  above  Pound's  Gate,  described  in  Ex.  28,  may  also 
be  included  in  this  excursion  by  turning  R.  at  the  Upper  Plantation 
after  leaving  Leusdon  and  passing  through  Uppacott  to  Bel  Tor,  or 
by  striking  into  Dr.  Blackall's  Drive  above  Leigh  Tor). 

We  shall  first  make  our  way  by  North  Street  to  Great  Bridge,  as 
in  the  preceding  excursion,  where  we  turn  L.  to  Headborough.  A 
little  beyond  this  is  Holne  Turn  (guide-post),  where  the  Tavistock 
road  runs  L.,  one  branch  of  it  passing  through  Holne  and  Hexworthy, 
the  other  crossing  New  Bridge  and  going  through  Pound's  Gate  and 
Dartmeet.  We  continue  straight  on  to  Water  Turn,  where  is  another 
guide-post,  and  just  before  reaching  it  shall  notice  the  road  running 
R.  to  Druid.  Keeping  R.  we  pass  up  the  hill  between  Highgrove  and 
Higher  Ausewell,  the  latter  being  on  the  L.,  and  skirting  the  Druid 
Plantations  R.,  shall  soon  reach  Ausewell  Cross.  [If  preferred  the 
rambler  may  make  his  way  to  this  point  by  Rewdown  Cross,  as  in  S. 
Ex.  92.] 

The  guide-post  at  Ausewell  Cross  will  show  the  visitor  that  he 
must  continue  straight  on  for  Buckland — that  is,  about  N.W.  The 
road  here  runs  downhill,  Ausewell  Wood  being  on  the  L.,  and  some 
enclosures  bordering  Welstor  Common  on  the  R.  At  the  entrance  to 
Ausewell  Cottages  L.  the  boundary  line  between  the  parishes  of  Ash- 
burton  and  Buckland  crosses  the  road  (S.  Ex.  92),  and  on  passing  this 
we  have  Combe  Wood  L.  and  Buckland  Common  R.  Rather  over  %  m. 
further  down  is  Southbrook,  immediately  below  which  the  Ruddycleave 
Water  (Ex.  26)  issues  from  the  moor  between  Birch  Wood  on  its  R. 
bank,  and  Bagley  Wood  on  its  L.,  and  on  reaching  this  we  find 
ourselves  in  one  of  those  delightful  dells  which  make  the  Dartmoor 
borderland  so  beautiful.  Crossing  the  stream,  which  comes  white  flashing 
from  the  green  hollow  above  the  bridge  to  lose  itself  amid  the  thick 
woods  below,  we  pass  up  to  the  little  village,  if  such  a  tiny  place 
may  be  so  described,  of  Buckland-in-the-Moor. 

This  ancient  border  settlement  occupies  a  pleasing  situation  on 
the  higher  part  of  a  tongue  of  land  peninsulated  by  the  Webburn,  the 
Dart,  and  the  Ruddycleave  Water,  the  steep  hillsides  to  the  E.,  W., 
and  S.  of  it  being  clothed  with  woods,  while  a  number  of  moor  farms 
cover  the  rising  ground  to  the  N.,  extending  in  that  direction  to 
Pudsham  Down.  There  is  no  doubt  that  it  deserved  its  adjunct  in 
early  times,  but  much  land  has  been  won  from  the  waste,  and  many 
bare  slopes  have  been  covered  with  trees,  since  it  was  first  named,  so 
that  it  can  now  hardly  be  said  to  be  in  the  moor.  The  manor  formerly 
belonged  to  Roger  de  Bockland,  a  man  of  great  worth  and  wealth,  one 
of  whose  successors,  William  de  Bockland,  was  Sheriff  of  Devon,  and  also 
of  Cornwall,  during  the  first  five  years  of  the  reign  of  Richard  I.  It 


io  ASHBURTON    DISTRICT. 

was  given  to  Tor  Abbey  in  the  thirteenth  century,  afterwards  coming!1''^ 
to  the  Brcedeknes.*     In  the  sixteenth  century  it  was  in  the  possession  ()j*" 
of  the  Woodleys,  one  of  whom,  Ralph  Woodley,  died  in  1593,  and  is  r^ 
commemorated  by   a  black  marble  tablet  in  the   church,   and  later    ^ 
became  the  property  of  the  Bastards,  to  which  family  it  now  belongs. 

Raffe  Carsleghe,  of  this  parish,  who  died  in  1547,  left  his  body  to 
"  holy  buriall  within  the  churchyard  of  St.  Peter,  of  Bucland-in-the 
More,"  and  bequeathed  "  one  yeo  sheep  "  to  the  "  head  store  within 
the  said  church,"  and  another  to  "  the  store  of  Our  Lady."  It  was  by 
the  discovery  (by  Mr.  Charles  Worthy,  in  1888)  of  the  contemporary 
copy  of  Carsleghe's  will  at  the  District  Probate  Registry,  that  the 
dedication  of  Buckland  Church  was  ascertained,  this  being  unknown 
previous  to  that  year.  It  is  a  daughter  church  to  Ashburton,  and  is  a 
small  structure  with  the  low  tower  so  characteristic  of  the  moorland 
border  churches,  and  has  a  stair  turret  on  its  southern  face.  The 
screen  is  elaborately  carved  and  illuminated,  and  is  said  to  have  been 
brought  from  Buckfastleigh  Church.  The  circular  font  is  Norman, 
and  exhibits  the  ziz-zag  ornament  and  cable  moulding,  f  Ruddycleave 
Farm,  about  i  m.  distant  (Ex.  26),  has  pertained  to  the  church  from 
a  very  early  period,  the  rental  being  devoted  to  its  repair  and  the 
payment  of  the  clerk  and  sexton.  Outside  the  churchyard  gate  is  the 
octagonal  base  of  a  cross,  from  the  centre  of  which  a  sycamore  is  now 
growing,  and  on  the  wall  close  to  the  gate  are  the  mutilated  remains 
of  the  object  which  probably  once  surmounted  it.  Another  cross  may 
be  seen  built  into  the  wall  at  Buckland  Court  opposite,  between  the 
higher  gate  and  the  entrance  doors.  [Crosses,  Chap.  XVI.]  The 
ancient  church,  shaded  by  a  grove  of  fine  trees,  the  picturesque  cot- 
tages, the  sylvan  surroundings,  and  the  glimpses  of  distant  hillsides 
where  fields  climb  up  to  meet  the  moor,  form  a  delightful  picture,  to 
which  the  tranquillity  resting  over  all  lends  a  further  charm. 

[The  road  to  Buckland  Bridge  and  New  Bridge  is  noticed  in  S. 
Ex.  92.] 

Turning  into  the  Widecombe  road  with  the  church  L.,  we  take  the 
L.  branch  at  the  fork  close  by  and  make  our  way  to  Higher  Pudsham, 
with  Great  Lot  Wood  in  the  valley  of  the  Webburn  below  us.  From 
Higher  Pudsham  we  pass  on  to  Stone  Cross,  i  m.  from  Buckland, 
and  turn  L.  down  the  hill  to  Cockingford.  (R.  42  A).  The  name  of 
this  place,  which  consists  only  of  a  farm  and  a  mill  and  a  smithy,  is 
suggestive  of  the  old-time  punishment  of  the  ducking-stool,  and  it  is 
indeed  not  improbable  that  here  viragos  and  scolding  wives  were  once 
brought  unpleasantly  acquainted  with  the  curative  properties  of  the 
waters  of  the  Webburn.  Crossing  Cockingford  Bridge  we  pass  up  the 
hill  to  the  road  coming  R.  from  Widecombe  (R.  42  A),  where  is  a  guide- 
post.  Turning  L.  we  soon  reach  another  guide-post,  where  we  keep 
straight  on  and  speedily  arrive  at  Bittleford.  Here  two  or  three 

*  In  the  early  part  of  the  fourteenth  century,  the  forest  having  re- 
verted to  the  crown  in  the  person  of  Edward  II.'  Thomas  le  Ercedekne 
was  appointed  Constable  of  Lydford  Castle  and  Custos  of  Dartmoor. 

t  The  church  was  pulled  to  pieces  in  1907  in  order  to  be  "  restored," 
when  the  screen  was  removed  to  Ermington  for  renovation. 


EXCURSION   27.      PONSWORTHY.      LEUSDON.  n 

cottages  will  be  seen  on  the  L.  ;  the  farm  being  on  the  R.  The  house 
seems  to  have  been  rebuilt  in  1706,  which  date  may  be  seen  on  the 
porch.  A  short  lane  leads  from  it  to  Bittleford  Down  (S.  Ex.  86), 
and  here  was  probably  the  gate  named  in  the  Court  Rolls  of  the  time 
of  Elizabeth,  where  an  entry  of  the  4th  May,  1587,  has  reference  to 
the  ruined  state  of  Bittleford  Yeat. 

Resuming  our  walk  we  soon  cross  the  road  coming  R.  from  Jordan 
(S.  Ex.  86),  and  running  L.  to  Lizwell,  and  descend  the  hill  to  Pons- 
worthy,  where  we  cross  the  West  Webburn.  The  bridge  which  we 
may  well  imagine  gave  name  to  this  little  place  was,  in  all  probability, 
a  clapper  ;  the  present  one  is  a  small  structure  of  one  arch,  and 
apparently  can  boast  some  antiquity,  a  stone  at  the  eastern  end  of  the 
northern  parapet  bearing  the  date  1666.  The  hamlet,  consisting  of  a 
few  farmhouses  and  cottages  and  a  smithy,  occupies  a  secluded 
situation  in  a  narrow  valley,  but  though  so  near  to  the  moor  betrays 
few  signs  of  it.  It  is  placed  in  the  midst  of  very  fine  scenery,  and  a 
short  walk  in  any  direction  will  bring  the  visitor  to  some  interesting 
point.  Lizwell  Meet,  where  the  two  Webburns  unite  their  waters,  one 
of  the  beauty  spots  of  the  Dartmoor  borderland,  is  about  i  m.  distant, 
and  may  be  reached  by  a  path  branching  from  the  road  near  the  E. 
end  of  the  bridge  and  running  through  Cleave  Wood  along  the  L.  bank 
of  the  stream,  or  it  may  also  be  approached  from  Leusdon.  [Gems, 
Chap.  XIII.]  In  another  direction  the  high  land  of  Corn  Down, 
which  commands  extensive  views  of  the  forest,  may  soon  be  gained. 
The  road  to  it  runs  up  westward  by  the  smithy  to  Lock's  Gate  Cross 
(R.  42  A),  where  it  enters  upon  Sherberton  Common,  above  which  the 
down  is  situated.  This  part  of  the  moor  is  noticed  in  our  excursions 
from  Hexworthy  (Ex.  41). 

Leaving  this  retired  hamlet  by  the  S.  road  we  pass  up  by  Sweaton 
Farm  to  Leusdon  Common,  and  just  beyond  Sweaton  Plantation  take 
the  L.  fork  at  the  branch.  This  will  speedily  bring  us  to  the  church  of 
St.  John  the  Baptist,  built  in  1863  by  the  late  Mrs.  Larpent,  which 
serves  the  needs  of  the  inhabitants  of  this  part  of  the  extensive  parish 
of  Widecombe.  [100  Years,  Chap.  IV.]  It  takes  the  place  of  the 
Chapel  of  St.  Leonard,  which  formerly  existed  at  Spitchwick,  near  by. 
A  cross  is  erected  to  the  memory  of  the  generous  donor.  The  pulpit 
was  placed  in  the  church  by  Mrs.  Stone  in  commemoration  of  her 
husband,  Mr.  John  Stone,  of  Leusdon  Lodge,  who  died  in  1899.  He 
took  considerable  interest  in  the  welfare  of  the  parish,  and  was  a  great 
lover  of  the  moor.  Passing  onward  with  Leusdon  Lodge  R.  we  bear 
l).  to  Blackaton  Down,  which  we  reach  immediately  above  the  tor  of 
the  same  name.  The  outlying  pile  below  the  enclosures  L-  is  usually 
known  as  Logwell  Rock. 

[The  turning  R.,  close  to  Leusdon  Lodge,  leads  to  Lower  Town 
Farm,  where  an  old  cross  that  formerly  stood  on  the  common  near 
Ouldsbroom  (Ex.  41),  now  serves  as  a  gate-post.  Crosses,  Chap.  XVI.] 

From  Blackadon  Tor  we  look  down  upon  the  woods  that  conceal 
Lizwell  Meet,  which  is  only  about  300  yards  from  the  main  pile,  and 
upon  the  narrow  valley  of  the  East  Webburn,  through  which  the  stream 
comes  down  from  Cockingford.  It  flows  between  Lizwell  Wood,  W., 
and  Great  Lot  Wood,  E.,  and  is  spanned  by  a  footbridge  under  Lizwell 
Farm. 

Returning  from  the  down  we  again  pass  the  church,   and  then 


12  ASHBURTON    DISTRICT. 

bend  L.  to  Leusdon  Common,  from  which  the  view  is  exceedingly  fine. 
We  look  across  the  Webburn  valley  upon  the  little  church  of  Buckland, 
which  is  seen  rising  amid  the  trees  that  thickly  clothe  the  sides  of  the 
hills,  and  beyond  it  to  the  Beacon  lifting  itself  above  them.  More 
to  the  R.  is  the  gorge  which  marks  where  the  Dart  pursues  his  devious 
course  round  the  romantic  Holne  Chase,  his  waters  being  hidden  by  the 
dense  woods.  Half-a-mile  further  on,  at  the  end  of  what  is  called  the 
Upper  Plantation,  we  reach  the  road  coming  down  from  Sherberton 
Common  R.  (R.  6  A),  where  we  turn  L.,  and  a  few  score  yards  further 
on  shall  come  upon  the  entrance  to  Spitchwick.  In  the  Seventeenth 
century  this  manor  belonged  to  the  Bourchiers,  Earls  of  Bath,  and  in  the 
earlier  part  of  the  eighteenth  century  was  in  the  possession  of  the  Rev. 
John  Wotton.  Subsequently  it  became  the  property  of  Dr.  Blackall, 
and  was  bought  by  its  present  holder,  Mr.  F.  P.  T.  Struben,  in  1901. 
Our  road  to  Ashburton  has  already  been  sketched  in  R.  6  A. 
Just  below  the  lodge  it  makes  a  bend,  and  here  on  the  R.  is  a  small 
oblong  pound.  Near  to  it  is  the  entrance  to  Lake  Farm,  the  date  on 
which  is  1 66 1,  a  very  good  example  of  an  ancient  moorland  homestall. 
A  little  further  on  we  reach  the  hamlet  of  Pound's  Gate,  where  is  a  post 
office,  and  a  wayside  house  of  entertainment  called  the  Tavistock  Inn, 
from  its  situation  on  the  road  from  Ashburton  to  that  town  (Ex.  28). 
Less  than  \  m.  beyond  this  we  enter  again  upon  the  commons  at  New- 
bridge  Hill,  with  the  rocky  ridge  of  Leigh  Tor,  or,  as  it  is  sometimes 
called,  Long  Tor,  on  the  L.  The  road  branching  R.  at  the  corner  of 
the  enclosures  was  made  by  the  late  Dr.  Blackall,  and  is  usually  known 
as  Dr.  Blackall's  Drive  (Ex.  28,  S.  Ex.  95).  The  view  from  Leigh 
Tor,  or  indeed  from  any  point  on  this  part  of  the  down,  is  very  fine, 
and  embraces  the  greater  part  of  Holne  Chase  and  the  Buckland  Woods. 
One  of  the  piles  of  the  tor  has  had  the  fanciful  name  of  the  Batch 
Loaves  bestowed  upon  it,  and  another  is  called  the  Ravens'  Rock. 

[If  it  should  be  desired  to  return  to  Ashburton  by  way  of  Buckland 
the  rambler  will  make  his  way  down  by  the  side  of  the  tor  to  the  road 
below  it,  and  then  turning  L.  will  follow  the  directions  given  in  the 
Holne  Chase  Section  and  in  S.  Ex.  93.  This  will  increase  the  distance 
by  i  m.] 

Turning  into  a  green  path  L-,  which  crosses  the  road  here  and  again 
part  way  down  the  hill,  we  shall  follow  it  to  the  foot  of  the  steep  descent, 
where  we  turn  R.,  and  skirting  New  Bridge  Marsh,  shall  soon  reach 
the  .structure  of  that  name  on  the  Dart  (Ex.  28  and  Holne  Chase  Section). 
Crossing  this  and  passing  the  Holne  Chase  Lodge  L.  we  ascend  the  hill, 
with  Kinghurst  Down  Wood  R.,  and  having  reached  the  summit, 
507  feet,  almost  immediately  commence  the  descent  to  Holne  Bridge, 
about  300  feet  below,  and  i  m.  distant.  When  this  is  reached  we  cross 
the  Dart  and  follow  the  road  to  Holne  Turn,  i^  m.  further  on  ;  roads 
branch  off  at  Horsehill  and  Hele  Cross,  but  these  points  are  marked 
with  guide-posts.  From  the  Turn  we  proceed  as  in  Ex.  26. 


14  ASHBURTON    DISTRICT. 


Ex.  28. — Holne  Bridge,  Chase  Hill,  New  Bridge,  Pound's  Gate, 
Sherberton  Common,  Bel  Tor,  Dr.  Blackall's  Drive,  Mil  Tor  (Sharp  Tor, 
Hexworthy  District),  Gorge  of  the  Dart,  12  m. 

This  excursion  will  take  us  over  that  part  of  the  moor  situated 
between  Pound's  Gate  and  the  Dart  below  Mil  Tor,  at  the  southern 
end  of  Widecombe  parish.  We  shall  enter  upon  the  commons  at  New 
Bridge,  3^  m.  from  the  town,  retracing  our  steps  over  the  road  described 
at  the  end  of  Ex.  27. 

[If  preferred  the  rambler  may  make  his  way  to  the  foot  of  New 
Bridge  Hill  by  the  Buckland  road,  as  described  in  Ex.  27  and  S.  Ex.  92.] 

Our  first  points  will  be  Great  Bridge,  Headborough,  and  Holne 
Turn,  as  in  Ex.  27.  We  then  branch  L.,  and  passing  the  turnings  at 
Hele  Cross  and  Horsehill  (guide-posts),  shall  reach  Holne  Bridge, 
ij  m.  from  the  Turn.  Hence  we  pass  up  Chase  Hill,  having  North 
Park  Wood,  belonging  to  the  Holne  Park  estate,  L-,  and  the  woods  of 
Holne  Chase  R.  Near  the  top  of  the  hill,  and  again  at  its  summit, 
a  road  branches  L.  (guide-posts),  but  these  we  pass  and  descend  to  New 
Bridge,  a  structure  of  three  arches,  and  having  pointed  buttresses. 
In  places  it  is  covered  with  ivy,  and  like  most  of  the  bridges  in  the 
Dartmoor  country,  presents  a  picturesque  appearance.  Crossing  this 
we  have  in  front  of  us  a  wide  level,  on  the  side  of  the  steep  slope  beyond 
which  is  New  Bridge  Hill  Cottage.  Hannaford,  once  the  seat  of 
Sir  Robert  Torrens,  and  now  the  property  of  Mr.  Bolitho,  is  L.  of  this. 
Further  L.,  on  the  other  side  of  the  Dart,  is  seen  the  hill  on  which  the 
village  of  Holne  is  situated,  with  Holne  Cot  near  the  summit,  and  R. 
of  it,  and  still  higher,  the  Vicarage  (S.  Ex.  96).  According  to  peasant 
tradition  the  level  was  formerly  a  favourite  gathering- place  of  the  pixies, 
and  many  stories  concerning  the  little  people  were  once  related  in  the 
locality.  [Pixies,  Chap.  II.]  Turning  R.  we  make  our  way  along  the 
edge  of  New  Bridge  Marsh  L.,  and  at  the  end  of  ib  shall  strike  into  the 
green  path  noticed  in  Ex.  27,  which  will  lead  us  to  the  top  of  the  hill 
above  Leigh  Tor,  whence  we  follow  the  road  to  Pound's  Gate. 

[If  the  rambler  goes  by  way  of  Buckland  he  will  turn  R.  shortly 
after  passing  the  foot  of  Leigh  Tor,  and  climbing  the  side  of  the  com- 
mon with  the  rocks  near  him  R.  will  soon  reach  the  road,  Ex.  27.] 

The  Tavistock  Inn  at  Pound's  Gate  figures  in  local  legend.  It 
was  at  this  hostelry  that  the  Evil  One,  in  the  form  of  a  dark  horseman, 
stopped  for  refreshment  when  on  his  way  to  Widecombe  on  the  after- 
noon of  the  dreadful  thunderstorm  in  1638,  and  paid  the  hostess  with 
money  that  afterwards  turned  into  dried  leaves.  [See  the  section  in 
the  Bovey  Tracey  District  on  Hameldon  and  the  Widecombe  Valley,  and 
Pixies,  Chap.  II.] 

Passing  through  the  hamlet  we  shall  notice  the  upping-stock,  or 
mounting-block,  near  the  post-office,  and  the  pound  on  the  L.  of  the 
way  just  beyond  it,  and  which  we  have  already  mentioned  (Ex.  27). 
Above  this  the  road  runs  R.  over  the  common  to  Leusdon  and  Pons- 
worthy  (Ex.  27),  but  we  shall  keep  straight  up  the  hill,  and  passing 
the  Wesleyan  Chapel  and  Lower  Uppacott,  where  is  an  approach  L. 
to  Lower  Tor  (post),  shall  soon  reach  a  point  where  the  road  forks. 
The  branch  R.  runs  along  the  lower  edge  of  Sherberton  Common,  and 
under  Sherberton  Farm  to  Lock's  Gate  Cross,  but  we  continue  to  follow 


EXCURSION   28.      BEL   TOR.  15 

the  Tavistock  road  Iv.,  which  will  speedily  bring  us  also  to  Sherberton 
Common  (Ex.  41).  On  this  part  of  it,  however,  we  shall  find  nothing 
to  detain  us. 

During  o"ur  progress  from  L,eusdon  Common  to  the  point  we  have 
now  reached  a  grand  view  has  gradually  unfolded  itself,  though  it  has 
necessitated  our  turning  to  look  back  upon  it.  Its  main  features  are 
the  same  as  those  we  noticed  on  our  way  from  Leusdon  to  Pound's 
Gate  (Ex.  27),  but  it  is  much  more  extensive.  The  view  of  the  tors 
on  the  commons  eastward  of  the  Widecombe  valley  is  particularly  fine, 
and  a  wider  range  of  country  westward  is  visible. 

The  road  we  have  hitherto  followed  forms  part  of  R.  49  A.  to 
which  the  reader  is  referred  for  a  description  of  its  continuation,  as  we 
now  desert  it.  On  the  L.,  within  a  farm  enclosure,  is  Bel  Tor,  which, 
although  only  a  small  pile,  is  sufficiently  interesting  to  call  for  notice 
A  gate  in  the  wall  will  enable  the  rambler  to  reach  it.  On  the  surface 
of  a  logan,  curiously  poised  and  appearing  as  though  it  would  topple 
over  at  any  moment,  is  a  rock  basin  measuring  38  inches  by  32,  with 
shelving  sides,  and  to  this  a  tradition  attaches.  It  used  to  be  said 
that  good  fortune  would  await  anyone  seeing  the  reflection  of  the 
rising  sun  in  the  water  collected  in  it.  As  health  is  more  to  be  valued 
than  wealth,  and  as  early  rising  is  conducive  to  the  former,  there  is 
perhaps  more  truth  in  this  than  might  at  first  appear.  Two  other 
rocks  forming  part  of  the  tor  are  very  strangely  shaped,  and  on  a  pile 


Combestone  Tor. 


Sharp  Tor. 


FROM   BEI,   TOR,    LOOKING    W. 

below  them  there  are  two  other  rock  basins,  one  being  21  inches  in 
diameter  and  5  inches  deep  ;  the  other  is  smaller.  In  neither  of  these 
basins  is  there  any  appearance  of  the  notch  sometimes  found  on  the 
edges  of  similar  cavities. 

At  Bel  Tor  Corner,  1,148  feet,  quite  near  to  the  pile,  a  road  runs 
southward.  This  is  Dr.  Blackall's  Drive  (Ex.  27,  S.  Ex.  95),  and  we 
shall  follow  it  between  the  walls  of  the  farm  enclosures  to  the  common 
from  the  steep  side  of  which  Mil  Tor  looks  down  upon  the  Dart.  Here 
a  track  branches  off  on  the  L.  to  Lower  Tor,  another  of  the 
many  good  examples  of  moorland  farms  in  this  neighbourhood.  The 
porch  bears  the  date  1707.  The  view  from  the  point  we  have  now 
reached  is  exceedingly  fine.  Below  us  the  Dart  courses  through  a  deep 


16  ASHBURTON    DISTRICT. 

and  narrow  gorge,  on  the  further  side  of  which  are  the  rocks  of  Bench 
Tor,  560  feet  above  the  river,  and  beyond  it  the  wide  expanse  of  Holne 
Moor  (Brent  District),  backed  by  the  dusky  slopes  that  hide  the  solitary 
parts  of  the  south  quarter  of  the  forest.  Near  to  us  on' the  R.  is  the 
bold  pile  of  Sharp  Tor,  uplifting  itself  from  the  brow  of  the  hill,  and 
with  its  almost  mountainous  outline  forming  perhaps  the  most  striking 
feature  in  the  view.  Below  it  is  the  winding  gorge,  and  this  we  trace 
far  downward  to  the  L.  This  ravine  is  seen  to  great  advantage  from 
the  road  between  Chase  Gate  and  Holne  village  (S.  Ex.  96),  and  is 
noticed  in  our  excursions  from  Hexworthy. 

If  proof  were  needed  that  the  formation  of  rock  basins  is  due  to 
natural  causes  Mil  Tor,  or  Mel  Tor,  as  it  is  sometimes  called,  would 
supply  it.  The  disintegration  of  the  granite  here  in  process  strikes 
the  visitor  at  once,  and  when  he  climbs  to  the  uppermost  rock  and 
finds  four  of  these  basins  on  its  surface  he  feels  it  is  only  what  he  might 
expect  to  see  there.  The  largest  is  32  inches  by  20,  and  6  inches  deep, 
the  next  in  size  being  18  inches  by  14,  and  4  niches  deep,  and  at  the  edge 
of  each  of  them  is  a  notch,  or  little  channel,  where  the  water  has  run 
off  when  falling  ram  has  kept  the  basins  full.  The  other  two  are  smaller, 
and  only  one  of  them  has  a  notch.  Around  them  are  a  number  of  small 
hollows,  the  rock  altogether  being  of  a  very  friable  nature.  One  large 
mass  which  has  fallen  from  the  tor  is  split  in  two  parts.  I  first  noticed 
this  in  1878,  when  it  had  not  long  been  on  the  ground. 

[Mil  Tor  Wood  is  below  this  fine  pile.  Some  interesting  remains 
east  of  the  tor  are  noticed  in  the  Hexworthy  District,  where  also  the 
gorge  is  more  fully  described.  Sharp  Tor,  on  the  further  side  of  the 
combe  W.,  down  which  flows  the  little  Simon's  Lake,  also  falls  within 
the  limits  of  that  district.  Ex.  41.  Part  I.] 

Returning  to  Dr.  Blackall's  Drive  we  follow  it  S.E.,  with  the 
farm  enclosures  on  our  L.,  passing  on  the  way  an  ancient  pound,  the 
wall  of  which  is  in  ruins.  About  £  m.  from  the  tor  is  Brake  Corner, 
where  the  road  is  carried  round  under  Aish  Tor,  922  feet,  a  small  pile 
of  no  particular  interest.*  The  visitor  may  now  either  follow  the  drive 
to  the  main  road,  which  he  will  reach  a  short  distance  from  Pound's 
Gate  at  the  point  noticed  in  Ex.  27,  and  make  his  way  to  New  Bridge 
as  there  directed,  which  will  shorten  the  excursion  by  about  £  m.  ;  or 
he  may  leave  the  drive  when  it  begins  to  bend  to  the  L.  and  descend 
the  steep  side  of  the  common  nearly  to  the  Dart,  some  500  feet  below. 
If  he  decide  upon  this  he  will  strike  about  S.,  and  noticing  the  enclosures 
of  Hannaford  will  keep  them  close  on  the  L.  Some  way  down  the  walls 
form  a  sharp  corner,  below  which,  on  the  R.,  is  a  part  of  the  river 
known  as  Hannaford  Stickles.  Still  further  down  is  Deadman's 
Corner,  and  passing  close  to  this  the  visitor  will  bend  L.  and  soon  strike 
a  track  coming  from  Lower  Hannaford,  which  he  will  follow  to  New 
Bridge,  £  m.  distant. 

Routes  to  the  town  from  New  Bridge  are  given  in  Ex.  27.  New 
Bridge  to  Ashburton,  3^  m.  ;  New  Bridge  to  Buckland  village,  2  m.  ; 
Buckland  village  to  Ashburton,  3^  m. 

*  Near  by  is  Aish  Farm,  and  another  not  far  off  is  called  Leigh 
Tor.  But  it  is  likely  that  in  these  instances  the  farms  did  not  derive 
their  names  from  the  tors,  but  that  the  reverse  was  the  case. 


COURSE   OF   THE    DART.  17 


Holne  Chase  and  the  Buckland  Woods. 

[Ashburton  is  the  nearest  point  to  Holne  Chase  and  the  Buckland 
Woods.  The  road  leading  to  these  is  described  in  Ex.  28.  Visitors 
from  Newton  Abbot,  if  by  road,  will  reach  the  town  via  Half  Way  House  ; 
if  by  rail  via  Totnes.  If  the  visitor  from  Buckfastleigh  desires  to  go 
direct  to  the  Chase  he  will  cross  Dart  Bridge,  and  when  about  i£  m. 
beyond  it  will  turn  into  a  road  diverging  from  the  highway  on  the  L,. 
This  must  be  followed  for  about  i  m.,  when,  keeping  I,.,  Holne  Bridge 
will  be  reached  (vide  post).  Brent  and  Ivybridge  visitors  may  choose 
either  of  these  ways. 

From  Hexworthy  the  road  over  Holne  Moor  is  followed,  and  on 
entering  upon  the  enclosed  lands  the  first  turning  L.  must  be  taken. 
Leaving  Holne  village  R.  the  road  soon  bears  L.  to  the  head  of  Holne 
Chase  Hill  (R.  6  B.)  From  this  point  the  entrance  to  the  chase  at 
Holne  Bridge  is  |-  m.  down  the  hill  R.,  and  to  the  lodge  at  New  Bridge 
a  little  less  than  that  L. 

From  Dartmeet  the  route  is  by  Ouldsbroom,  Uppacott,  and  through 
Pound's  Gate  to  the  lodge  at  New  Bridge.  But  the  pedestrian  will  be 
well  rewarded  if  he  follows  the  river  downward  from  Dartmeet  Bridge. 
He  will  be  led  through  the  deep  gorge,  noticed  ante,  passing  under  the 
solitary  Rowbrook  Farm,  in  the  vicinity  of  which  is  so  much  that  is 
interesting  (Ex.  28,  and  Part  I.  Ex.  41,) 

Widecombe  visitors  will  take  the  road  through  Cockingford,  turning 
R.  at  Stone  Cross  to  Buckland- in- the-Moor  and  New  Bridge,  or  make 
their  way  to  the  latter  through  Ponsworthy  and  Pound's  Gate.  For 
Holne  Bridge  the  road  through  Venton  to  Ruddycleave  Bridge  and 
Cold  East  Cross  must  be  followed  ;  there  turn  R.  to  Ausewell  Cross 
(Ex.  27)  ;  thence  L,.  down  the  hill  past  Highgrove  ;  branch  neither  L. 
nor  R.  at  Water  Turn,  but  keep  straight  on  to  Hele  Cross  ;  turn  R.  ; 
the  road  runs  direct  to  the  bridge. 

From  Hey  Tor  the  first  point  is  Hemsworthy  Gate  ;  turn  L.  to 
Cold  East  Cross  and  Ausewell  Cross  (vide  supra).  From  Ilsington  the 
road  should  be  followed  to  Halshanger  Cross,  and  then  down  the  valley 
of  the  Yeo  to  Great  Bridge,  where  turn  R.  to  Holne  Turn  ;  thence  as 
in  Ex.  28.] 

The  course  of  the  Dart  through  the  gorge  below  Sharp  Tor  and  Mil 
Tor,  noticed  in  the  preceding  excursion,  and  also  in  the  excursions 
from  Hexworthy,  is  S.  of  S.E.  At  Wellsfoot  Island,  S.  of  the  Hanna- 
ford  enclosures,  it  turns  towards  the  E.,  and  about  £  m.  further  on 
again  turns,  and  runs  northward  under  Cleave  Wood  to  New  Bridge, 
4-  m.  from  the  second  bend.  In  this  part  of  its  course  the  river  sweeps 
round  the  southern  end  of  Widecombe  parish,  to  which  indeed  it  acts 
as  a  boundary  from  Walla  Brook  Foot  below  Babeny  to  its  confluence 
with  the  Webburn.  On  passing  under  New  Bridge  it  pursues  a  north- 
easterly course,  afterwards  turning  on  itself  and  flowing  southward  to 
Holne  Bridge,  the  distance  covered  by  its  windings  being  3^  m.,  although 
these  bridges,  as  we  have  already  seen,  are  only  i|  m.  apart.  The  area 
enclosed  within  this  great  loop  forms  the  wild  tract  of  heather  and 
wood  known  as  Holne  Chase,  which  has  thus  the  Dart  for  its  boundary 

cl 


18  THE    MANOR    OF    HOLNE. 

on  three  sides  and  the  road  between  the  bridges  on  the  fourth.  Being 
thus  partly  surrounded  by  water  the  name  has  been  thought  to  be  a 
corruption  of  holm,  an  island,  and  that  the  parish  of  Holne,  in  which 
the  chase  is  situated,  was  called  after  it,  but  early  forms  of  the  name 
do  not  seem  to  support  this  view.  It  sometimes  appears  as  Hole, 
which  is  the  local  pronounciation  to-day,  though  this  is  usually 
broadened  into  Hall.*  The  length  of  the  chase  from  N.  to  S.  is  over 
a  mile,  its  average  breadth  being  about  f  m.  Near  its  northern  ex- 
tremity, where  it  is  less  than  \  m.  wide,  is  an  ancient  camp  about 
550  yards  in  circumference.  This  is  one  of  those  to  which  we  have 
elsewhere  alluded  (S.  Ex.  64)  as  existing  on  the  eastern  confines  of  the 
moor,  others  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  being  Place  Wood  Camp, 
Boro  Wood  Castle,  and  Hembury  Castle,  noticed  further  on.  But 
Holne  Chase  Castle,  as  this  camp  is  called,  though  resembling  the  others 
in  construction,  differs  from  them  is  not  being  a  hill  camp.  It  is  only 
about  1 50  feet  above  the  river,  and  is  surrounded  by  higher  ground. 

The  manor  of  Holne,  which  includes  the  chase,  is  said  to  have 
belonged  to  the  Barony  of  Barnstaple,  which  was  one  of  the  posses- 
sions of  Judhael  of  Totnes  at  the  time  of  the  Domesday  Survey.  It 
subsequently  passed  to  the  Audleys,  and  to  the  Bouchiers,  Earls  of 
Bath,  from  whom  it  descended  to  Sir  Bouchier  Wrey.  Holne  Park, 
south  of  the  chase,  and  now  separated  from  it  by  the  road  running 
up  from  Holne  Bridge  (R.  49  A),  is  mentioned  in  a  suit,  in  1631,  as 
having  been  leased  in  the  time  of  Henry  VIII.  to  Thomas  Prideaux, 
of  Ashburton,  for  seventy  years.  This  also  came  with  the  chase  into 
the  possession  of  Sir  Bouchier  Wrey.  The  properties  are  now  owned 
by  the  Hon.  Richard  Dawson.  O^ATM 

For  about  £  m.  below  New  Bridge  the  Dart  flows  between  Holne 
Chase  and  the  common  on  which  Leigh  Tor  is  situated  (Ex.  27).  This 
then  gives  place  to  Park  Wood,  belonging  to  Spitchwick,  soon  after 
passing  which  the  river  receives  the  Webburn,  here  spanned  by  Buck- 
land  Bridge.  Prom  this  point  onward  the  steep  hillside  rising  from 
the  L.  bank  is  clothed  with  trees,  Hardridge  Wood,  Greypark  Wood, 
Combe  Wood,  and  Ausewell  Wood,  following  each  other,  the  three 
former  being  in  the  parish  of  Buckland,  and  the  latter  in  the  parish  of 
Ashburton.  They  are  usually  known  collectively  as  the  Buckland 
Woods,  and  between  these  and  the  chase  the  Dart  runs  from 
Buckland  Bridge  to  Holne  Bridge. 

We  have  already  stated  (Ex.  27)  that  the  manor  of  Buckland 
became  the  property  of  the  Bastards.  In  the  early  part  of  the  nine- 
teenth century  the  representative  of  the  family  purchased  the  manor  of 
Ausewell,  which  adjoined  the  property,  and  planted  fir  and  other  trees 
on  the  heathy  land  of  which  much  of  it  consisted.  In  a  note  by  the 
editor  of  the  1811  edition  of  Risdon's  Survey  of  Devon  the  area  thus 
covered  is  said  to  have  been  700  acres.  The  present  owner  is  the 

Rev.  W.  P.  Bastard. 

, 

£ 

*  Derivations  have  also  been  suggested  from  hoi,  a  hollow,  cf .  holt  ; 
and  from  holline,  holly — the  latter  being  the  most  probable.  Accord- 
ing to  a  note  in  Carrington's  Dartmoor,  a  tract  near  the  chase  was 
formerly  known  as  Holly  Chase,  but  I  cannot  find  from  any  other 
source  that  this  was  so. 


HOLNE   CHASE.  19 

By  the  courtesy  of  their  owners  Holne  Chase  and  the  Buckland 
Woods  are  open  to  the  public  on  Tuesdays,  Thursdays,  and  Saturdays, 
from  May  to  October  ;  notices  of  the  precise  dates  are  posted  at  the 
entrances  to  the  drives,  and  furnished  to  the  principal  hotels  in  the 
neighbourhood.  To  the  chase  both  carriages  and  pedestrians  are 
admitted,  but  carriages  only  may  enter  the  drives.  Two  of  these  are 
carried  along  the  wooded  hillside,  and  a  third  runs  near  the  river.  It 
is  the  latter  that  the  excursion  coaches  are  permitted  to  use,  and  they 
enter  at  Buckland  Lodge,  which  is  reached  from  Buckland  village  by 
a  steep  descent  (S.  Ex.  92).  But  we  propose  first  to  visit  Holne  Chase 
and  then  crossing  the  Dart  at  New  Bridge,  make  our  way  to  the  lodge 
by  the  road  following  the  course  of  the  river,  and  describe  the  coach 
run  from  that  point. 

Before  setting  out,  however,  it  will  be  well  to  notice  briefly  the 
higher  Buckland  Drives.  These  are  reached  by  way  of  Ausewell  Gate, 
the  first  point  being  Water  Turn,  the  way  to  which  has  already  been 
described  (Ex.  27).  Here  the  gate  L.  is  entered.  A  short  distance 
beyond  this  the  way  forks,  when  the  R.  branch  is  followed.  Further 
on  the  way  again  forks,  the  two  branches  forming  the  drives.  These 
run  parallel  for  some  distance  under  Ausewell  Common,  the  lower  of 
the  two  passing  quite  close  to  Raven  Rock  mentioned  hereafter. 
Above  this  is  the  cluster  bearing  the  name  of  the  Ausewell  Rocks, 
though  often  called  in  the  locality  Hazel  Tor.*  These  rocks  are  scat- 
tered about  a  small  open  space  covered  with  heather,  on  the  highest 
part  of  which,  1,041  feet,  are  two  cairns.  The  view  from  this  part  of 
the  woods  is  exceedingly  fine.  The  higher  of  these  two  drives  goes 
onward  to  Ausewell  Cottage  ;  the  other,  keeping  at  a  lower  level,  runs 
across  Combe  Wood  ;  beyond  this  they  unite  and  reach  the  public 
road  at  Southbrook,  not  far  from  the  bridge  over  the  Ruddycleave 
Water,  noticed  in  Ex.  27. 

[Holne  Bridge  is  2  m.  from  Ashburton  ;  the  length  of  the  Holne 
Chase  Drive  from  Holne  Bridge  to  the  New  Bridge  Lodge  is  3  m.  ; 
thence  across  New  Bridge  and  down  to  Buckland  Lodge,  i£  m.  ;  the 
lower  drive  through  the  Buckland  Woods  from  Buckland  Lodge  to 
Holne  Bridge,  2  m.  ;  the  circular  drive  is  thus  over  10  m.] 

We  shall  enter  Holne  Chase  at  the  gate  near  Holne  Bridge,  the 
road  to  which  has  already  been  described  (Ex.  28.)  That  there 
has  long  been  such  a  means  of  crossing  the  Dart  at  this  spot  is  shown 
by  an  entry  in  the  registers  of  Bishop  Stafford,  dated  August,  1413. 
A  bridge  that  had  previously  existed  here  having  been  washed  away, 
it  was  directed  that  the  archdeacons  should  give  notice  of  an  indul- 
gence to  all  the  faithful  who  should  contribute  to  the  re-building  of  it. 
Thus  by  enabling  some  people  to  get  over  certain  little  difficulties 
others  would  be  helped  to  get  over  the  river.  The  archdeacons  were 
very  appropriately  chosen.  Crossing  this  picturesque  structure, 
which  consists  of  four  arches,  we  enter  the  gate  on  the  R.,  and  follow- 
ing the  drive  for  about  ^  m.  shall  reach  the  main  one  that  comes  L. 
from  the  lodge  on  Chase  Hill.  Here  we  turn  R.,  and  passing  the  grounds 
of  Chase  House  soon  reach  the  wilder  part  of  this  ancient  domain.  As 
already  stated,  Holne  Chase  is  partly  encircled  by  the  Dart,  and  carried 
very  near  to  this  is  the  drive  we  are  now  following.  As  we  progress 

*  The  name  also  appears  as  Awsewell  and  Hazwell. 


20  HOLNE   CHASE. 

the  objects  on  the  Buckland  side  come  into  view,  and  are  seen  to  con- 
siderable advantage,  but  are  described  as  we  reach  them  in  returning. 

High  up  on  the  R.,  opposite  Chase  House,  is  Cleft  Rock,  and  %  m. 
further  on  Raven  Rock,  which  presents  a  fine  appearance  from  this 
part  of  the  chase.  A  little  further  on  our  road  runs  quite  near  to  the 
vallum  of  Holne  Chase  Castle,  L.  Some  interesting  relics  were  found 
in  the  chase  in  1870.  They  consisted  of  about  a  dozen  flat  iron  bars, 
and  were  discovered  below  the  surface  under  a  small  heap  of  stones, 
placed  on  a  large  flat  one.  For  long  they  were  thought  to  be  either 
unfinished  swords,  or  pikes,  but  it  has  lately  been  suggested  that 
they  were  "  currency  bars "  of  the  Britons,  notwithstanding  that 
Csesar  says  this  people  used  brass  or  iron  rings  as  money.  But  we 
understand  this  difficulty  has  been  removed  by  arguing  that  the 
reading  of  the  passage  in  which  this  statement  occurs  is  incorrect ; 
that  instead  of  "  rings  "  we  should  read  "  bars."  Unfortunately,  we 
are  unable  to  appeal  to  Caesar  to  tell  us  what  he  really  did  write, 
but  we  read  "rings"  in  our  younger  days,  and  that  bars  our 
reading  anything  else  now.  An  account  of  the  find  by  that  well- 
known  antiquary,  the  late  Mr.  P.  F.  S.  Amery,  of  Druid,  was  read 
before  the  members  of  the  Devonshire  Association  in  1906. 

On  passing  below  the  camp  there  is  a  good  view  of  the  rock 
known  as  the  Lovers'  Leap  on  the  northern  side  of  the  Dart.  A  little 
further  on,  and  immediately  below  us,  is  Eagle  Rock,  under  which 
the  Dart  makes  its  great  bend.  Here  our  road  bends,  too,  and  presently 
again  leads  us  quite  near  to  the  castle,  on  the  western  side  of  which 
we  now  find  ourselves.  Across  the  river  we  see  the  charming  combe 
through  which  the  Ruddycleave  Water  descends  foaming  to  the  Dart, 
and  as  we  advance  the  meeting-place  of  the  Dart  and  the  Webburn 
comes  into  view.  Continuing  on  our  way  we  notice  the  Spitchwick 
Lower  Lodge  on  the  further  side  of  the  stream,  with  Park  Wood, 
which  stretches  nearly  up  to  Pound's  Gate,  covering  the  side  of  the 
hill  above  it.  The  highest  point  of  Chase  Wood,  which,  however, 
is  not  much  over  600  feet,  is  on  our  L.,  and  near  this  are  some  remains 
of  Chase  Mine.  Adits  are  also  found  in  other  parts  of  the  wood,  and 
a  leat  will  be  seen  that  formerly  belonged  to  it,  but  this  is  now  used 
for  the  purpose  of  conveying  water  to  some  fish-rearing  ponds.  Pass- 
ing onward  we  soon  reach  the  lodge  near  New  Bridge,  on  the  road 
described  in  Ex.  28. 

[The  excursion  coaches  usually  stop  here  for  a  short  time  when 
on  the  return  journey  from  Buckland  to  Ashburton,  to  enable  tourists 
to  visit  the  chase.  It  is  a  good  plan  to  walk  through  it  and  meet  the 
coach,  which  goes  by  way  of  the  public  road,  at  the  foot  of  Chase  Hill. 
Should  the  visitor  decide  upon  this  he  will  pass  the  objects  just  noticed 
in  the  following  order.  About  \  m.  from  the  lodge,  Spitchwick  Lower 
Lodge  across  the  Dart  L.  ;  Chase  Wood  R.  ;  \  m.  on  confluence  of  the 
Dart  and  Webburn  L.  ;  £  m.  further,  Ruddycleave  Water  L-  ;  Holne 
Chase  Castle  R.  ;  -|  m.  Eagle  Rock  close  L.,  with  bend  of  the  Dart ; 
Lovers'  Leap  across  the  river  L.  ;  i  m.,  Raven  Rock,  high  amid  the 
trees  L.  ;  \  m.,  Cleft  Rock  L.  ;  Holne  Chase  House  R.  ;  straight  on  for 
the  lodge  on  Chase  Hill  ;  or  turn  L.  for  the  gate  at  Holne  Bridge.] 

Turning  R.  at  the  lodge  a  few  steps  bring  us  to  New  Bridge,  which 
we  cross  and  follow  the  road  R.,  as  in  Ex.  28.  Very  soon  we  approach 
the  river  at  a  bend  called  New  Bridge  Hill  Corner,  where  it  suddenly 


THE   BUCKLAND    WOODS.  21 

turns  towards  the  E.,  and  again  bends  northward  at  Higher  Corner 
Pool.  Here  on  the  L.  is  the  steep  road  leading  up  to  Pound's  Gate, 
but  we  keep  on  past  Deeper  Marsh  with  the  Dart  R.  We  shall  not 
have  proceeded  far  before  we  notice  an  ancient  circular  enclosure  on 
the  R.  of  the  way.  This  is  sometimes  referred  to  as  Leigh  Tor  Pound, 
and  also  as  Deeper  Marsh  Pound.  Near  this  are  several  islands,  and 
just  below  them  another  bend  in  the  river,  at  what  is  known  as  the 
Lower  Corner  Pool,  where  there  are  more  islands.  Before  reaching  the 
latter  we  pass  under  Leigh  Tor,  a  short  distance  beyond  which  is  Spitch- 
wick  Lower  Lodge  L.  About  £  m.  further  on  we  find  ourselves  at 
Buckland  Bridge,  in  the  midst  of  a  charming  scene.  It  is  thrown 
over  the  Webburn  immediately  above  the  confluence  of  that  stream 
and  the  Dart ;  on  one  hand  is  seen  the  narrow  valley  through  which 
the  tributary  comes  down,  and  on  the  other  the  meeting- place  of  the 
waters,  the  last-named  forming  the  subject  of  some  lines  by  Keble. 
(The  two  Webburns  are  noticed  in  the  Excursions  from  Widecombe, 
and  in  Ex.  27).  Crossing  the  bridge  we  speedily  arrive  at  Buckland 
Lodge,  where  we  leave  the  road  we  have  been  following.  This  climbs 
up  through  the  wood  L.  to  the  Higher  Lodge  at  Buckland  village, 
rather  over  £  m.  distant,  and  500  feet  above  us  (Ex.  27,  S.  Ex.  93). 

As  we  have  already  stated  it  is  the  lowest  of  the  three  Buckland 
Drives  over  which  the  excursion  coaches  go,  and  they  enter  at  the  lodge 
we  have  now  reached.  For  about  £  m.  the  road  runs  along  the  edge  of 
Hardridge  Wood,  with  the  Dart  close  on  the  R.,  and  then  Warren  Bridge 
is  crossed,  where  the  Ruddycleave  Water  (Ex.  26,  27)  comes  down 
through  a  ferny  hollow  to  fall  into  the  larger  stream.  Now  we  are  in 
Greypark  Wood,  from  which  we  look  across  the  chase  to  the  steeps 
beyond  it,  where  the  Raven  Rock,  a  mass  of  grey,  thrusts  itself  out 
from  its  leafy  environment.  Ere  we  have  gone  far  from  the  bridge  we 
reach  that  part  of  the  river  where  it  changes  its  course.  Hitherto  it 
has  been  flowing  towards  the  north  ;  we  now  see  its  waters  running 
in  a  southerly  direction.  At  the  bend  is  the  fine  Eagle  Rock,  which 
we  passed  in  the  chase  ;  a  fitting  natural  outwork  to  the  ancient 
encampment  on  the  slope  above  it.  Here  we  see  it  draped  with  ivy 
and  other  plants,  and  the  graceful  quickbeam,  to  give  the  mountain 
ash  its  moorland  name. 

When  we  begin  to  set  our  faces  southward  we  approach  the  most 
striking  rock  mass  in  this  winding  valley.  It  is  known  as  the  Lovers' 
Leap,  and  the  story  attached  to  so  many  rocks  of  a  similar  character, 
not  only  in  England,  but  in  other  countries,  is  related  in  connection 
with  it.  But  whether  this  was  formerly  a  spot  to  which  despairing 
lovers  in  general  made  their  way  in  order  to  throw  themselves,  Sappho- 
like,  into  the  waters,  or  whether  it  was  so  named  from  a  particular 
pair  of  lovers,  we  cannot  say,  since  tradition  is  silent  on  the  subject. 
This  fine  rock  projects  itself  from  the  steep  hillside,  and  the  Dart  makes 
a  bold  sweep  round  it.  It  rises  almost  perpendicularly  from  the  waters 
to  a  considerable  height.  In  places  its  sides  are  covered  with  creeping 
plants,  and  small  trees  and  bushes  grow  from  the  clefts.  The  drive 
here  deserts  the  river  for  a  short  distance,  and  is  carried  above  the  rock. 
In  passing  this  an  upright  iron  bar  will  be  seen,  which  was  placed  here 
to  mark  the  spot  on  which  the  Prince  Consort  stood  when  he  visited 
the  woods,  by  George  Sparks,  a  former  well-known  whip  of  Ashburton, 
who  drove  his  royal  highness  on  that  occasion. 


22  THE   BUCKLAND    WOODS. 

Leaving  this  striking  scene  we  pass  down  the  valley  with  the 
Dart  again  for  our  companion,  and  speedily  come  in  sight  of  a  great 
crag  on  the  hillside  some  400  feet  above  the  river.  This  is  the  Raven 
Rock,  but  it  is  hardly  seen  to  such  advantage  here  as  from  the  points 
from  which  we  have  already  beheld  it.  One  part  of  this  mass  used  to  be 
known  as  the  Duke's  Nose.  Viewed  from  a  certain  spot  the  rock 
presents  a  rude  resemblance  to  the  human  face  in  profile,  and  in  this, 
as  in  the  case  of  the  Rock  on  Roborough  Down  (Yelverton  Distr  ict), 
imagination  has  been  able  to  detect  the  features  of  the  Duke  of  WePing- 
ton.  This  rocky  pinnacle  looks  down  upon  a  part  of  the  Dart  marked 
by  the  Long  Island  in  its  channel. 

During  our  progress  along  the  bank  of  the  river  we  have  been  able 
to  obtain  many  good  views  of  the  chase,  and  shall  have  noticed  that 
it  is  of  a  wilder  character  than  the  woods  on  the  Buckland  side,  and 
this  will  again  become  evident  as  we  pass  on  through  Ausewell  Wood. 
About  £  m.  from  the  Raven  Rock,  and  when  opposite  to  Holne  Chase 
House,  we  pass  the  Cleft  Rock,  which  is  about  200  feet  above  the  drive, 
and  here  near  the  river  are  the  remains  of  a  building  that  show  that 
in  days  gone  by  men  were  attracted  to  this  wood  by  something  besides 
the  scenery.  Within  the  scanty  vestiges  of  a  blowing-house  is  a  cavity 
about  four  feet  deep,  which  seems  to  have  been  a  furnace.  It  is  oval 
in  shape,  and  measures  4  feet  by  2  feet  9  inches.  Quite  near  to  this 
are  the  ruined  walls  of  another  small  building,  and  there  are  also  the 
remains  of  a  leat  and  a  large  heap  of  slag.  These  ruins  were  discovered 
buried  beneath  debris  by  Mr.  P.  F.  S.  Amery. 

In  some  far  away  time  the  channel  of  the  Dart  was  here  much 
higher  than  it  is  at  present.  This  is  shown  by  a  bed  of  gravel  above 
the  left  bank,  a  little  below  the  point  we  have  now  reached. 

On  leaving  Ausewell  Wood  the  drive  passes  across  two  fields  to 
the  gate  opening  on  the  public  road  near  the  northern  end  of  Holne 
Bridge.  The  way  to  the  town  is  described  at  the  end  of  Ex.  27,  the 
points  passed  being  Holne  Turn  and  Headborough. 

(Near  the  southern  end  of  Holne  Bridge,  where  Chase  Hill  makes 
a  very  sharp  bend,  is  the  lodge  at  the  entrance  to  Holne  Park). 


Shorter  Excursions. 

[The  route  to  Bag  Tor  Mill  and  Ilsington  is  described  in  S.  Ex.  89, 
and  this  connects  the  Ashburton  and  Bovey  Districts.  S.  Ex.  96 
shows  the  route  to  Holne  Moor,  and  connects  Ashburton  with  the 
Brent  District.  Other  links  between  these  districts  are  formed  in  the 
usual  manner  by  the  excursions  and  routes.] 

S.  Ex.  88. — Place  Wood  Camp,  Halshanger,  and  Boro  Wood  Castle, 
5  m.  Opposite  to  the  Golden  Lion  Hotel  a  branch  from  East  Street 
leads  to  Roborough  Lane.  This  is  crossed  by  the  road  coming  L. 
from  the  Terrace  Walk,  formed  in  the  earlier  part  of  the  last  century 
b}>-  Lord  Clinton,  and  the  point  may  also  be  gained  from  Great  Bridge 
by  following  that  delightful  promenade,  which  commences  there. 
Proceeding  northward  Langstone  Cross  is  soon  reached  (guide-post), 
j-  m.  N.  of  this  the  road  skirts  Woodencliff  Wood  L.  At  a  little 
distance  on  the  R.  is  Place  Wood,  and  between  this  and  the  road 


SHORTER    EXCURSIONS   FROM    ASHBURTON.  23 

are  the  remains  of  an  ancient  hill  fort.  These  are  not  extensive,  and 
when  in  a  complete  state  the  camp  apparently  was  not  more  than 
300  yards  in  circumference. 

[The  camp  may  be  reached  by  a  footpath  from  Great  Bridge. 
This  runs  under  the  Terrace  Walk,  afterwards  crossing  the  road  close 
to  Cuddyford  Bridge,  which  spans  the  Yeo.  The  path  then  runs 
northward  to  the  road  at  Woodencliff  Wood.  Cuddyford  is  suggestive 
of  an  ogre  who  was  formerly  said  to  haunt  this  part  of  the  Yeo,  one 
^u^tiJ^SS1'  the  terror  of  children  in  the  days  of  our  grandfathers.] 

Following  the  road  from  the  camp  N.  the  visitor  will  be  led  between 
Higher  and  Lower  Brownswell  to  Ashburton  Down,  a  little  over  i£  m. 
from  the  town.  The  down,  most  of  which  is  now  enclosed,  is  on  the  R. 
Here  is  a  guide-post,  and  another  at  Owlacombe  Cross,  a  short  distance 
further  on.  At  the  second  the  visitor  will  turn  L.,  and  in  about  4-  m. 
will  reach  Halshanger  Cross.  The  road  going  straight  up  the  hill  soon 
enters  on  the  common  near  the  Belt  (Ex.  26),  but  this  must  not  be 
followed.  Turn  L.  to  Rushlade,  and  pass  down  the  hill,  as  in  Ex.  26, 
to  Boro  Wood  R.,  which  is  reached  soon  after  crossing  Waterleat 
Bridge.  At  the  lower  end  of  the  wood,  not  far  from  Lurgecombe  Mill, 
there  is  a  gate  opening  into  it.  A  path  runs  from  this  very  nearly 
up  to  the  old  camp  which  takes  its  name  from  the  wood.  It  is  altogether 
a  much  finer  example  than  the  other,  and  is  nearly  \  rn.  in  circum- 
ference. From  Lurgecombe  Mill  the  way  to  the  town  is  described  in 
the  excursion  just  named. 

S.  Ex.  89. — The  Commons  of  Horridge  and  Halshanger,  S-\  m. 
With  route  to  Ilsington,  5^  m.  from  Ashburton.  The  first  point  is 
Rushlade  (Ex.  26).  The  visitor  will  then  continue  straight  on  N.  past 
Halshanger  Cross  to  Langworthy  Bridge  and  Mountsland.  Just  beyond 
the  latter  is  the  hamlet  of  Horridge,  where  a  gate  L.  gives  access  to 
Horridge  Common.  On  entering  we  shall  bear  westward  for  a  short 
distance,  when  we  shall  strike  a  group  of  hut  circles,  and  about  300 
yards  N.  of  these  shall  find  another  group.  Bearing  a  little  W.  of  N. 
we  ascend  the  hill  with  Bag  Tor  Wood  below  us  R.,  and  when  we  have 
reached  the  western  edge  of  this  shall  look  down  over  Bag  Tor  Down  N. 
(Ex.  25,  S.  Ex.  80).  N.E.  across  the  little  valley  is  Bag  Tor,  and  to 
the  R.  of  it  Mill  Wood  and  Crownley  Parks  ;  northward  are  seen  Saddle 
Tor  and  Hey  Tor. 

The  road  to  Ilsington  runs  on  from  Horridge  to  Westabrook,  and 
thence  by  the  entrance  to  Bag  Tor  to  Bag  Tor  Mill.  Just  beyond 
this  is  Burchanger  Cross,  from  which  the  village  is  about  i  m.  distant. 
The  route  is  described  the  reverse  way  in  S.  Ex.  81,  and  the  points 
named  are  noticed  in  the  Ilsington  District. 

[Bag  Tor  Down  may  be  reached  from  the  Ilsington  road  by  fol- 
lowing it  to  Westabrook,  instead  of  turning  into  the  common  at 
Horridge.  A  path  which  passes  through  Bag  Tor  Wood  to  the  down 
runs  from  Westabrook  courtyard,  but  as  it  is  not  a  public  one,  it  will  be 
necessary  to  obtain  permission  to  go  that  way.] 

Turning  S.,  but  bearing  a  little  W.,  we  shall  pass  down  the  hill  to 
the  source  of  the  Yeo,  |  m.  from  Water  Rushes  (Ex.  26).  This  stream 
rises  just  within  the  confines  of  Horridge  Common,  and  crossing  the 
end  of  Mountsland  Common,  enters  Halshanger  Common,  the  boundary 
of  which  is  here  marked  by  a  wall  running  S.,  and  to  this  point  we  shall 
follow  it. 


24  SHORTER    EXCURSIONS   FROM    ASHBURTON. 

[If  it  be  desired  to  embrace  Rippon  Tor  and  the  Nutcracker 
(Ex.  26)  in  this  excursion  the  visitor  will  pass  up  to  the  former  from  the 
western  corner  of  Bag  Tor  Wood,  from  which  it  is  distant  f-  m.  N.W. 
On  leaving  the  tor  turn  S.  to  the  gate  close  to  the  logan,  and  then  passing 
through  one  of  the  gaps  in  the  wall  strike  S.E.  for  about  f  m.  to  the 
Yeo,  which  will  be  reached  near  the  point  where  it  enters  Halshanger 
Common.] 

Crossing  the  Yeo  we  strike  due  S.,  having  for  a  short  distance  the 
wall  on  our  L.,  and  in  ^  m.  shall  reach  the  small  ruined  building  known 
as  the  Old  Summer  House.  This  is  now  a  mere  shell,  circular  in  shape, 
and  9^  feet  in  interior  diameter.  There  is  a  chimney,  the  remains  of 
a  window,  and  a  doorway.  The  view  from  this  old  house  is  remarkably 
fine,  for  though  it  is  not  by  any  means  on  the  highest  part  of  Hals- 
hanger  Common  it  is  yet  so  happily  placed  that  it  commands  many 
striking  objects  in  the  surrounding  country.  Haldon,  with  the  distant 
farm  lands  beyond  it,  is  seen  north-eastward  ;  the  estuary  of  the  Teign, 
presenting  all  the  appearance  of  a  lake,  E.  by  S.  ;  Torquay,  Ashburton, 
Buckfastleigh,  and  Dean,  from  S.E.  by  E.  to  S.  by  W.,  with  the  South 
Hams  extending  from  the  valley  of  the  Dart  westward  and  to  the  sea  ; 
Brent  Hill  and  Ugborough  Beacon  Rocks  rise  up  S.S.W.  ;  and  thence 
northward  stretches  a  tract  of  wooded  and  semi-wild  country,  backed 
in  places  by  the  moor. 

The  gate  at  Water  Rushes  is  a  little  over  J  m.  due  W.  of  the 
Summer  House,  but  it  will  be  better  for  the  visitor  to  strike  N.  of 
that  line,  as  the  ground  is  boggy  near  the  Yeo.  By  keeping  higher  he 
will  reach  that  stream  above  the  mire,  and  crossing  will  make  his  way 
down  the  R.  bank  to  the  gate.  From  this  point  the  route  to  Ashburton 
As  described  in  Ex.  26,  the  way  lying  by  the  Belt  and  through  Green 
Lanes  to  Rushlade,  and  thence  through  the  valley  of  the  Yeo. 

S.  Ex.  90. — To  Hemsworthy  Gate,  4f  m.  from  Ashburton.  This 
point,  which  is  named  so  frequently  in  the  excursions  in  the  Bovey 
District,  is  reached  by  way  of  Rushlade  (Ex.  26)  and  Cold  East  Cross 
(R.  5),  or  by  Welstor  Cross  (S.  Ex.  92,  R.  53).  From  the  cross  the  Chag- 
ford  road  (R.  53)  is  followed  northward  to  the  gate,  i£  m.  distant.  Here 
the  boundary  of  Widecombe  parish,  marked  by  stones,  comes  up  from 
the  S.W.  (Ex.  26)  to  a  bondstone  in  the  wall,  known  as  Stittleford's 
Cross.  A  small  incised  cross  will  be  seen  on  its  face,  together  with  the 
initials  R.M.  [Crosses,  Chap.  XVI.]  The  boundary  line  then  runs  N.W. 
by  N.,  being  marked  by  the  wall,  and  a  short  distance  beyond  Seven 
Lords'  Lands  (S.  Ex.  82)  turns  abruptly  E.  to  Hawkeswell  at  the  source 
of  the  Becky  Brook  (Ex.  25).  The  route  to  Widecombe  from  Hems- 
worthy  Gate,  which  passes  near  the  Ruggle  Stone,  is  shown  in  S.  Ex. 
82,  87. 

S.  Ex.  91. — To  Widecombe,  6  m.  from  Ashburton.  The  route  for 
Hameldon  and  Grim's  Pound.  The  first  point  is  Cold  East  Cross 
(See  Ex.  26  ;  guide-post).  Then  take  the  road  N.W.  down  to  Ruddy- 
cleave  Bridge.  At  the  guide-post  on  Pudsham  Down  just  above  this 
turn  R.  ;  £  m.  on  the  road  bends  L.,  and  leaving  Scobitor  L.  descends 
the  hill  to  Chittleford  ;  pass  through  this  to  Venton  (S.  Ex.  87),  a  short 
distance  beyond  which  is  the  Ruggle  Stone  Inn  (the  logan  of  that  name 
is  on  the  common  R.,  and  quite  near)  ;  cross  Venton  Bridge  to  the  village. 
For  routes  to  Hameldon  and  Grim's  Pound  from  Widecombe  see 
S.  Ex.  84. 


SHORTER    EXCURSIONS    FROM    ASHBURTON. 


S.  Ex.  92. — Buckland  Beacon,  Buckland-in-the-Moor,  and  New 
Bridge,  10  m.  As  the  route  to  Ausewell  Cross,  which  is  close  to  Welstor 
Cross,  our  first  point,  has  already  been  sketched  in  Ex.  27,  we  shall 
now  make  our  way  to  the  latter  by  way  of  Rewdown  Cross,  and  for 
this  purpose  shall  first  proceed  to  Pitt  Farm,  a  short  distance  N.  of 
Great  Bridge.  Here  a  footpath  L.  will  take  us  to  the  road  a  little  E.  of 
the  cross,  which  is  marked  by  a  guide-post.  Taking  the  R.  branch  we 
pass  up  the  hill  with  Druid  a  short  distance  L-,  and  Boro  Wood  Castle 
in  the  wood  above  us  R.  (S.  Ex.  88),  and  noticing  the  Druid  Plantations 
Hi.,  in  which  is  an  old  copper  mine,  shall  shortly  reach  Welstor  Cross. 
The  road  runs  L.  to  Ausewell  Cross,  but  we  shall  keep  R.,  or  northward, 
and  speedily  reach  the  commons,  which  are  here  enclosed  by  a 
wall  L.  In  this,  there  are  three  gates,  and  on  reaching  the  first  we 
enter  and  pass  up  the  slope  WT.,  with  the  Rifle  Range  R.,  to  Welstor 
Rock.  In  front  of  us  is  another  wall,  in  which  there  is  also  a  gate, 
and  on  passing  through  this  we  shall  find  ourselves  close  to  Buckland 
Beacon.  This  small  group  of  rocks  attains  an  elevation  of  1,282  feet, 
and  though  presenting  nothing  striking  in  itself,  should  by  all  means 
be  visited  on  account  of  the  particularly  fine  view  commanded  from  it. 
The  wooded  valley  of  the  Dart  to  the  S.W.,  with  the  meanderings  of 
the  river,  at  once  arrests  attention.  On  the  L.  of  this  part  of  the  picture, 
nearly  due  S.  and  only  i  m.  distant,  the  Ausewell  Rocks  are  seen 
rising  amidst  the  trees  (Buckland  Woods  Section)  ;  due  W.,  and  the 
same  distance  from  us,  is  the  tower  of  Buckland  Church,  with 
Leusdon  Church  on  the  further  side  of  the  valley  (Ex.  27).  Beyond 
the  Ausewell  Rocks,  and  over  3  m.  from  them,  is  Buckfastleigh  Church 
(S.  Ex.  98),  and  still  further  away  to  the  S.S.W.  the  conspicuous  Brent 
Hill  (Brent  District).  Rising  against  the  sky  to  the  L.  of  Buckland 
Church  is  the  dull  sweep  of  Holne  Moor,  "W.S.W.  (The  Moors  of 
Holne  and  Buckfastleigh :  post ),  with  North  Hisworthy  above 
Princetown  (Princetown  District)  far  away  to  the  R.  of  it,  and  almost 
due  W.  Thence  the  eye  ranges  northward  until  it  rests  on  lonely 
Cut  Hill,  N.WT.  by  W.,  io£  m.  away  as  the  crow  flies  (Ex.  n)  ;  the 
low  mound  of  turf  on  its  summit,  which  is  seen  from  so  many  parts 
of  the  moor,  can  readily  be  distinguished.  N.  by  W.  Hameldon  lifts 
up  his  great  rounded  form  (Hameldon  and  the  Widecombe  Valley  : 
S.  Ex.  84)  ;  north-eastward  is  the  high  land  of  Haldon,  seen  away  to 
the  R.  of  Rippon  Tor  (Ex.  26),  which  rises  N.E.  by  N.  less  than  2  m. 
from  us.  Further  to  the  R.  is  the  Channel,  with  the  coast  line  from 
Beer  Head,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Axe,  to  the  estuary  of  the  Exe. 
From  Exmouth  we  trace  the  coast  downward  to  the  Bolt  Head  and 
Bigbury  Bay,  when  intervening  hills  hide  it  from  view.  Lying  snugly 
in  the  valley  S.E.  by  S.  is  the  town  of  Ashburton. 

The  wall  to  the  E.  of  the  Beacon  forms  the  boundary  between  the 
parishes  of  Ashburton  and  Buckland-in-the-Moor.  This  line  descends 
the  steep  hillside  to  the  Dart,  which  it  reaches  immediately  above  the 
Lovers'  Leap.  Early  in  the  reign  of  James  I.  these  two  commons 
were  the  subject  of  a  suit  in  the  Exchequer,  the  dispute  having  reference 
to  this  part  of  them.  We  keep  the  wall  L.  on  leaving  the  Beacon,  and 
passing  a  bondstone  in  it  called  the  Grey  Mare,  and  a  spring  known  as 
Stidwell,  which  forms  another  mark,  descend  the  steep  pinch,  with 
some  small  enclosures  L.,  to  a  gate  opening  on  the  road  from  Ausewell 


26  SHORTER    EXCURSIONS   FROM    ASHBURTON. 

Cross  to  Buckland.  Here  we  turn  R.  and  make  our  way  to  the  village 
as  in  Ex.  27. 

[Should  the  visitor  not  desire  to  include  Buckland  in  his  walk 
he  will  turn  I,,  on  reaching  the  road,  and  follow  it  to  Ausewell  Cross, 
^  m.  Thence  the  return  to  the  town  is  as  given  at  the  end  of  Ex.  26. 
This  will  shorten  the  distance  by  4  m.] 

Buckland  has  already  been  noticed  in  Ex.  27,  and  it  only  remains- 
to  speak  of  the  road  running  from  it  down  to  the  Webburn  and  onward 
to  New  Bridge.  This  leaves  the  church  on  the  R.,  and  descends  a  very 
steep  hill,  with  Hardridge  Wood  L.  Great  Lot  Wood  (Ex.  27)  covers 
the  side  of  the  valley  R.,  and  through  this  there  was  formerly  a  drive 
to  which  the  public  were  admitted.  It  was  closed  in  consequence  of 
the  road  being  greatly  damaged  by  a  flood.  At  the  bottom  of  the  hill 
is  Buckland  Lodge,  and  near  it  R.  the  bridge  over  the  Webburn,  noticed 
in  the  Holne  Chase  Section.  Crossing  this  our  road  will  lead  us  by  the 
river  past  Spitchwick  Lower  Lodge  R.,  and  under  Leigh  Tor  (Ex.  27). 
A  little  further  on  the  Dartmeet  road  turns  up  the  hill  R.  (Ex.  28),  but 
we  pass  onward,  keeping  the  river  L.,  and  soon  reach  New  Bridge. 

We  may  now  retrace  our  steps,  and  return  via  Buckland,  as  in 
the  Holne  Chase  Section  and  S.  Ex.  93,  or  proceed  direct  to  the  town 
by  way  of  Chase  Hill,  as  in  6  A  and  Ex.  27.  The  former  will  be  the 
longer  route  ;  see  end  of  Ex.  28. 

S.  Ex.  93. — Round  Holne  Chase  and  the  Buckland  Woods  by  the 
Public  Road,  9  m.  Fine  views  of  the  chase  and  woods  are  obtained 
from  the  public  roads  that  encircle  them.  The  visitor  will  first  make 
his  way  to  Holne  Bridge  and  over  Chase  Hill  to  New  Bridge,  as  in 
Ex.  28.  From  this  point  he  will  proceed  to  Buckland  Lodge,  following 
the  directions  given  in  the  Holne  Chase  Section.  He  will  then  ascend 
the  hill  between  Hardridge  Wood  R.  and  Great  Lot  Wood  L.  (S.  Ex.  92) 
to  Buckland  village,  noticed  in  Ex.  27.  From  the  church  the  visitor 
will  follow  the  road  running  S.E.,  and  crossing  the  Ruddy  cleave  Water 
and  passing  Southbrook  will  reach  Ausewell  Cross  in  about  il  m.,  the 
way  being  the  reverse  of  that  described  in  Ex.  27.  It  was  on  the 
commons  near  here  that  a  hearse  and  four  horses  were  seen  moving 
slowly  over  the  snow  on  the  night  that  Colonel  Bastard  died.  People 
said  that  the  steeds  were  spectral  ones,  and  indeed  there  were  a  certain 
few  who  could  vouch  for  it  that  spirits  were  at  the  bottom  of  the  matter, 
These  latter  were  jovial  fellows  who  had  some  acquaintance  with  the 
coast  as  well  as  with  the  moor. 

The  route  to  the  town  from  Ausewell  Cross  is  described  in  Ex.  26. 
Part  way  down  the  hill  Higher  Ausewell  is  passed  R.,  and  further  from 
the  road  is  Ausewell  Down  (Holne  Chase  Section),  Just  below,  but 
on  the  L.,  is  Highgrove,  and  a  little  further  removed,  Druid,  the 
residence  of  Mr.  John  S.  Amery,  to  which  place  we  have  already  referred. 

S.  Ex.  94. — Dartmeet,  8  m.  from  Ashburton.  The  way  lies  by 
Holne  Bridge  and  New  Bridge,  through  Pound's  Gate  to  Sherberton 
Common,  the  route  given  in  Ex.  28  being  followed  to  Bel  Tor  Corner. 
From  that  point  R.  49  A  will  show  the  way.  (It  is  noticed  in  the 
Hexworthy  District). 

S.  Ex.  95. — The  Gorge  of  the  Dart  and  Dr.  Dlackall' s  Drive,  g%  m. 
These  have  already  been  noticed  (Ex.  28).  The  directions  given  in 
that  excursion  will  be  followed  until  the  visitor  reaches  New  Bridge. 
He  will  then  turn  L.  and  make  his  way  past  the  fish  pond  (where  the 


HOLNE    VILLAGE.  27 

road  runs  up  R.  to  Hannaford)  to  the  common  near  Wellsfoot  Island, 
at  the  second  bend  of  the  Dart.  Turning  northward,  with  the  enclo- 
sures R.  and  the  river  L.,  he  will  enter  the  gorge,  and  make  his  way 
past  Hannaford  Stickles  to  a  part  of  the  river  in  which  there  are  several 
islands.  (These  are  noticed  in  our  description  of  the  gorge  in  the 
Hexworthy  District  in  Part,  I.  to  which  the  visitor  is  referred  should 
he  desire  to  make  his  way  further  up  this  fine  ravine).  Turning  from 
the  Dart  the  rambler  will  climb  the  steep  hillside  R.  to  Dr.  Blackall's 
Drive,  which  he  will  strike  where  it  winds  below  the  little  pile  of  Aish 
Tor.  Here  he  will  turn  R.  and  either  follow  the  drive  to  the  road,  or 
make  a  short  cut  to  the  latter  down  the  hill  R.,  leaving  the  Hannaford 
enclosures  on  that  side.  The  return  route  via  New  Bridge  is  given  in 
Ex.  27  and  R.  6  A.  See  also  end  of  Ex.  28. 

S.  Ex.  96. — Holne  and  Holne  Moor  Gate,  10^  m.  The  visitor  will 
follow  the  road  to  Holne  Bridge  as  described  in  Ex.  28  and  ascend 
Chase  Hill,  passing  the  lodge  R.,  to  the  fork,  where  is  a  guide-post, 
J  m.  from  the  bridge.  Here  he  will  branch  L.,  and  just  beyond  a  second 
guide-post  will  reach  Chase  Gate.  300  yards  further  on  is  a  third 
guide-post,  where  the  R.  branch  must  be  chosen,  and  passing  Green 
Down  L.  the  visitor  will  shortly  reach  a  fourth  post,  where  the  road 
turns  L.  to  Holne  village,  which  is  close  by.  There  is  a  fine  view  of  the 
Dart  gorge  after  passing  Chase  Gate.  Holne  is  a  small  border  village 
of  very  pleasing  appearance.  Most  of  the  cottages  have  little  gardens 
in  front  of  them,  and  when  the  flowers  are  in  bloom  a  charming  picture 
greets  the  eye  of  the  visitor.  There  is  an  old-fashioned  inn — the  Church 
House — with  a  wide  porch  and  parvise  room,  and  a  large  open  space 
in  front  of  it.  The  church,  which  belonged  to  Buckfast  Abbey,  is  situated 
near  it  on  rather  higher  ground,  and  is  late  Decorated.  There  is  a 
particularly  fine  screen,  and  a  good  pulpit.  In  the  lower  panels  of  the 
former  is  a  series  of  painted  figures  of  saints,  a  list  of  which  may  be 
seen  by  the  visitor.  In  the  churchyard  is  a  cross,  which  was  restored 
some  years  ago,  and  also  the  grave-stone  of  Edward  Collins,  one  time 
landlord  of  the  Church  House,  who  died  in  December,  1 780.  The  lines 
it  bears  have  repeatedly  appeared,  but  have  evidently  been  copied  by 
the  various  writers  who  have  given  them  from  a  source  other  than  the 
stone.  At  all  events,  I  have  never  seen  them  given  exactly  as  they 
appear  upon  it,  and,  indeed,  it  would  now  be  difficult  to  decipher  all 
the  words.  Many  years  ago,  however,  I  was  able  to  do  this,  and  the 
rendering  in  my  book  on  the  stone  crosses  of  Dartmoor  (Chap.  X.),  and 
which  is  here  reproduced,  may  be  relied  upon  as  being  correct : 

Here  lies  Poor  Old  Ned, 

On  his  last  Mattrass  bed, 

During  life  he  was  honest  and  free  ; 

He  knew  well  the  Chace 

But  has  now  run  his  Race 

And  his  Name  was  COLLINS  D'ye  fee. 

Decr>,  1780.     Aged  77. 

The  Ram  Feast,  or  Holne  Ram  Roasting  as  it  came  to  be  termed, 
had  several  years  ago  degenerated  into  a  mere  meaningless  feature  in 
a  village  festival,  being  held  in  connection  with  steeplechases  and 


28  HOLNE    MOOR    GATE. 

sports  of  a  kindred  nature.  But  many  years  ago  we  knew  those  who 
remembered  when  it  was  observed  with  something  like  its  original 
simplicity.  The  feast  took  place  on  old  Midsummer  Day,  when  early 
in  the  morning  a  party  would  set  off  to  the  moor,  and  the  first  ram 
that  could  be  caught  was  taken  to  a  field  called  Play  Park,  close  to 
the  village,  and  in  which  it  has  been  said  a  menhir  used  to  stand. 
There  the  animal  was  killed  and  roasted.  That  this  rude  custom  was 
a  survival  of  a  religious  celebration  there  is  little  doubt,  but  those  who 
observed  it  in  later  times  were  ignorant  that  it  once  had  a  meaning. 
Latterly  the  ram,  which  was  provided  beforehand,  was  roasted  on  Green 
Down. 

Instead  of  returning  to  the  road  where  we  left  it  at  the  guide-post 
we  shall  pass  up  N.  of  the  church,  and  regain  it  a  little  further  on. 
Here  we  find  ourselves  at  the  lodge  at  the  entrance  to  Holne  Cot, 
which  is  pleasantly  situated  on  the  hillside  a  short  distance  below. 
The  road  to  the  house  also  leads  to  a  fisherman's  path  by  the  river 
which  runs  up  through  the  gorge  to  Dartmeet,  and  is  open  on  Mondays, 
Wednesdays,  Fridays,  and  Saturdays,  from  the  ist  March  to  3Oth 
September.  Turning  L.  we  pass  onward  to  where  our  road  is  joined 
by  another  coming  up  L.  from  Langaford  Hill  (post),  and  here  is  the 
entrance  to  Holne  Vicarage  R.  This  will  always  possess  a  peculiar 
interest  as  being  the  spot  where  Charles  Kingsley  was  born,  though 
the  present  is  not  the  actual  house.  That  was  taken  down  and  rebuilt 
in  1832,  thirteen  years  after  Kingsley's  birth,  which  event  took  place 
while  his  father  had  temporary  charge  of  the  parish. 

Passing  up  the  hill  the  visitor  will  reach  Holne  Moor  Gate  in  J  m. 
Just  before  he  comes  to  it  he  will  notice  a  gate  R.,  belonging  to  Stoke 
Farm,  where  he  should  pause  for  awhile  to  look  upon  the  view  com- 
manded from  it.  Certainly  there  is  no  finer  one  throughout  the  Dart- 
moor borderland.  All  the  prominent  heights  over  which  our  rambles 
from  Ashburton  have  extended  are  seen,  together  with  Hameldon  and 
the  rocky  crests  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  Widecombe  valley,  while 
the  picture  of  the  Buckland  Woods  and  Holne  Chase  is  superb. 

(The  Ashburton  visitor  has  been  brought  to  this  point  in  case  he 
should  desire  to  include  Holne  Moor  in  his  rambles.  This  is  described, 
together  with  Buckfastleigh  Moor,  in  a  section  included  in  the  Brent 
and  Ivybridge  District.  See  also  R.  49  B.  and  C). 

From  Holne  Moor  Gate  the  visitor  may  return  to  Ashburton  by 
retracing  his  steps  over  the  Holne  Bridge  road,  following  the  instruc- 
,tions  given  in  R.  6  B,  or  he  may  go  by  way  of  Buckfast  as  shown  in 
ij^R.  6  C.  The  latter  route  will  take  him  first  to  Play  Cross,  and  down 
.V  Langaford  Hill,  thence  past  Hawson  Farm  L.,  near  the  gate  of  which 
is  a  cross  built  into  the  wall  (Crosses,  Chap.  X.)  Just  beyond  this  is 
Brook  R.,  and  Hawson  Court  L.  The  way  then  runs  down  the  hill 
to  Burchetts  Lodge,  soon  afterwards  climbing  up  to  the  cross-roads 
known  as  Hockmoor  Head,  rather  less  than  £  m.  further  on,  where  is 
a  guide-post.  Here  the  rambler  will  turn  L.,  and  at  the  distance  of 
about  %  m.  will  turn  R.,  almost  immediately  afterwards  again  turning 
L.  At  this  point,  which  is  called  Fritz's  Grave,  there  is  a  guide- 
post.  The  way  then  runs  up  past  the  Grange,  just  beyond  which  a  road 
branches  R.  Pass  this  and  take  the  next  turning  R.  through  Buckfast 
to  Dart  Bridge.  Cross  this  and  follow  the  high  road  to  Ashburton, 
as  in  R.  66.  This  will  add  about  ij  m.  to  the  ramble.  (For  Buck- 


SHORTER    EXCURSIONS   FROM    ASHBURTON.  29 

fastleigh  keep  straight  on  from  Hockmoor  Head.  At  the  next  fork 
the  I,,  branch  leads  to  the  church  and  the  town  ;  the  R.  branch  direct 
to  the  town). 

The  visitor  may  vary  the  route  from  Ashburton  to  Holne  by 
following  the  road  to  New  Bridge,  but  this  must  not  be  crossed.  Just 
before  it  is  reached  a  path  will  be  seen  L.  leading  up  through  Cleave 
Wood  (R.  33),  which  will  bring  him  to  the  fields  close  to  Holne  Cot. 
On  the  way  he  will  obtain  some  good  glimpses  of  the  Dart,  passing 
Salters  Pool  and  the  Horseshoe  Falls.  Above  the  Cot  he  will  reach 
the  road  near  Holne  village. 

S.  Ex.  97. — Hembury  Castle  and  Buckfast,  g  m.  As  in  the  preceding 
route  the  visitor  will  first  make  his  way  to  the  fork  near  the  top  of 
Chase  Hill,  and  pass  on  by  Chase  Gate.  At  the  fork,  300  yards  beyond 
this  he  will  strike  L,.  over  a  little  open  space  bearing  the  name  of  Gallant 
le  Bower,  where  there  is  a  remarkably  fine  view  of  the  Widecombe 
valley  N.  There  is  a  guide-post  where  it  is  entered,  and  another  a 
little  further  on.  At  the  second  one  follow  the  road  S.E.,  and  in  about 
i  m.  Hembury  Castle,  4^  m.  from  Ashburton,  will  be  seen  L.  This 
ancient  hill  fort  is  situated  on  high  ground  between  the  valley  of  the 
Dart  E.,  and  the  Holy  Brook,  a  tributary  of  the  former.  On  the  E. 
side  the  ground  is  very  steep,  and  covered  with  the  coppice  known  as 
Hembury  Woods,  and  this  also  clothes  the  sides  of  the  camp.  In  the 
Dart,  at  the  foot  of  the  hill,  is  Black  Pool  Island,  and  just  below  this 
the  river  changes  its  southerly  course  to  an  easterly  one.  Lysons 
computed  the  area  of  Hembury  to  be  about  seven  acres.  There  is  a 
very  strong  rampart,  with  wide  and  deep  ditches,  and  an  inner  mound 
on  its  western  side.  Tradition  speaks  of  it  as  a  Danish  camp.  It  has 
been  remarked  by  Mr.  R.  J.  King  that  there  is  scarcely  an  earthwork 
throughout  the  country  to  which  the  Danes  have  not  been  linked,  and 
this  he  regards  as  a  proof  of  the  strong  impression  made  by  their  attacks. 
On  the  other  hand  Mr.  Thomas  Wright,  in  a  paper  on  the  History  of 
the  English  Language,  considers  that  much  more  has  been  ascribed  to  the 
Danes  than  they  have  any  claim  to.  The  story  goes  that  this  fort  was 
taken  from  them  by  a  stratagem.  Some  women  of  the  neighbourhood 
allowed  themselves  to  be  captured  and  conveyed  to  the  camp,  and 
rising  in  the  night  when  the  occupants  were  sunk  in  a  deep  sleep 
induced  by  the  fumes  of  wine,  slew  them,  and  admitted  their  com- 
patriots. Some  oval  stones  and  a  bronze  celt  were  discovered  here 
many  years  ago. 

On  leaving  Hembury  the  visitor  will  descend  the  steep  road  to 
Holy  Brook,  and  crossing  this  will  speedily  reach  Fritz's  Grave,  where 
he  will  turn  L.  to  Buckfast. 

Very  few  remains  of  the  Abbey  of  Buckfast  now  exist.  Just  before 
reaching  the  hamlet  the  visitor  will  pass  the  Grange,  where  the  abbey 
barn  may  be  seen,  and  a  part  of  the  abbots'  lodgings,  consisting  of  a 
tower,  is  also  standing.  It  is  said  to  have  been  founded  by  Cynewulf 
King  of  Wessex,  in  760,  but  while  there  is  no  satisfactory  evidence  of 
this  there  is  some  that  it  was  founded  prior  to  the  time  of  Alfred.  It 
was  established  for  Benedictine  monks,  and  afterwards  re-founded  for 
Cistercians,  in  1137,  or  in  1148.  The  Cistercians,  as  we  have  before 
remarked,  were  great  traders,  and  those  of  Buckfast  (early  forms  of 
which  name  were  Bucfestre  and  Bulfestra)  were  dealers  in  wool  (T.  i). 
In  1236  they  were  admitted  to  the  Guild  Merchants  of  Totnes.  The 


30  BUCKFASTLEIGH. 

last  abbot  prior  tothe  Dissolution  was  Gilbert,  or  Gabriel  Donne,  who  was 
appointed  in  1535,  and  three  years  later,  on  the  24th  February,  1538, 
surrendered  the  abbey  to  the  Commissioners  of  Henry  VIII.  For  365 
years  the  abbey  had  no  existence,  and  then,  on  the  24th  February,  1903, 
the  first  abbot  of  a  revived  order  of  Benedictines  was  installed. 

It  was  in  1882  that  the  site  of  the  old  abbey  was  purchased  on 
behalf  of  the  community  of  monks  now  resideng  there.  The  foundations 
of  the  old  buildings  were  unearthed,  and  a  new  abbey  erected  upon 
them,  so  that  the  modern  structure  is  similar  in  design,  as  far  as  it 
possibly  can  be,  to  the  older  one. 

There  is  a  tradition  that  the  apparition  of  a  certain  Sir  William 
Kingdon,  who  had  been  a  benefactor  to  the  abbey,  used  to  appear  on 
the  night  of  the  3rd  July  in  the  church,  on  the  spot  where  he  had  been 
buried,  and  that  the  monks  came  to  believe  that  he  had  been  guilty 
of  a  crime  that  troubled  his  soul. 

Buckfast  Abbey  had  a  close  connection  with  Dartmoor,  for  Holne 
Moor,  or  perhaps  it  might  be  more  correct  to  say  a  part  of  it,  as  well  as 
Buckfastleigh  Moor  and  Brent  Moor,  belonged  to  it.  (Brent  District). 

On  leaving  Buckfast  the  visitor  will  make  his  way  to  Dart  Bridge, 
and  return  to  Ashburton  by  the  high  road  as  in  R.  66. 

S.  Ex.  98. — Buckfastleigh,  7  m.  The  way  to  this  town  is  shown 
in  R.  47.  Buckfastleigh  has  long  been  celebrated  for  its  manufacture 
of  serge,  the  woollen  industry  having  probably  existed  here  since  the 
days  of  the  Cistercians  at  Buckfast  (T.  i,  S.  Ex.  97).  A  market  was 
granted  to  the  abbot  in  1352,  and  a  fair,  to  continue  for  three  days, 
in  1459.  A  market  and  a  fair  were  also  granted  to  "  the  Abbot  and 
Convent  of  the  house  and  Church  of  the  Blessed  Mary  of  Buckfast," 
to  be  held  in  the  manor  of  Kingsbridge,  which  belonged  to  the  abbey. 
The  church  is  situated  on  a  hill,  apart  from  the  town,  and  is  approached 
on  one  side  by  a  road  and  on  another  by  a  flight  of  steps,  195  in  number. 
The  tower  is  surmounted  with  a  spire,  the  only  example  in  the 
Dartmoor  country.  Tradition  states  that  it  was  intended  to  erect  the 
building  on  a  site  nearer  to  the  town,  but  that  the  Evil  One  removed 
the  stones  as  fast  as  they  were  placed  in  position  to  the  hill  on  which 
it  now  stands,  (cf.  Brent  Tor  and  Plympton).  In  the  churchyard  are 
the  remains  of  an  ancient  building,  and  an  old  cross  said  to  have  been 
brought  from  Dartmoor.  [Crosses,  Chap.  X.]  The  hill  on  the  side 
nearest  Buckfast  has  been  extensively  quarried. 

If  the  visitor  ascends  to  the  church  by  the  steps  he  must  look  for 
them  shortly  after  entering  the  town.  They  will  be  seen  on  the  R.  of 
the  road.  On  leaving  the  church  he  will  follow  the  road  W.,  and  taking 
care  not  to  turn  R.,  will  be  led  directly  to  the  higher  part  of  the  town. 
The  return  to  Ashburton  will  be  as  in  the  preceding  excursion. 

The  route  to  Buckfastleigh  from  Holne  Moor  Gate  has  been  given 
in  S.  Ex.  96.  In  going  to  that  gate  the  visitor  will  leave  the  town  at 
its  northern  end,  and  make  his  way  up  by  Bilberry  Hill  to  Hockmoor 
Head.  Thence  keep  straight  on  with  Hawson  Court  R.,  and  Brook  L. 
The  ascent  of  the  steep  L,angaford  Hill  has  next  to  be  made  ;  at  Play 
Cross  the  village  of  Holne  is  close  by  R.  Keep  straight  up  the  road 
to  the  gate.  Carriages  should  either  turn  I,,  just  after  passing 
Hawson  Farm  and  go  through  Scorriton,  or  R.  at  the  foot  of  Langa- 
ford  Hill. 


ROUTE   47.      ASHBURTON   TO   BRENT.  31 


Routes  from  Ashburton. 

R.  47. — To  Brent  and  Ivybridge,  S.W.  Dart  Bridge,  Buckfast- 
leigh,  Dean  (old  road  to  Brent  through  Harbournford),  Whiteoxen, 
Palstone  (branch  R.  for  Brent),  Brent  Bridge,  Wrangaton,  Bittaford 
Bridge.  Brent,  8J  m.  ;  Ivybridge,  13  m.  Reverse,  R.  66. 

[Objects  :  Ex.  32,  seen  from  near  Wrangaton.] 

This  is  a  road  route,  and  few  directions  are  needed.  The  visitor 
will  leave  the  town  by  way  of  West  Street  and  Pear  Tree  Cross.  The 
road  then  runs  southward  to  the  Dart,  which  is  crossed  at  Dart  Bridge 
(S.  Ex.  96,  97).  Passing  through  Buckfastleigh  (S.  Ex.  98)  the  visitor 
will  soon  reach  the  little  village  of  Dean,  where  the  old  coach  road, 
which  runs  through  Brent,  branches  off.  (This  is  a  rather  nearer 
way  to  that  village  than  the  new  road,  and  is  much  more  interesting. 
The  rambler  will  pass  up  the  long,  but  not  steep,  hill  to  Clampit's 
Stile,  and  shortly  after  passing  this  will  descend  upon  the  hamlet  of 
Harbournford,  where  the  Harbourn  is  crossed  by  a  footbridge.  Brent 
is  2  m.  further  on.  This  road  is  noticed  in  our  description  of  the  Brent 
District). 

The  new  road  runs  about  S.  from  Dean,  and  for  the  first  mile  is 
quite  level.  Dean  Prior  Church  (S.  Ex.  100)  is  then  passed,  and  shortly 
afterwards  the  road  runs  under  Whiteoxen  Arch.  Beyond  this  it 
passes  the  grounds  of  Marley,  and  when  these  are  left  behind  the 
country  becomes  more  open,  and  Brent  Hill  is  seen  not  far  to  the  R. 
About  i  £  m.  further  on  a  farm  will  be  noticed  close  to  the  road  I/. 
This  is  Palstone,  and  £  m.  beyond  it  is  a  cross-road,  where  the  visitor 
bound  to  Brent  will  turn  R.  The  road  to  Ivybridge  shortly  afterwards 
passes  through  Brent  Mill  and  over  Brent  Bridge,  and  i\  m.  further 
on  reaches  Wrangaton.  i£  m.  beyond  this  is  Bittaford  Bridge,  where 
the  Lud  Brook  is  crossed,  and  from  which  Ivybridge  is  2  m.  distant. 

R.  48. — To  Plympton  and  Shaugh,  S.W.  by  W.  For  points  on 
the  road  to  Plympton,  19^  m.,  see  R.  47,  55  ;  on  the  way  to  Shaugh, 
17  V  m.,  the  following  are  the  points  from  Dean  onward  : — Warn  Bridge, 
Gigley  Bridge,  Yolland,  Shipley  Bridge,  Zeal  Bridge,  Hifkley  Plain, 
Three  Barrows,  Stall  Moor,  High-house  Waste,  Pen  Beacon,  Emmett's 
Post,  Shaugh  Moor.  Reverse,  R.  73. 

[Objects:  Exs.  29,  30,  31,  32,  33,  34,  36.] 

The  route  to  Plympton  consists  of  R.  47  and  R.  55,  q.v. 

Routes  to  Shaugh  are  given  from  Brent  and  from  Ivybridge, 
R.  56,  57  ;  the  former  is  the  more  convenient  for  the  rambler  from 
Ashburton.  But  in  case  a  route  going  deeper  into  the  moorlands 
should  be  desired  the  following  is  furnished.  It  will  be  well,  however, 
not  to  choose  it  if  the  streams  are  likely  to  be  in  flood,  as  the  Erme 
and  the  Yealm  have  to  be  crossed. 

The  rambler  will  branch  R.  from  the  Ivybridge  road  at  Dean,  as 
in  the  preceding  route,  but  instead  of  following  the  wide  road  that 
leads  to  Brent,  will  strike  into  a  lane  R.  close  by  some  cottages,  and  in 
about  \  m.  will  be  led  into  another  lane,  when  he  will  turn  L.  Passing 
over  Warn  Bridge  at  the  lower  end  of  the  valley  of  Dean  Burn 


32  ROUTE   49.      ASHBURTON    TO    PRINCETOWN. 

(S.  Ex.  100)  he  will  pass  up  the  hill  W.  by  S.,  leaving  the  hamlet  of  Dean. 
Combe  L.     Turning  neither  to  the  R.  nor  to  the  L.  he  will,  at  the 
distance  of  ii  m.  from  the  bridge,  reach  a  lane  running  at  right  angles 
to  the  one  he  is  following  (see  R.  33,  and  S.  Ex.  103).     Here  he  will 
turn  L.,  and  proceed  for  a  few  score  yards,  when  he  will  turn  R.,  and 
descend  to  Gigley  Bridge.     At  the  top  of  the  lane  beyond  the  bridge 
is  a  small  green,  with  a  gate  opening  upon  a  stroll,  R.     This  he  will 
pass  through,  and  descend  the  stroll,  at  the  further  end  of  which  is 
Dockwell  Gate.     He  will  not  go  quite  so  far  as  this,  however,  but  will 
enter  a  gate  L-,  and  follow  the  track  (T.  59)  to  Yolland  Farm.     Passing 
the  fine  grove  of  trees  and  through  the  yard  the  further  entrance 
gate  will  soon  be  reached.     Just  beyond  this  the  rambler  must  turn  R. 
at  Yolland  Cross,  and  in  f  m.  will  pass  through  a  moor  gate,  and  find 
himself  at  Shipley  Bridge  (S.  Ex.  106).     This  he  will  cross,  and  turning 
L.  will  once  more  enter  upon  a  lane  at  Shipley  Gate,  with  Zeal  Farm  R. 
Just  beyond  the  farmyard  he  will  cross  Zeal  Bridge,  and  enter  a  gate 
R.,  and  passing  through  two  fields  will  reach  a  hunting-gate,  and  gain 
the  moor.     His  course  will  now  be  up  the  steep  side  of  Hickley  Ridge 
to  Hickley  Plain  and  Red  Brook,  due  W.     He  will  only  follow  up  the 
stream  for  a  short  distance,  his  course  still  being  W.,  and  his  mark  the 
lofty  Three  Barrows.     This  he  will  reach  soon  after  crossing  the  Bala 
Brook  Head  track  (T.  61).     From  Three  Barrows  the  frontier  height 
of  Pen  Beacon  is  plainly  seen  W.,  but  though  this  is  on  his  route  the 
rambler  must  not  make  for  it  direct.     He  will  steer  W.  by  N.,  and  cross- 
ing the  Blackwood  Path  (T.  63)  descend  the  steep  side  of  the  hill  to 
the  Erme.     His  mark  should  be  a  gully  on  the  further  bank,   and 
about  £  m.  above  the  wall  of  Piles  Newtake  (Ex.  32,  33).     Down  this 
runs  a  small  stream,  and  near  where  it  falls  into  the  Erme  that  river 
can  generally  be  crossed.     On  climbing  the  west  bank  of  the  river  he 
must  steer  due  W.  across  Stall  Moor,  with  Pen  Beacon  in  full  view. 
He  will  cross  the  track  running  out  to  Erme  Pound  (T.  66,  Ex.  33) 
and  the  branch  leading  towards  Yealm  Head.     The  Yealm  (i%  m. 
from  the  Erme)  should  be  crossed  a  short  distance  above  Dendles 
Wood.     Then  the  rambler  will  pass  over  Dendles  Waste  and  Hawns 
to  Broadall  Lake  (T.  67).     The  way  then  lies  over  High-house  Waste, 
which  is  bounded  on  the  west  by  a  small  stream.     Pen  Beacon  (R.  7, 
59  ;  Ex.  34)  is  just  above  this,  and  on  reaching  it,  or  the  slope  below 
it,  the  course  must  be  changed  to  W.  by  N.     This  will  bring  the  rambler 
to  the  Lee  Moor  Clay  Works  leat,  the  left  bank  of  which  he  will  follow 
upwards  to  the  head  of  the  storage  reservoir  belonging  to  the  works. 
Passing  to  the  other  side  of  this  he  will  strike  S.  by  W.  and  speedily 
reach  the  Corn  wood  (L.)  and  Dousland  (R.)  road.     Crossing  this  to 
Emmett's  Post  he  will  steer  due  W.  for  i   m.  over  Shaugh  Moor  to 
Brag  Lane  End,  close  to  Shaugh  village. 

R.  49. — To  Princetown  and  Two  Bridges,  W.  by  N.  (A)  Holne 
Bridge,  New  Bridge,  Pound's  Gate,  Ouldsbroom,  Dartmeet,  Dunnabridge 
Pound.  T.  B.,  13  m.  ;  P.  T.,  14!  m.  (To  P.  T.  via  Hexworthy  and 
Swincombe,  13^  m.)  (B)  Holne  Bridge,  Holne  Village,  Saddle  Bridge, 
Hexworthy.  P.  T.,  via  Swincombe,  12^  m.  ;  T.  B.,  13^  m.  (C)  Holne 
Village,  as  before,  Ringleshutts ,  Aune  Head,  Sand  Parks,  White  Works. 
P.  T.,  13^  m.  ;  T.  B.,  14  m.  Reverse,  R.  6. 

[Objects:  Exs.  27,  28,  41,  42,  43,  3,  4.] 


ROUTE   49.      ASHBURTON   TO   PRINCETOWN.  33 

A  is  a  road  route  ;  the  others  are  over  the  moor  for  a  part  of  the 
way,  C  passing  through  some  of  its  wilder  parts.  If  the  start  be  made 
from  Buckfastleigh  B  or  C  should  be  chosen,  and  the  way  will  lie  first 
to  Holne  Moor  Gate,  as  described  in  S.  Ex.  96. 

(A)  Holne  Bridge  is  the  first  point,  whence  the  rambler  will  make 
his  way  up  Holne  Chase  Hill,  and  then,  keeping  R.  down  to  New  Bridge, 
as  in  Ex.  28.     Crossing  this  he  will  follow  the  road  up  the  hill  with 
Leigh  Tor  R.  (a  narrow  path  cuts  off  some  of  its  windings),  and  in  I  m. 
will  reach  Pound's  Gate.     Passing  through  the  hamlet  he  will  keep  I/, 
to  Uppacott,   and  soon  gain  the  commons,  whence  is  a  magnificent 
view  (Ex.  28).     The  moor  farm  close  to  which  he  will  pass  is  Oulds- 
broom,  and  just  beyond  this  he  will  strike  another  road  coming  from 
Ponsworthy   R.,    at  Ouldsbroom   Cross.      Here   he  will  turn   L.   and 
descend  the  long  hill  to  Dartmeet.     Directions  from  this  point  onwards 
will  be  found  in  R.  42  A. 

(B)  To  Home  Moor  Gate  as  in  S.  Ex.  96,  or  if  from  Buckfastleigh 
as  at  end  of  S.  Ex.  98.     Thence  the  rambler  will  follow  the  road  past 
the  new  reservoir,  and  on  by  Hangman's  Pit  (Holne  Moor  Section)  to 
Combestone  Tor  Hill,  at  the  foot  of  which  he  will  cross  the  Wo  Brook 
and  enter  the  forest.     About  i  m.  on  he  will  reach  Hexworthy,  and  is 
referred  to  R.  42  A  for  a  description  of  the  way  from  that  place. 

(C)  Holne  Moor  Gate  is  the  first  point,  vide  supra.     A  few  score 
yards  beyond  this  a  disused  road  branches  I/.,  the  spot  being  marked 
by  an  upright  stone.     Striking  into  this  the  rambler  will  be  led  to  the 
long  deserted   Ringleshutts  Mine.      The   termination   of  the  road  is 
reached  soon  after  the  springs  of  the  Wennaford  Brook  are  crossed, 
and  here  a  deep  gully  named  Ringleshutts  Gert  (Holne  Moor  Section) 
runs  up  the  hill,  its  direction  being  E.  and  W.     This  must  be  followed 
to  its  head,  when  the  rambler  must  bear  S.W.     This  will  soon  bring 
him  to  Sandy  Way  (T.   56),  here  only  a  green  track,  which  he  will 
follow  westward  to  Aune  Head  Mire.     (This  bears  W.  by  S.  from  the 
head  of  the  gert).     Leaving  this  swampy  spot  L,.  he  will  strike  N.W. 
for  about  $  m.,  following  the  track  if  he  can  discover  it  (but  it  soon 
grows     indistinct)    and   then   strike   W.      This    course    will    speedily 
bring  him  to  a  branch  of  the  Swincombe  river,  which  he  will  trace 
downwards  to  the  enclosures  of  Pox  Tor  Farm  (Ex.  3),  where  he  will 
cross,  and  make  his  way  down  the  side  of  Sand  Parks,  with  Childe's 
Tomb  L.  and  the  stream  R.     Near  the  confluence  of  this  branch  with 
another  that  flows  eastward  is  a  ford,  and  here  he  will  cross  the  latter 
stream.     From  this  point,  if  his  destination  be  Two  Bridges,  he  will 
pass  through  the  hunting-gate  as  described  in  Ex.   3,  and  make  his 
way  due  N.  over  Tor  Royal  Newtake  to  Moorlands,   1-4-  m.  distant. 
Turning  R.  he  will  pass  this,  and  then  turn  L.  to  Prince  Hall  Bridge, 
as  in  R.  63  (see  also  Ex.  4),  making  his  way  past  the  house  to  the  lodge. 
Here  he  will  turn  L.  to  Two  Bridges,  to  which  a    walk    of  i  m.  will 
bring  him.     Should  the  rambler  be  bound  to  Princetown  he  will  pass 
up  the  valley  from  the  ford  under  Fox  Tor,  with  the  stream  L.  and 
the  newtake  wall  R.,  to  White  Works,  whence  he  will  cross  the  hill  to 
Peat  Cot  and  make  his  way  to  his  destination  by  Castle  Road  (T.  7), 
or  by  the  South  Hisworthy  Tor  path  (Ex.  3). 

R.  50. — To  Tavistock,  W.  by  N.     R.  49,  Ashburton  to  Princetown, 
and  R.   i,  Princetown  to  Tavistock,  form  this  route.      Via  Dartmeet 


34        ROUTE  51.   ASHBURTON  TO  LYDFORD. 

and  Two  Bridges,  21  m.  ;  via  Holne,  Hexworthy,  Swincombe,  and 
Princetown,  20  m.  ;  via  Holne,  Aune  Head,  and  Princetown,  21  m. 
Reverse,  R.  12. 

R.  51.— To  Lydford  via  Two  Bridges,  N.W.  by  W.  Holne  Bridge. 
New  Bridge,  Pound's  Gate,  Ouldsbroom  Cross,  Dartmeet,  Hexworthy, 
Gobbet  Plain,  Swincombe,  Prince  Hall,  Two  Bridges,  Cowsic  Valley, 
Lich  Path,  White  Barrow,  Hill  Bridge,  Down  Lane,  24  ni.  Reverse, 
R.  19. 

[Objects:  Exs.  27,  28,  41,  42,  5,  10.] 

The  first  part  of  this  route,  i.e.,  from  Ashburton  to  Two  Bridges, 
is  described  in  R.  49  A.  From  Two  Bridges  the  way  lies  up  the  Cowsic 
valley  for  about  2  m.,  when  the  rambler  must  bear  N.W.  by  N.,  and 
in  about  \  m.  will  strike  the  Lich  Path  (T.  18).  This  he  will  follow 
westward,  crossing  the  Prison  I,eat  and  the  Walkham  at  Sandy  Ford, 
from  which  point  the  way  to  Lydford  is  shown  in  R.  44.  Another  way 
from  Two  Bridges  is  described  in  R.  2  B. 

The  road  route  from  Dartmeet  to  Two  Bridges  is  noticed  at  the 
beginning  of  the  Princetown  Section,  and  in  Ex.  42. 

For  the  route  from  Buckfastleigh  to  Holne  Moor  Gate  see  end  of 
S.  Ex.  98. 

R.  52. — To  Okehampton,  N.W.  by  N.  With  branches  to  Belstone 
and  Sticklepath.  Buckland-in-the-Moor,  Cockingford,  Bittleford  Down, 
Grendon  Bridge,  Warren  House  Inn,  South  Teign,  Teign  Clapper,  White 
Moor  Stone,  Taw  Plain,  22%  m.  Reverse,  R.  26. 

[Objects  :  Exs.  26,  44,"and  22  to  17.] 

The  road  must  be  followed  to  Buckland  Church  as  in  Ex.  27,  3^  m. 
Thence  the  way  lies  for  i£  m.  to  Cockingford,  turning  I,,  at  the  second 
cross-road.  (The  first  turning  L.  is  merely  an  entrance  to  a  farm). 
From  Cockingford  ascend  the  hill  W.  and  turn  L.  into  the  road  leading 
from  Widecombe  to  Ponsworthy.  A  few  hundred  yards  on  is  a  road  R. 
Into  this  the  rambler  must  also  turn,  when  he  will  shortly  reach  Bittle- 
ford Down,  and  take  the  N.W.  road  over  it.  |-  m.  on,  after  passing 
a  road  leading  to  Jordan  Mill  L.,  this  runs  due  N.  Then  another 
turning  is  passed  L.,  leading  to  Cator,  and  about  i  m.  further  on  the 
Broadford  Brook  is  crossed  at  Lower  Blackaton.  Passing  up  the 
road  W.  the  rambler  will  reach  Hill  Head,  whence  he  will  descend  to 
Grendon  Bridge,  where  he  will  cross  the  West  Webburn,  and  follow 
the  road  to  Ephraim's  Pinch  (Ex.  44).  Mounting  the  short  hill  he  will 
leave  the  road  and  strike  due  N.  for  i£  m.,  passing  over  Soussons 
Common.  He  will  then  cross  the  Walla  Brook  and  mine  leat  to  the 
Warren  House  Inn  (Ex.  21,  45).  Behind  the  inn  is  Water  Hill,  and 
N.  of  that  Hurston  Ridge.  The  way  lies  over  these,  the  course  being 
a  little  W.  of  N.  to  the  head  of  the  Metheral  Bogs,  about  ij  m.  distant. 
From  this  point  the  route  is  the  same  as  in  R.  45. 

R.  53.— To  Chagford,  N.N.W.,  and  Moreton,  N.  Welstor  Cross, 
Cold  East  Cross,  Hemsworthy  Gate,  Swine  Down  Gate.  (To  Moreton  : 
Hayne  Down,  Langstone,  North  Bovey).  Heytree  Cross,  Barramore 
Bridge,  Beetor  Cross.  To  Chagford,  i2|-  m.  ;  to  Moreton,  n£  m. 
Reverse,  R.  32. 

[Objects  :  Exs.  26,  24  ;  S.  Exs.  61,  77.] 


ROUTE  54.  ASHBURTON  TO  BOVEY  TRACEY.      35 

This  is  a  road  route  throughout,  but  passes  over  much  of  the  moor. 
The  first  point  will  be  Welstor  Cro5te,  to  which  the  rambler  will  make 
his  way  as  in  S.  Ex.  92.  He  will  then  take  the  road  N.  At 
the  distance  of  about  i£  m.  Cold  East  Cross  is  passed  (this  point 
may  also  be  reached  by  way  of  Rushlade,  see  Ex.  26),  and  i±  m.  further 
on,  Hemsworthy  Gate  (S.  Ex.  90).  Rippon  Tor  rises  on  the  R.,  between 
these  two  points,  and  the  scanty  remains  of  Newhouse  are  seen  close 
to  the  road  L.  Just  beyond  Hemsworthy  Gate  a  green  track  runs 
over  the  common  R.,  which  will  bring  the  rambler  to  the  road  again. 
Prom  this  point  Swine  Down  Gate  (R.  45),  to  which  he  must  now  make 
his  way,  is  about  i£  m.  distant.  Hound  Tor  rises  on  the  R.  Passing 
through  the  gate  a  road  will  be  seen  running  R.  This  is  the  one  the 
visitor  bound  for  Moreton  will  follow.  See  post.  Por  Chagford  we 
keep  straight  on,  with  the  hedge  L.  and  Swine  Down  R.  Cripdon 
Down  succeeds  the  latter,  the  hedge  being  still  L.  Then  we  leave  the 
commons,  and  passing  Fordgate  Farm,  shall  reach  Heytree  Cross, 
i-J-  m.  from  Swine  Down  Gate.  We  keep  on  northward,  and  \  m.  from 
the  cross  road  shall  pass  the  turning  L.,  where  the  lane  leads  to  Vogwell. 
The  next  turning  R.  is  the  road  running  to  Easdon  Farm  and  Manaton  ; 
then  comes  a  road  R.  to  Langdon  Farm  and  North  Bovey  ;  then  a 
cross  road — R.  to  North  Bovey  and  L.  to  Westcombe  Down  ;  then  a 
road  R.  to  Gratnar  ;  then,  just  after  crossing  Barramore  Bridge,  another 
R.  to  Hele.  A  little  further  on  the  rambler  turns  L,.  when  Beetor 
Cross  is  reached.  Chagford  is  2-£  m.  from  this  point,  and  the  route 
thither  is  described  in  S.  Ex.  61. 

To  Moreton  from  Swine  Down  Gate.  The  road  runs  N.  over 
Hayne  Down,  passing  close  to  Bowerman's  Nose,  for  i£  m.  It  then 
goes  on  to  Langstone  Cross,  about  \  m.,  where  is  a  guide-post.  Here 
the  visitor  turns  R.  to  Langstone,  \  m.,  where  there  is  another  post. 
North  Bovey  is  about  i£  m.  distant.  He  turns  L.,  and  passing 
between  Higher  and  Lower  Luckdon  will  soon  reach  the  village.  The 
road  to  Moreton  is  described  in  S.  Ex.  61. 

R.  54. — To  Bovey  Tracey,  N.E.  Bickington,  New  Inn,  Leverton, 
7\  m.  Reverse,  R.  39. 

A  road  route.  The  visitor  will  quit  Ashburton  by  way  of  East 
Street.  3  m.  from  the  town  he  will  pass  through  Bickington,  and  i£  m. 
further  on  will  reach  the  New  Inn.  Near  here  he  will  leave  the  high- 
way and  turn  L.  to  Leverton,  i  m.  Just  beyond  this  he  turns  R.  to 
Brimley  Corner,  where  he  must  take  the  second  road  R.,  and  in  about 
£  m.  will  reach  Ashburton  Bridge,  £  m.  S.  of  Bovey  Station. 


36  DISTANCES   TO    BRENT    AND    IVYBRIDGE. 


BRENT   AND   IVYBRIDGE 
DISTRICT. 

(These  places  are  five  miles  apart  ;  see  R.  47,  66). 

DISTANCES.  BY  ROAD:  AISH  RIDGE,  B.,  \\  m.  ;  I.,  via 
Wrangaton,  Pennaton  Bridge,  and  Aish,  6f  m.  ASHBURTON,  B.( 
8±  m.  ;  I.,  13  m.  BOVEY  TRACEY.  B.,  15!  m.  ;  I.,  2o|  m. 
BUCKFASTLEIGH,  B.,  5$  m.  ;  I.,  10  m.  CADAFORD  BRIDGE, 
via  Cornwood,  B.,  I2J  m.  ;  I.,  /£  m.  CHAGFORD,  via  Buckfastleigh, 
Welstor  Cross,  Swine  Down  Gate,  and  Beetor  Cross,  B.,  2o|-  m.  ;  I., 
25  m.  CORNWOOD,  B.,  8  m.  ;  I.,  3  m.  CROSS  FURZES,  via 
Harbournford,  Dean  Combe,  and  Wallaford  Down,  B.,  7  ;  I.,  12  ; 
via  Skerraton  Down  (over  turf),  2^  m.  less.  DEAN,  new  road,  B., 
3f  m.  ;  I.,  8  m.  ;  old  road,  f  m.  less.  DEAN  BURN  (gate  near 
Warn  Bridge)  via  Harbournford  and  Dean  Combe,  B.,  3f  m.  ;  I.,  8f  m. 
DOCKWELL  GATE,  B.,  2f  m.  ;  I.,  7j  m.  EXETER,  B.,  26  m.  ; 
I.,  31.  GIGLEY  BRIDGE,  B.,  2|  m.  ;  I.,  7!  m.  HARBOURN- 
FORD, B.,  2  m.  ;  I.,  7  m.  HARFORD  CHURCH,  B.,  7  m.  ;  I.,  2\  m. 
HEXWORTHY,  via  Buckfastleigh,  B.,  12^  m.  ;  I.,  17^  m.  HOLNE 
VILLAGE,  via  Buckfastleigh,  4  m.  short  of  Hexworthy.  LYD- 
FORD,  via  Cornwood,  Cadaford  Bridge,  Dousland,  Huckworthy 
Bridge,  and  Moor  Shop,  B.,  29  m.  ;  I.,  24  m.  MORETON,  via  Buck- 
fastleigh, Welstor  Cross,  Swine  Down  Gate,  Langstone,  and  North 
Bovey,  B.,  19  m.  ;  I.,  24  m.  OKEHAMPTON,  as  for  Lydford,  q.v., 
B.,  36}  m.  ;  I.,  31^  ;  via  Chagford,  q.v.,  B.,  30  m.  ;  I.,  35.  OWLEY 
GATE,  B.,  2J-  m.  ;  I.,  via  Wrangaton,  5J  m.  PLYMOUTH,  B., 
16  m.  ;  I.,  iof  m.  PLYMPTON,  5  m.  short  of  Plymouth.  POST 
BRIDGE,  about  4  m.  beyond  Two  Bridges,  q.v.  PRINCETOWN, 
via  Dousland,  B.,  21  m.  ;  I.,  16  m.  ;  via  Hex-worthy,  B.,  2O\  m.  ; 
I.,  25!  m.  SHIPLEY  BRIDGE,  B.,  2\  m.  ;  I.,  7^  m.,  or  via  Wranga- 
ton, Pennaton  Bridge,  and  Aish,  about  the  same.  TA  VISTOCK, 
via  Dousland,  B.,  2if  m.  ;  I.,  i6|-  m.  TOLCH  MOOR  GATE,  B., 
10  m.  ;  I.,  5  m.  TOTNES,  B.,  7  m.  ;  I.,  12  m.  TWO  BRIDGES, 
via  Dousland,  B.,  22^  m.  ;  I.,  17^  m.  ;  via  Hexworthy,  B.,  19  m.  ; 
I.,  24  m.  WRANGATON  STATION,  B.,  2  m.  ;  I.,  3^  m.  'YEL- 
VERTON,  via  Cadaford  Bridge  and  Greenwell  Down,  B.,  i6£  m.  ; 
I.,  n£  m. 

BY  RAII,  :  Brent  and  Ivybridge  Stations  are  on  the  G.W.R.,  and 
are  5  4-  m.  apart;  WRANGATON  (from  which  the  Eastern  Beacon 
is  readily  reached)  is  situated  between  the  two.  NEWTON,  B.,  14^  m.  ; 
I.,  20  m.  PLYMOUTH,  B.,  17  m.  ;  I.,  n£  m.  TOTNES,  B.,  6|  m.  ; 
I.,  12^-  m.  The  railway  distances  from  these  to  other  stations  near 
the  moor  are  shown  in  the  table  at  the  commencement  of  each  District. 


38  SOUTHERN    DARTMOOR. 


Important  Points  and  Landmarks. 

Broad  Rock — Brent  Hill — Coryndon  Ball  Gate — Harford  Bridge 
— Huntingdon  Cross — Owley  Gate — Pen  Beacon — Petre's  Bound  Stone 
— Petre's  Cross,  and  the  Cross  Ways — Pupers — Shipley  Gate — Three 
Barrows — Ugborough  Beacon — Water  combe  Waste  Gate — Western 
Beacon.  Places  of  Interest.  The  Abbots'  Way — Black  Pool — Cornwood 
— Ernie  Pound — Harford — Hawns  and  Dendles — Knattleburrow  Pool 
— Piles  Wood — Red  Brook  Bottom — Shipley — Stowford  Cleave — 
Valley  of  the  Avon — Valley  of  Dean  Burn — Zeal  Falls.  Prehistoric 
Antiquities.  Addicombe,  and  Butterdon  and  Weatherdon  Hills,  and 
Tor  Rocks :  hut  circles,  cairns,  and  stone  row — Biller's  Pound — 
Burford  Down  :  stone  row — Broadall :  hut  circles — Cholwich  Town  : 
stone  row — Erme  Plains  :  hut  circles — Erme  Pound  Rings :  enclosed 
hut  settlements — Glascombe  Ring  :  enclosed  hut  settlement — The 
Glazes  :  stone  row — Gripper's  Pound  :  hut  settlement — Hickaton 
Hill :  hut  enclosures — Red  Brook  Bottom  :  huts  and  enclosures — 
The  Rings :  hut  enclosure — Stall  Moor  :  stone  circle,  rows,  cairns, 
kist,  and  hut  enclosures — Three  Barrows :  cairns  and  reave — Ug- 
borough Moor :  stone  rows — Yealm  Head  Ring  :  hut  enclosure. 
Mining  Remains.  Brock  Hill :  stream  works  and  miners'  huts — 
Erme  Head :  stream  works  and  deep  excavations — The  Erme,  at 
Hook  Lake  and  below :  blowing  houses  and  streaming  remains — 
Huntingdon :  blowing  house  and  streaming  remains — Stall  Moor : 
stream  works  and  miners'  huts — Yealm  :  blowing  houses. 

The  two  chief  streams  of  southern  Dartmoor  have  already  received 
mention  in  our  routes,  and  are  also  named  in  the  section  descriptive  of  the 
old  tracks  on  the  moor  (R.  7,  33  ;  T.  i,  54,  56,  65,  75).  These  are  the 
Avon  and  the  Erme,  the  one  rising  in  the  forest  near  Ryder's  Hill, 
and  the  other  on  its  border  line  under  Green  Hill.  They  both  discharge 
their  waters  into  Bigbury  Bay,  the  former  near  Bantham,  its  em- 
bouchure being  marked  by  the  interesting  Borough  Island,  and  the 
latter  at  Mothecombe,  about  4  m.  below  the  village  of  Ermington. 
On  leaving  the  moor  the  Avon  runs  through  a  narrow  valley  to  the 
little  market  town  of  South  Brent,  while  the  course  of  the  Erme  after 
bidding  adieu  to  the  commons  is  through  the  romantic  Stowford 
Cleave  ^to  Ivy  bridge.  From  either  of  these  places  the  visitor  may 
conveniently  explore  the  interesting  south  quarter  of  the  forest  and  the 
extensive  moors  which  here  form  its  purlieus. 

The  parish  of  Brent  has  always  had  a  connection  with  the  forest 
01  Dartmoor,  although  it  does  not  appear  among  the  foresters'  accounts 
as  one  of  the  ancient  vills,  nor  does  any  estate  or  hamlet  within  it. 
In  the  south  bailiwick  we  find  the  ville  of  Helle  (Holne)  ;  the  hamlet 
of  Stourton  in  the  parish  of  Buckfastleigh  (Scorriton)  ;  the  vill  of 
Shiridon,  in  the  parish  of  Dean  (Skerraton)  ;  and  the  vill  of  Vgbirough 
(Fgborough)  ;  but  there  is  no  mention  of  any  others.  Brent  Moor, 
the  verge  of  which  is  over  two  miles  from  the  village,  extends  to  the 
forest  boundary,  and  the  two  are  conterminous  for  some  distance. 


HOLNE    MOOR.  39 


The  Moors  of  Holne  and  Buckfastleiffh. 

[As  Holne  Moor  and  the  adjoining  Buckfastleigh  Moor  may  be  con- 
veniently reached  either  from  Ashburton,  Brent,  or  Hexworthy,  it 
has  been  thought  well  to  describe  them  in  a  separate  section.  They 
are  included  in  our  Brent  and  Ivybridge  District,  as  that  compre- 
hends the  commons  extending  from  the  Dart  and  the  Wo  Brook  to  the 
Pen  Moor  ridge,  westward  of  the  Yealm,  and  includes  besides  these 
two  moors  those  of  Dean,  Brent,  Ugborough,  Harford,  and  Cornwood, 
as  well  as  a  part  of  the  south  quarter  of  the  forest.  Ashburton  visitors 
will  reach  Holne  Moor  as  described  in  S.  Ex.  96  ;  those  from  Hex- 
worthy  will  enter  upon  it  at  Saddle  Bridge,  following  the  instructions 
given  in  R.  6  B  ;  while  from  Brent  and  Ivybridge  the  way  lies  first  to 
Skerraton  Down,  and  thence  to  Water  Oke  Corner,  as  in  S.  Ex.  101  ; 
or  to  Cross  Furzes  and  Lid  Gate,  as  shown  in  S.  Ex.  102  ;  or  R.  64 
may  be  followed  to  Play  Cross,  whence  the  road  L.  ascends  to  the 
moor  gate  (S.  Ex.  98).  Home  Moor  is  also  crossed  by  R.  6,  C,  Prince- 
town  to  Ashburton,  and  by  T.  2,  55,  and  56  ;  T.  55  and  57  cross  Buck- 
fastleigh Moor.] 

Commencing  our  brief  survey  at  Home  Moor  Gate  we  make  our 
way  north-westward  by  the  Hexworthy  road  over  Sholedon,  having 
some  enclosures  R.  These  comprise  the  four  farms  known  respectively 
as  Fore,  Middle,  Scale's,  and  West,  Stoke,  always  called  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood Stock.  On  the  L.  a  little  way  removed  from  the  road  is  the 
Shanty,  a  dwelling  erected  within  recent  years.  We  shall  also  notice 
on  that  side  a  road  branching  L.  and  marked  by  an  old  stone.  This 
leads  to  the  deserted  Ringleshutts  mine,  just  beyond  which  it  connects 
with  Sandy  Way  (T.  56).  Soon  after  crossing  Holne  Moor  leat  for  the 
second  time  we  come  in  sight  of  the  Paignton  Reservoir,  and  here  we 
desert  the  road  and  strike  across  the  side  of  Ricketts  Hill  R.  to  Bench 
Tor.  This  consists  of  several  piles,  two  of  them  being  named  in  an  old 
aeed  North  Bench  Tor  and  South  Bench  Tor  respectively,  which 
overlook  the  Gorge  of  the  Dart  (Ex.  28,  41).  Another  is  known  as 
the  Eagle  Rock.  Cf.  Lug  Tor,  Ex.  41.  Immediately  below  it  is 
White  Wood,  and  on  the  further  side  of  the  river  Mil  Tor  Wood,  which 
climbs  the  steep  slope  under  the  tor  of  that  name.  Sharp  Tor  is  seen 
to  the  L.  of  the  latter,  with  the  solitary  Rowbrook  Farm  below  it. 
These  or  other  prominent  heights  are  in  view  from  any  part  of  the  road 
between  Holne  Moor  Gate  and  Hexworthy,  and  the  rambler  finds 
something  to  delight  him  throughout  the  whole  of  the  way.  When 
he  begins  to  lose  sight  of  the  tors  above  the  gorge  the  lands  of  the 
forest  settlers  disclose  themselves,  with  Bellaford  rising  proudly  from 
the  midst  of  the  long  lines  of  grey  walls  that  spread  over  the  heath  like 
a  net-work.  Descending  from  the  tor  we  cross  the  dam  at  the  lower 
end  of  the  reservoir,  and  make  our  way  up  the  hill  to  rejoin  the  old 
road,  a  great  part  of  which  is  now  far  beneath  the  surface  of  this 
artificial  lake. 

The  Paignton  Reservoir,  which  was  opened  in  1907,  is  formed  in 
a  valley  usually  known  as  Wennaford  Bottom,  and  is  supplied  with 


HOLNE    MOOR. 


water  by  the  Wennaford  Brook,  which  rises  not  far  above  it,  and  a 
short  distance  northward  of  Ringleshutts  Mine.  Near  its  head  are 
some  open  workings  now  overgrown  with  vegetation,  in  the  midst  of 
which  a  few  trees  flourish.  The  road  formerly  crossed  the  stream  at 
Wennaford  Bridge,  a  small  structure  of  one  arch  that  stood  a  short 
distance  above  the  present  dam.  It  formed  an  interesting  feature  in 
what  was  altogether  a  charming  scene,  and  though  the  construction 
of  the  reservoir  has,  like  the  formation  of  the  one  at  Burrator  (Ex.  39), 
given  us  an  artificial  lake  to  look  upon,  it  has  only  substituted 
one  attraction  for  another,  and  it  is  not  at  all  certain  that  the  moor 
has  gained  by  the  change.  Wennaford  Brook  was  formerly  crossed 
by  the  track  running  from  Horse  Ford  to  Holne  village,  and  Buckfast 
(T.  2)  at  Workmen's  Ford,  not  far  below  its  source.  Many  years  ago, 
having  reason  to  believe  that  a  cross  once  existed  near  this  passage 
on  the  stream,  I  made  search  for  it.  In  this  I  was  unsuccessful,  but 
met  with  some  reward  by  the  discovery  of  a  stone  that  may  have  formed 
the  base  of  a  cross,  though  I  was  rather  disposed  to  regard  it  as  a 
mould-stone.  Another  worked  stone  was  once  to  be  seen  near  the 
Dart  under  Bench  Tor  ;  it  had  a  circular  hole  in  its  centre,  and  appears 
to  have  been  of  the  kind  we  have  noticed  on  Rippon  Tor  and  in  other 
places  on  the  moor  (Ex.  26,  S.  Ex.  56).  The  Wennaford  valley  above 
the  bridge  has  been  extensively  streamed,  but  the  workings  are  now 
in  great  part  hidden  by  the  water. 


Yar 
Tor. 


Corndon 
Tor. 


Sharp 
Tor. 


Road  to  Rowbrook. 
FROM   HOLNE   ROAD,    W.    OF   RESERVOIR,    LOOKING   N.N.E. 

On  the  W.  side  of  the  lake,  and  not  far  from  the  dam,  are  the 
vestiges  of  some  farm  enclosures  which  are  apparently  very  old.  But 
the  visitor  will  pass  much  more  ancient  memorials  as  he  makes  his 
way  onward,  for  hut  circles  are  found  on  each  side  of  the  road,  and  on 
the  I/,  a  number  of  long  reaves.  Below,  on  the  R.,  but  hidden  from 
sight,  is  the  pixy-haunted  Langamarsh  Pit,  with  the  lonely  farm  of 
Rowbrook  on  the  hillside  above  it,  and,  further  up  the  stream,  the 
pool  known  as  Langawell.  About  \  m.  from  the  dam  a  track  branches 
R.  near  a  tumulus.  This  runs  to  Combestone  Farm,  about  i  m. 
distant.  In  local  parlance  it  is  Cumston,  and  appears  two  hundred 
years  ago  as  Comberstone.  Continuing  on  the  road  we  reach  in  about 
another  £  m.  a  bend  where  the  Wheal  Emma  leat  runs  quite  close  to 


HOLNE    MOOR.  41 

us  L.,  and  here  we  shall  notice  a  hollow  running  down  to  the  Dart  R. 
The  work  of  the  tin-seeker  is  abundantly  evident,  but  grass  and  heather 
now  cover  the  heaps  he  cast  up,  and  the  mountain  ash  grows  in  the 
sheltered  nooks  that  these  form.  The  spot  is  known  as  Hangman's 


Mil 
Tor. 


Top 
Tor. 


Pil 
Tor. 


Hey 
Tor. 


Rippon 
Tor. 


Buckland 
Beacon. 


N.E. 


Bench  Tor. 
FROM   HOLNE   ROAD,    W.    OF  RESERVOIR. 


E. 


Pit  from  an  unfortunate  circumstance  that  happened  here  over 
ninety  years  ago.  A  moorman  who  lived  at  Round  Hill,  near 
Two  Bridges,  w.as  returning  from  Brent  Fair,  where  he  had  changed 
his  horse  for  another,  and  finding,  it  was  supposed,  that  he  had  the 
worst  of  the  bargain,  was  so  troubled  at  what  he  had  done  that  on 
arriving  at  the  hollow  he  determined  to  take  his  life.  He  was  found 
hanging  from  one  of  the  trees  amid  the  stone  heaps,  and  on  being  cut 
down  the  body  was  taken  to  a  barn  at  Hexworthy.  Many  years  ago 
I  heard  a  story  in  the  neighbourhood  to  the  effect  that  about  the 
time  when  it  was  thought  he  must  have  committed  the  rash  act  his 
wife  imagined  she  saw  him  approaching  the  door  of  their  house.* 

Soon  after  passing  the  hollow  we  reach  Combestone  Tor  R. 
(100  Years,  Chap.  X.)  whence  the  track  to  Dockwell  Gate  runs  south- 
ward (T.  55).  Near  this  track  are  several  low  cairns.  The  remains 
of  one  are  still  to  be  seen  close  to  the  highway.  I  remember  when  it 
was  nearly  intact,  but  in  1878  it  was  broken  up  for  road  material. 
Just  beyond  the  tor  another  track  leads  to  Combestone  Farm. 

Before  us  is  Combestone  Tor  Hill,  one  of  the  steepest  on  the  moor. 
At  its  foot  is  Saddle  Bridge,  which  replaces  an  old  structure  taken 
down  nearly  forty-five  years  ago  in  consequence  of  becoming  unsafe. 
It  stood  just  above  the  present  bridge,  and  being  covered  with  ivy 
wore  a  very  picturesque  appearance.  It  used  to  be  said,  but  with 
what  truth  we  know  not,  that  it  was  here  the  Prince  Consort  killed 
his  first  trout  on  Dartmoor,  when  on  one  of  his  visits  to  Princetown. 
The  spot  is  a  very  romantic  one.  The  Wo  Brook,  which  here  acts 
as  the  forest  boundary,  comes  tumbling  over  the  rocks,  its  banks 
overhung  with  the  mountain  ash.  (This  stream  is  also  noticed  in  the 


*  It  was  in  Hangman's  Pit  Bottom  that  Lovey  Lee  hid  the  Malherb 
amphora  as  related  in  Eden  Phillpotts1  American  Prisoner. 


HOLNE   MOOR. 


excursions  from  Hexworthy).  Haying  descended  the  hill  we  shall 
pass,  just  before  reaching  the  bridge,  a  rectangular  enclosure  L., 
and  also  some  hut  circles.  Below  these  we  turn  up  the  valley, 
with  the  brook  R.,  and  the  enclosures  of  Slade  on  its  further  bank. 


Bella- 
ford     Lough      Brimpts 
Tor.       Tor.    Plantation. 


White  Ridge. 


Challa- 

Water    combe 
Hill.     Down. 


Yar 
Tor. 


Dartmeet 
Bridge. 

FROM   COMBESTONE  TOR,    LOOKING  N. 

At  the  distance  of  about  -J-  m.  we  reach  Horse  Ford,  where  the  track 
corning  from  the  W.  over  Down  Ridge  crosses  the  stream  (T.  2). 
This  runs  E.  up  the  side  of  Horn  Hill  to  Horn's  Cross,  near  to  which 
it  is  intersected  by  the  Dockwell  track  (T.  55).  A  short  distance  N. 
of  this  point,  which  was  formerly  known  as  Stascombe  Telling- place, 
is  a  low  cairn.  [Crosses,  Chap.  X.] 

A  little  above  Horse  Ford,  which  is  paved  with  flat  stones,  on  one 
of  which  is  the  letter  H.,  denoting  Holne,  the  Holne  Moor  leat  is  taken 
in  from  the  Wo  Brook,  and  above  this  the  Wheal  Emma  leat  (Ex.  3)  is 
carried  over  the  stream.  The  latter,  which  is  of  much  more  recent 
construction  than  the  other,  was  cut  in  1859.  About  £  m.  further  up 
is  Dry  Lakes,  a  hollow  on  the  L.,  in  which  are  several  old  trees,  and  up 
this  we  shall  make  our  way  S.,  following  in  the  steps  of  the  Perambu- 
lators of  1240  and  1609,  who  draw  the  line  from  the  Wo  Brook  to  Ryder's 
Hill,  or  as  they  called  it  Battyshull,  or  Knattleburroughe.*  On  reaching 
Dry  Lakes  Head  we  still  keep  S.,  with  Holne  Ridge  L-,  and  speedily 
cross  Sandy  Way  (T.  56),  the  bound  here  being  known  to  the  inoormen 
as  Fieldfare,  or  Filfer  Head.  Ryder's  Hill,  the  ancient  Knattlebur- 
rough,  is  less  than  \  m.  from  the  track.  The  hollow  seen  L.  just  before 
we  gain  its  summit  is  the  head  of  the  Mardle  Combe,  the  extreme 
upper  end  of  it  being  known  as  Bourne's  Pit,  and  the  part  immediately 
below  that  as  Rounder's  Hole,  and  here  are  bond-stones  called  by 

*  "Ascendendo  usque  ad  la  Dryeworke,  et  ita  ascendendo  usque  ad 
la  Dryfeld  ford,  et  sic  inde  linealiter  usque  ad  Battyshull."  •  Peram- 
bulation of  1240.  "  Ascendinge  to  Drylake,  al's  Dryewoorke,  and  from 
thence  ascendinge  by  Drylake  unto  Crefeild  fiord  or  Dryefeild  ford 
and  from  thence  to  Knattleburroughe,  wch.  they  take  to  be  the  same 
that  is  called  in  the  old  records  Gnatteshiil."  Survey  of  1609.  Other 
forms  of  the  names  are  Corfield  Ford  and  Cattyshill. 


BUCKFASTLEIGH    MOOR.  43 

those  names.  They  mark  the  line  between  Holne  Moor  and  Buck- 
fastleigh  Moor,  which  is  drawn  from  Bourne's  Pit  to  Petre-on-the- 
Mount,  a  bond  stone  on  the  summit  of  Ryder,  as  the  latter  hill  is 
always  called  by  the  moormen.  Below  Rounder's  Hole  the  Mardle 
acts  as  the  boundary  between  these  two  moors. 

Ryder's  Hill  attains  an  elevation  of  1694  feet,  and  commands  a 
wonderful  view  of  South  Devonshire  and  the  Channel.  On  a  clear 
day  it  is  possible  to  see  the  Isle  of  Portland  and  the  Lizard  Point,  the 
horizon  of  sea  between  these  two  points  being  broken  only  in  one  place. 
There  is  a  small  cairn  on  the  summit,  but  it  is  very  much  dilapidated. 
On  this  are  two  stones,  a  rough  one  about  two  feet  high  having  the 
letter  H.  cut  on  it,  and  another  more  carefully  worked  and  about  four 
feet  high  with  the  letter  B  graven  upon  it.  These  represent  Petre- 
on-the-Mount  and  Petre's  Bound  Stone. 

The  line  between  the  forest  and  Buckfastleigh  Moor  runs  S.E.  to 
West  Wella  Brook  Head,  where  is  another  bond-mark  called  Wella 
Brook  Stone.  Thence  it  is  carried  down  through  the  deep  workings 
of  Wella  Brook  Gert  past  Higher  Huntingdon  Corner  to  Huntingdon 
Wall,  whence  it  turns  north-eastward  up  Gibby's  Beam,  a  narrow 
trench  cut  through  the  hill  from  the  Wella  Brook  to  Snowdon  Hole 
(T.  58,  55).  But  we  shall  leave  the  line  at  the  bond-stone,  and  strike 
L.  to  Snowdon,  which  is  quite  near  by.  On  this  hill  there  are  four 
cairns,  the  stones  composing  which  are  covered  with  moss.  They  are 
in  a  line  running  about  N.  and  S.  The  southerly  one  is  80  yards  in 
circumference  ;  the  next  52  ;  the  third,  45  ;  and  the  northern  one  only 
20  yards.  Turning  S.  along  the  brow  of  the  hill  we  cross  Gibby's 
Beam,  and  make  our  way  south-eastward  to  Pupers,  the  piles  of  which 
we  see  on  the  hill  before  us.  There  are  three  of  these,  known  re- 
spectively as  Inner  Pupers,  Pupers  Rock,  and  Outer  Pupers.  The 
word  is  a  corruption  of  Pipers,  and  the  usual  story  of  men  being  turned 
into  rocks  for  playing  and  dancing  on  a  Sunday  is  related  of  these 
masses.  On  Outer  Pupers  the  letter  B  is  cut  on  the  face  of  the  rock. 
Prom  Inner  Pupers  two  reaves  branch  off,  one  of  them  running  S.S.E. 
down  the  side  of  Pupers  Hill  to  Water  Oke  Corner,  a  distance  of  nearly 
ij  m.,  and  marking  the  limits  of  Buckfastleigh  Moor.* 

We  now  turn  down  the  hill  N.W.  by  Black  Bush  to  Snowdon  Hole, 
£  m.,  and  after  passing  this  shall  notice  the  vestiges  of  some  ancient 
enclosures  on  the  smooth  turf  close  to  the  rocks.  Below  the  hole  the 
ground  is  very  miry,  and  here  is  the  source  of  the  Snowdon  Brook,  as 
well  as  of  another  little  stream  that  runs  towards  Lid  Gate.  As  we 
make  our  way  onward  under  Snowdon,  our  course  being  northerly, 
we  have  the  Mardle  below  us  R.  At  the  head  of  Scea  Wood,  which 
is  visible,  is  Chalk  Ford,  whence  a  track  runs  from  the  stream  over 
Scorriton  Down.  Not  far  above  this  the  Wheal  Emma  Leat  falls 
precipitously  down  the  side  of  the  steep  hill  to  empty  its  water  into 
the  Mardle.  Eastward  of  the  leat  is  the  Holy  Brook,  which  runs 
through  Gibby's  Combe  to  Michel  Combe.  A  little  further  up  stream, 
the  round  hill  known  as  Nap  will  be  noticed.  On  this  are  four  cairns, 

*  This  reave  is  crossed  by  the  Huntingdon  track  (T.  57),  which  is 
marked  by  a  few  stones,  the  one  near  the  reave  bearing  the  name  of 
Kit's  Stone.  The  rocks  crowning  the  hill  are  sometimes  known 
respectively  as  Higher,  Middle,  and  Lower,  Pupers. 


44  BUCKFASTLEIGH    MOOR. 

one  of  them  being  very  large,  but  the  stones  of  which  they  are  formed, 
and  which  are  mixed  with  earth,  are  small,  and  much  overgrown  with 
vegetation.  The  ground  around  them  is  plain. 

On  reaching  Hapstead  Ford  a  short  distance  below  Mardle  Head, 
we  may  either  cross  the  stream  and  make  our  way  N.  to  the  head  of 
Ringleshutts  Gert,  or  pass  down  the  R.  bank  for  £  m.  to  Mardle  Ring, 
an  ancient  enclosure  with  a  hut  circle  in  its  higher  part.  In  the  former 
case  the  gert  will  be  followed  E.  to  the  remains  of  the  old  mine  house 
whence  the  road  already  alluded  to  will  conduct  the  rambler  to  Holne 
Moor  Gate.  In  the  latter  we  shall,  after  examining  the  enclosure, 
which  is  in  a  rather  ruinous  state,  cross  the  stream  work  through 
which  the  Mardle  here  runs,  and  make  our  way  N.E.  up  the  hill  towards 
Holne  Lee,  noticing  three  cairns  just  after  crossing  Sandy  Way. 
From  these  the  summit  of  Ryder  bears  W.  of  W.S.W.  On  our  right 
are  Two  Hills  and  Whit  Hedges,  the  latter  being  near  where  Sandy 
Way  enters  between  the  enclosures  at  Lane  Head,  and  runs  down  the 
hill  above  Gibby's  Combe  Wood  to  the  hamlet  of  Michel  Combe. 
(At  the  head  of  Gibby's  Combe  is  a  point  on  Scorriton  Down  known 
as  Sitting  Down  End,  where  it  is  usual  for  refreshments  to  be  served 
when  the  bounds  of  the  Manors  of  Buckfastleigh  and  Holne  Bozom 
are  viewed).  Passing  over  Holne  Lee  we  notice  a  couple  of  cairns 
about  £  m.  E.N.E.  of  the  three  already  referred  to,  and  just  beyond 
these  shall  reach  the  Ringleshutts  road,  where  we  turn  R.  to  Holne 
Moor  Gate. 

Among  other  remains  on  Holne  Moor  may  be  mentioned  several 
long  reaves  which  intersect  each  other,  some  cairns  and  a  small  pound. 
These  are  situated  on  Home  Ridge,  N.  of  the  head  of  Ringleshutts 
Gert.  On  Buckfastleigh  Moor  there  is  a  group  of  hut  circles  near  the 
Snowdon  Brook  and  Mardle. 

Holne  and  Buckfastleigh  Moors  were  anciently  claimed  by  the 
Abbot  of  Buckfast  as  part  of  his  manors,  but  the  men  of  Devon  always 
contended  that  they  were  part  of  the  Commons  of  Devonshire.  One 
of  the  manors  was  given  to  the  abbey  by  Richard  Bauzan,  whose  name 
still  survives  in  Holne  Bozom.  Henry  III.  granted  the  confirmation  of 
this  gift.  It  set  forth  that  Richard  Bauzan  bestowed  upon  the  abbey 
and  convent  of  Bufestre  (Buckfast),  "for  the  souls  of  his  father  and 
mother,  and  his  brother  Stephen  Bauzan,"  his  land  of  Holne,  "with  all 
its  appurtenances,  as  in  demesnes,  villenages,  woods,  turbaries,  homages, 
and  services  of  free  men  (to  wit)  Stephen  Mugge,  Michael  Mugge, 
Wimund  Sola,  Osbert  Corbyn,  and  Warin  de  Buddinton,  and  all  other 
appurtenances."  To  hold  of  him  and  his  heirs  freely,  quietly,  &c.,  by 
hereditary  right  for  ever  in  ways,  paths,  meadows,  teedings,  wastes, 
woods,  plains,  heriots,  wardships,  escheats,  and  all  other  issues  apper- 
taining to  the  said  land;  doing  to  him  and  his  heirs  a  thirtieth  part  of 
one  knight's  fee  for  all  service,  suit,  &c." 


EXCURSION   29.      DOCKWELL   GATE.  45 


Excursions  from  Brent. 

Tracks  in  the  vicinity  Nos.  i,  55  to  62,  75. 

Ex.  zg. — Dockwell  Gate,  The  Longstone,  Antiquities  on  Brook  Hill 
and  Hickaton  Hill,  Huntingdon  Warren  [Extension  to  Heng  Lake,  add 
24-  m.]  Huntingdon  Cross,  Remains  on  the  Avon,  Long-a-Traw,  Shipley 
Tor,  13  m. 

Leaving  the  town  by  the  western  railway  bridge  we  pass  the 
entrance  to  the  vicarage  L.,  and  ascending  Splatton  Hill  shall  soon 
reach  Lutton  Green.  About  i  m.  beyond  this,  northward,  is  Gingaford 
Cross,  reached  soon  after  a  lane  turns  L.  to  Yolland,  and  about  300 
yards  further  on  the  spot  by  the  roadside  L.  known  as  Bloody  Pool. 
Here  some  bronze  spear  heads  were  found  in  1854.  [Crosses,  Chap.  II.] 
£  m.  N.  is  a  small  open  space  (R.  48)  from  which  a  stroll,  entered  at  the 
further  end  of  it,  leads  to  Dockwell  Gate.  We  pass  down  this,  and 
having  gained  the  commons  shall  find  ourself  on  the  green  path  running 
to  Combestone  Tor  (T.  55).  Built  into  the  wall  on  the  R.,  not  far  from 
the  gate,  is  a  circular  stone  of  the  kind  we  have  noticed  in  other  parts 
of  the  moor  (Ex.  2,  S.  Ex.  56,  Ex.  26,  S.  Ex.  105),  one  of  several  to 
be  found  in  this  locality.  It  is  3  feet  10  inches  in  diameter,  and  about 
10  inches  thick.  The  hole  in  its  centre  is  5  inches  in  diameter,  and 
the  same  in  depth,  going  only  half  way  through  the  stone.  Near  it  is 
another  partly  fashioned  into  a  circular  shape. 

We  speedily  desert  the  track  and  turn  R.,  and  keeping  near  the 
wall  of  the  enclosures  shall  soon  reach  Dockwell  Brake.  Within  this 
is  a  pound,  forming  part  of  a  group  of  remains  on  the  slopes  of  Dockwell 
Hole,  the  name  of  the  hollow  below  us.  In  this  pound  is  a  circular 
stone  similar  to  those  we  have  just  noticed.  Having  viewed  this 
ancient  enclosure  we  shall  make  our  way  to  the  Harbourn,  which  has 
one  of  its  springs  in  the  hollow  and  another  just  within  the  verge  of 
Dean  Moor,  on  the  E.  side  of  it.  This  stream,  which  is  referred  to  by 
Leland,  who  says  "  Harbertoun  water  cummith  out  of  a  well  spring," 
serves  as  the  boundary  between  the  parishes  of  Brent  and  Dean  for 
about  3  m.  from  its  source.  Crossing  the  stream  close  to  the  brake 
in  order  to  avoid  the  mire  we  shall  proceed  for  a  short  distance  up  its 
eastern  bank,  and  then  re-cross  it  under  Parnell's  Hill.  Here  we  shall 
find  another  pound,  across  which  are  two  rows  of  stones,  with  the 
remains  of  hut  circles  in  the  south-west  corner.  A  couple  of  hut  circles 
will  also  be  seen  outside  the  wall.  Above  this  is  a  third  enclosure,  but 
the  wall  is  very  imperfect,  and  the  two  hut  circles  within  it  in  a  very 
ruinous  state.  Not  far  from  Harbourn  Head  is  the  menhir  known  as 
The  Longstone.  This  is  3  feet  g  inches  wide  at  its  base,  and  tapers  to 
i  foot  at  the  top,  the  thickness  throughout  being  1 3  inches.  Its  height 
is  8  feet,  and  it  is  leaning  considerably  out  of  the  perpendicular. 

On  Parnell's  Hill,  a  short  distance  W.  by  N.  of  the  menhir,  and  in 
view  from  it,  are  two  cairns,  and  to  these  we  now  make  our  way.  One 


46  BRENT    DISTRICT. 

is  78  yards  in  circumference  ;  the  other  measures  5  yards  less.  They 
are  23  yards  apart,  of  no  great  height,  and  covered  with  grass.  N.N.W. 
of  these,  and  on  the  further  side  of  a  slight  depression,  is  another,  of 
similar  character,  but  smaller,  measuring  only  35  yards  in  circum- 
ference. The  view  from  this  point  is  exceedingly  fine.  S.S.W.  are 
the  Ugborough  Beacon  Rocks,  with  the  cairn-crested  ridge  running 
northward  from  the  pile  ;  N.  of  this  rises  the  lofty  Three  Barrows, 
whence  the  eye  ranges  R.  by  Knattaburrow,  Eastern  and  Western 
Whitaburrow,  to  Huntingdon  Warren,  and  Ryder,  the  latter  bearing 
N.W.  Par  away  beyond  this  is  Water  Hill,  above  King's  Oven  (Ex.  21 ); 
to  the  R.  of  which  is  Hameldon  and  the  Widecombe  valley,  with  the 
tors  that  overlook  it,  and  still  further  R.  Rippon  Tor.  Much  nearer 
to  us  in  this  direction  is  Yar  Tor,  above  Dartmeet,  Corn  Down  Tor, 
Sharp  Tor,  and  the  Buckland  Woods.  Eastward  is  a  fine  stretch  of 
cultivated  country  backed  by  Haldon,  and  to  the  R.  of  that  elevated 
land  the  estuary  of  the  Teign.  Beyond  is  the  Channel,  which  bounds 
the  view  round  towards  the  W.,  where  the  Ugborough  Beacon  Rocks 
rise  against  the  sky. 

Striking  westward  we  cross  the  grassy  track  running  from  Combe- 
stone  Tor  to  Dockwell  Gate  (T.  55),  having  on  our  R.  Water  Oke 
Plain,  and  make  our  way  over  the  northern  part  of  Small  Brook  Plain 
to  Grippers  Hill.  Descending  the  western  side  of  this  at  Waterfoot 
Clatter,  we  reach  the  confluence  of  the  Avon  and  the  Brock  Hill  stream. 
We  cross  the  latter,  which  here  comes  down  through  a  rocky  hollow 
where  it  forms  a  number  of  small  cascades,  and  in  which  are  a  few 
dwarf  trees,  and  passing  up  the  slope,  with  the  little  stream  below  us 
R.,  shall  presently  come  upon  a  group  of  remains  of  a  very  interesting 
character.  A  rectangular  enclosure  will  be  seen,  the  lower  wall  of  which 
is  about  100  yards  from  the  Avon,  and  in  this  are  several  small  courts 
together  with  the  walls  of  buildings.  These  appear  to  be  the  erections 
of  mediaeval  tinners,  but  were  evidently  formed  on  the  site  of  remains 
belonging  to  pre-historic  days.*  The  upper  wall  of  the  main  enclosure 
forms  part  of  an  ancient  pound,  containing  several  hut  circles,  one  of 
a  series  on  Hickaton  Hill,  this  side  of  which  is  often  spoken  of  as  Brock 
Hill.  In  no  part  of  the  moor  can  pounds  and  hut  circles  be  better 
studied  than  here.  Some  of  the  finest  examples  of  primitive  dwellings 
may  be  seen,  and  the  remains  being  at  some  distance  from  modern 
enclosures  they  have  not  suffered  at  the  hands  of  the  spoilator. 

Passing  up  the  hill  we  shortly  come  upon  another  pound  through 
which  passes  the  Abbots'  Way  (T.  i ),  as  named  in  our  section  on  the 
ancient  tracks.  This  old  path,  which  comes  up  from  Brock  Hill  Ford 
R.,  is  here  very  clearly  defined. f  A  few  score  yards  to  the  N.  is  another 
and  much  larger  pound,  the  circuit  of  the  wall  being  825  yards.  This 

*  The  Hickaton  circles  and  other  remains  here  noticed  as  existing 
on  this  hill  were  fully  described  by  me  in  the  Western  Antiquary, 
Vols.  VIII.,  IX. 

t  The  Abbots'  Way  is  here  carried  along  the  side  of  the  hill,  des- 
cending to  the  West  Wella  Brook,  which  it  crosses  at  Huntingdon 
Ford,  and  immediately  after  crosses  the  Avon  at  Avon  Ford.  The  old 
posts  of  Huntingdon  Gate  will  be  seen  not  far  from  the  cross,  near  the 
confluence  of  the  two  streams.  Further  up  the  Wella  Brook  is  another 
ford  where  a  track  leads  to  the  warren  house,  and  also  a  rude  bridge. 


15.  BPE.MT*IVYBfclDGEDim?ICT. 


PART    OF 
Ex 


48 


BRENT    DISTRICT. 


is  ten  feet  wide  in  some  places,  and  from  3  feet  to  4  feet  high.  The 
pound  is  divided  into  parts,  and  it  is  indeed  possible  to  regard  it  as 
being  several  distinct  pounds  close  together,  and  having  portions 
of  their  walls  in  common.  One  of  the  entrances  to  the  enclosures 
is  very  perfect,  and  in  some  of  the  hut  circles  the  door  jambs  are  still 
erect. 

The  Brock  Hill  Water,  which  has  been  streamed  throughout  its 
whole  length,  comes  down  from  Brock  Hill  Mires,  and  above  the  ford 
several  tinners'  buildings  may  be  found,  and  are  curious  on  account 
of  their  unusually  small  size.  Near  its  head,  where  the  Hayford  leat 
is  taken  from  it,  the  stream  bends  to  the  L.  as  we  ascend,  this  higher 
part  of  the  hollow  bearing  the  name  of  Crad  Hole.  On  the  slope  at 
the  head  of  this  is  Crad  Hole  Ring,  a  pound  260  yards  in  circumference, 
and  containing  four  hut  circles.  N.  of  it  is  Pupers  Hill,  with  the  rocks 
crowning  its  summit.  If  the  stream  be  not  followed  up  the  rambler 
may  reach  this  pound  by  striking  over  the  hill  N.W.  by  N.  from  the 
enclosures  above  Brock  Hill  Ford. 

Proceeding  north-westward  up  the  slope  we  soon  come  in  sight  of 
Huntingdon  Warren  House,  on  the  further  side  of  the  West  Wella 
Brook.  A  house  and  a  newtake  existed  here  before  the  close  of  the 
seventeenth  century,  but  there  is  no  mention  of  the  place  by  the  jury  of 
survey  who  passed  this  way  in  1609.  W.  of  the  house,  and  on  the 
highest  part  of  Huntingdon  Hill,  is  a  fine  cairn  76  yards  in  circumference, 
which  is  usually  known  as  Huntingdon  Barrow,  but  is  sometimes 
referred  to  as  the  Heap  o'  Sinners.  Less  than  \  m.  southward  of  this, 
on  the  slope  overlooking  the  Avon,  are  three  pounds,  one  of  them,  the 
easterly  one,  being  very  small.  Little  shelters,  formerly  used  by  the 
warreners,  have  been  constructed  in  the  walls. 


Eastern 
Whitaburrow. 


Western 
Whitaburrow. 


FROM  HICKATON  HII,!,,  DEAN  MOOR,  BOOKING  S.W. 

Extension  to  Heng  Lake.  Instead  of  descending  to  the  Wella 
Brook  and  tracing  it  downward  to  Lower  Huntingdon  Corner,  the 
rambler  may  extend  his  walk  by  keeping  R.  towards  the  long  disused 
Huntingdon  Mine,  and  crossing  the  track  (T.  57)  leading  to  a  ford 
below,  reach  the  little  river  higher  up,  the  rocks  on  the  summit  of  Pupers 
being  R.  Still  further  up  the  tiny  T  Gert  Stream  comes  down  L. 
and  above  this  is  Wella  Brook  Gert,  where  some  very  deep  open 


EXCURSION   29.      HUNTINGDON    WARREN.  49 

workings  will  be  seen.  At  the  head  of  this  is  Higher  Huntingdon 
Corner,  whence  the  boundary  of  the  warren  runs  over  tie  hill  in  a 
south-westerly  direction.  We  shall  not,  however,  proceed  quite  so 
far,  but  soon  after  reaching  the  workings  shall  strike  off  L.  at  a  track 
leading  to  T  Gert,  and  taking  a  wall  which  here  runs  parallel  to  the 
boundary,  but  S.  of  it,  for  our  guide,  shall  follow  it  S.W.  for  about 
£  m.  to  the  Avon.  Here,  looking  up  stream,  we  have  a  good  view  of 
Cater's  Beam  ;  its  rounded  form  is  clearly  denned  against  the  sky  to 
the  L.,  or  W.,  of  Aune  Head.  We  turn  L.  and  make  our  way  down 
the  river  to  Heng  Lake,  which  flows  out  of  the  gully  of  that  name  on 
the  R.  (R.  33).  Below  this  is  Broad  Palls,  where  the  Avon  enters 
Higher  Bottom,  and  passing  downward  on  the  L,.  bank  we  shall  find 
in  this  hollow  a  good  example  of  a  blowing-house,  with  a  mortar-stone 
lying  on  the  turf  near  it.  The  ruin  is  24^  feet  in  length,  and  nearly 
1 5  feet  in  width,  on  the  outside  ;  at  one  end  the  wall  is  about  6  feet 
high.  On  the  brow  of  the  hill  above  it  is  a  little  shelter,  which  was 
built  by  a  former  warrener,  and  not  far  from  this  is  the  spring  called 
Broady  Well.  Below  the  hollow  on  the  R.  bank  is  Stony  Gert,*  and 
still  further  down  Huntingdon  Clapper,  which,  although  not  boasting 
of  any  antiquity,  is  yet  more  than  ordinarily  interesting  on  account 
of  its  remote  situation.  It  consists  of  two  openings,  but  unfortunately 
the  stone  over  the  western  one  was  displaced  by  a  flood  some  years 
ago,  arid  now  lies  in  the  bed  of  the  stream.  The  late  warrener,  Pearse, 
used  to  cross  by  means  of  a  plank.  On  the  R.  is  Pernside,  and  part 
way  up  this  slope,  a  little  further  down  than  the  bridge,  is  a  small 
stone  circle,  apparently  of  the  kind  usually  found  enclosing  kistvaens, 
but  its  real  nature  cannot  very  well  be  determined,  as  the  stones  are 
much  overgrown.  Below  this  the  Avon  bends  L,.,  and  here  the  Buck- 
land  Ford  Water,  which  is  crossed  by  the  Abbots'  Way,  falls  into  it 
(T.  i).  This  old  path  is  carried  up  the  hill  by  the  side  of  Piper's  Beam, 
whence  it  goes  on  to  the  Cross  Ways  (R.  7).  Below  the  bend  the  Avon 
runs  under  Bush  Meads  to  Huntingdon  Cross,  and  here  we  meet  the 
Wella  Brook,  which,  coming  down  from  the  great  gert  it  gives  name 
to,  and  flowing  below  the  warren  house,  forms  throughout  its  length  a 
boundary  of  the  forest. 

Although  we  know  that  Huntingdon  Cross  was  standing  in  1557 
(see  Ex.  31),  there  is  no  mention  of  it  in  the  survey  of  1609,  which, 
however,  is  hardly  to  be  wondered  at  seeing  that  the  Wella  Brook 
marked  the  forest  limits,  and  that  the  point  given  by  the  perambu- 
lators of  1240  was  the  confluence  of  that  stream  with  the  Avon.  This 
was  followed  by  the  jury  of  survey  of  nearly  four  hundred  years  later. 
But  the  jurors  who  presented  the  forest  bounds  at  Lydford  Castle  in 
1786,  though  naming  the  same  line,  make  mention  of  the  cross  also. 
It  is  likewise  named  in  a  certificate  respecting  some  tin  bounds  at 
Huntingdon,  dated  1759.  It  is  about  4^  feet  in  height,  and  stands 
just  wjthin  the  limits  of  the  forest.  On  the  slope  eastward  is  Biller's 
Pound  280  yards  in  circumference,  but  the  wall  is  very  low.  This 
adds  another  to  the  number  of  similar  objects  existing  on  the  hill 
rising  between  the  Brock  Hill  stream,  the  Avon,  and  the  Wella  Brook. 
Below  it  are  nine  hut  circles. 

*  In  this  locality  was  formerly  a  mine  called  Wheal  Dorothy.  It 
is  not  improbable  that  the  workings  seen  here  represent  it. 

E4 


So  BRENT   DISTRICT. 

Making  our  way  down  the  L.  bank  of  the  Avon,  and  noticing  as 
we  proceed  abundant  evidence  of  the  former  presence  here  of  the  tin 
streamer,  we  shortly  come  upon  the  ruins  of  a  building.  It  is  situated 
about  40  yards  from  the  stream,  from  which  a  water-course  can  be 
traced.  It  was  probably  a  tin-mill,  or  place  where  the  ore  was  crushed. 
Below  this,  and  quite  near  to  the  bank,  are  some  upright  stones,  called 
the  Three  Brothers,  which  have  something  of  the  appearance  of  a 
portion  of  a  stone  row,  but  they  more  probably  formed  part  of  a  reave 
which  runs  from  the  lowest  of  the  enclosures  we  have  already  noticed 
on  the  Brock  Hill  Stream.  Very  soon  this  little  feeder  is  reached,  and 
we  shall  observe  that  where  it  pours  its  waters  into  the  Avon  it  is 
confined  within  banks  roughly  faced  with  stones.  (On  the  R.  bank 
of  the  Avon,  and  rather  over  •£•  m.  below  the  cross,  is  a  pound  divided 
by  interior  walls  into  three,  in  a  manner  similar  to  the  one  on  Brock 
Hill.  Within  it  are  several  hut  circles). 

Proceeding  down  the  Avon,  with  Gripper's  Hill,  L,.,  and  I/eaman's 
Mead  R.,  we  shortly  reach  Pall  Rocks,  where  a  cascade  is  formed,  and 
here  the  L.  bank  is  very  steep.  Not  far  below  this  point  we  come  upon 
Gripper's  Pound,  a  small  enclosure  in  the  midst  of  a  clatter.  In  shape 
it  is  not  unlike  a  horse-shoe,  and  the  wall,  which  is  about  three  feet  high, 
is  1 60  yards  in  circuit.  There  are  the  remains  of  two  or  three  hut  circles 
within  it,  and  others,  connected  by  low  reaves,  are  to  be  seen  between 
it  and  the  river.  A  small  erection,  which  is  evidently  comparatively 
modern  and  formed  out  of  one  of  these  primitive  dwellings,  bears  the 
name  of  the  Blackman's  Holt.  Both  pound  and  huts  are  in  a  ruinous 
condition,  but  their  situation  lends  an  interest  to  them.  They  stand  in 
what  is  certainly  the  most  charming  spot  on  the  moorland  Avon.  The 
side  of  the  hill  is  strewn  with  rocks,  amid  which  the  heather  grows  and 
tall  ferns  nourish,  while  a  few  thorn  bushes  also  find  shelter  here.* 

At  the  foot  of  the  hill  the  river  makes  a  couple  of  bends,  and 
below  the  second  enters  a  miniature  canyon,  where  it  is  pent  up  between 
walls  of  solid  rock.  It  was  over  this  that  the  daring  John  Dill  leapt 
his  horse  when  pursued  by  the  farmers,  from  one  of  whom  he  had 
"  borrowed  "  the  animal  without  going  through  the  form  of  asking 
whether  he  might  have  it,  for  the  purpose  of  conveying  certain  goods 
that  had  been  quietly  landed  by  night  from  a  village  near  the  coast 
into  the  interior.  It  will  be  seen  that  the  valley  in  which  this  is 
situated  is  apparently  closed  in  at  its  upper  and  lower  ends.  This 
formation  has  given  to  it  its  name  of  Long-a-traw,  literally  "  long 
trough,"  which  object  it  may  be  said  to  resemble.  But  the  canyon  is 
a  "  long  trough,"  too,  and  it  is  therefore  not  unlikely  that  the  name 
originated  from  this,  but  it  is  the  valley  that  is  generally  understood  by 
the  name  in  the  neighbourhood. 

Below  the  canyon  Small  Brook  falls  into  the  Avon,  and  close  to 
the  confluence  is  one  of  the  bond  stones  marking  the  line  between 

*  The  valley  of  the  Avon  is  probably  the  "  A  vena  "  of  the  fourteenth 
century.  In  an  account  of  the  Bailiff  of  Dartmoor  temp  Edward  III., 
there  is  an  entry  of  "  6s.  nd.  received  of  83  beasts  agisted  at  Avena, 
outside  the  forest,  this  year  (1354)  at  id.  a  head,  of  divers  tenants  of 
the  lord  of  venville,  there  being  at  night  only  for  having  that  easement." 
Those  who  were  not  tenants  of  the  lord  also  used  to  agist  there,  and 
paid  iM.  per  head. 


EXCURSION   29.      VALLEY   OF   THE    AVON.  51 

Dean  Moor  and  Brent  Moor,  and  which  is  carried  over  the  hill  to  Dock- 
well  Hole.  On  passing  this  we  gradually  leave  the  river,  our  course 
being  S.S.E.,  and  make  our  way  up  the  steep  to  the  western  edge  of 
Dockwell  Ridge,  which  is  noticed  in  S.  Ex.  105.  Looking  across  the 
valley  W.  we  have  a  good  view  of  the  fine  hut  settlement  on  Ryder's 
Plain  known  as  The  Rings,  and  also  of  Black  Tor,  on  the  hill  at  the 
southern  end  of  Long-a-Traw.  As  we  proceed  we  shall  notice  some 
small  enclosures  and  several  hut  circles  on  the  common.  Presently 
we  come  in  sight  of  Brent  Moor  House  in  the  defile  R.,  and  soon  after 
reach  Shipley  Tor  (S.  Ex.  105).  Here  we  enter  the  hunting-gate  near 
the  rocks,  and  descend  to  the  road  coming  L.  from  Yolland  Cross 
(R.  48),  and  turning  R.  speedily  find  ourselves  at  the  moor  gate  near 
Shipley  Cottage.  Our  nearest  way  to  Brent  is  by  the  path  through 
Didworthy,  as  in  S.  Ex.  105.  If  we  cross  Shipley  Bridge  and  take  the 
road  past  Zeal  we  must  follow  the  instructions  given  in  R.  7. 

Ex.  30. — Shipley,  The  Rings,  Eastern  and  Western  Whitaburrow, 
Petre's  Cross.  [EXTENSION  over  Green  Hill :  Red  Lake  Ford,  Stone 
Row,  Black  Lane,  Ducks'  Pool,  Brown  Heath,  add  5  m.]  Knattaburrow , 
Hill,  Old  Hill,  Red  Brook,  Zeal  Bridge,  12  m. 

[When  this  Guide  first  appeared  Clay  Works  had  just  been  established 
at  Red  Lake,  in  the  south  quarter  of  the  forest,  as  mentioned  in  Part  I. 
of  the  present  edition  (R.  7).  These  works  are  situated  within  the  area 
covered  by  the  Excursions  in  the  Brznt  and  Ivybridge  District.  The 
face  of  the  little  valley  of  the  Red  Lake  has  been  materially  changed 
since  operations  commenced.  The  spot  no  longer  exhibits  that  repose 
that  appeals  so  strongly  to  every  true  lover  of  the  moor.  For  centuries 
after  the  Perambulators  of  1 240  passed  that  way,  it  was  unvisited  save 
by  an  occasional  party  of  monks,  the  forest  men,  or  the  tin  seeker. 
In  times  nearer  to  our  own  only  the  moorman  and  the  chance  rambler 
broke  in  upon  its  solitude.  Now  this  has  been  rudely  disturbed,  and 
its  primeval  aspect  defaced.  The  clay  is  brought  to  the  Western 
Beacon  above  Ivybridge  by  means  of  a  light  railway,  and,  it  has  been 
stated,  that  in  planning  this  care  was  taken  that  no  damage  should  be 
done  to  the  antiquities.  This  declaration  is  more  likely  to  appeal  to 
those  who  know  the  locality  only  by  report  than  to  the  observer  on  the 
spot.  Probably  he  will  fail  to  be  impressed  by  it.  If  not  damaged,  in 
the  sense  of  being  disturbed,  the  stone  remains  have  suffered,  neverthe- 
less. They  have  lost  not  a  little  of  their  interest,  since  they  undoubtedly 
owed  a  part  of  that  to  their  surroundings.  But  the  antiquities  of 
Dartmoor  are  a  small  part  only  of  its  attractions.  Its  greatest  charm 
is  its  wildness  and  solitude  ;  where  this  is  lost  it  is  ruined.  One  consola- 
tion always  remains.  We  noted  it  when  describing  the  Meldon  valley 
{Okehampton  District).  The  scratching  of  the  back  of  Dartmoor  means 
employment.] 

Our  present  excursion  will  embrace  that  part  of  Brent  Moor 
bounded  by  the  Avon  on  the  E.  and  Red  Brook  on  the  S.,  and,  if  the 
extension  be  included,  a  part  of  the  south  quarter  of  the  forest.  The 
first  point  will  be  the  moor  gate  at  Shipley  (S.  Ex.  106),  and  to  this  we 
have  the  choice  of  two  routes  ;  we  may  go  by  way  of  Aish,  or  through 
Lutton  and  Didworthy.  In  either  case  we  cross  the  western  railway 
bridge,  and  follow  the  lane  past  the  vicarage  gates  to  the  foot  of  Splatton 
Hill.  Here,  if  we  choose  the  Aish  route,  we  keep  L.  to  Lydia  Bridge, 


52  BRENT   DISTRICT. 

and  crossing  the  Avon  climb  the  hill  to  the  hamlet,  taking  care  not  to 
turn  L  again.  (Soon  after  passing  over  the  bridge,  and  a  little  way  up  the 
hill,  a  gate  opening  on  a  footpath  will  be  seen  R.  The  visitor  may  enter 
here,  and  crossing  some  fields  regain  the  road  on  the  side  of  the  hill 
above  Penstave  Copse).  From  Aish  the  road  must  be  followed  to  the 
river,  on  the  bank  of  which  it  runs  for  some  little  distance.  The 
Didworthy  Sanatorium  is  seen  on  the  further  side  of  it.  Leaving 
Badworthy  L.  and  Didworthy  Bridge  R.,  we  keep  straight  on,  and 
soon  after  passing  the  foot  of  Diamond  Lane  L.  (S.  Ex.  108),  shall 
cross  Red  Brook,  or  Bala  Brook  as  this  part  of  the  stream  is  sometimes 
called,  at  Zeal  Bridge,  and  noticing  Zeal  Farm  I/,  shall  speedily  reach 
the  moor  gate. 

Should  we  decide  upon  the  Didworthy  route,  we  make  our  way  up 
to  Lutton  Green  as  in  Ex.  29,  but  instead  of  crossing  it  shall  pass  down 
the  road  I,,  to  Wash  Gate,  and  follow  a  narrow  bridle-path  up  to  a 
field.  We  cross  the  lower  side  of  this,  and  also  another,  with  Shipley 
Tor  in  full  view  in  advance,  and  making  our  way  through  the  yard  at 
the  back  of  the  Sanatorium,  gain  a  lane  which  will  lead  us  to  Didworthy 
Bridge,  L.  On  crossing  this  we  turn  R.  and  follow  the  road  to  the 
moor  gate  as  just  described. 

Entering  upon  the  moor  we  turn  up  by  the  wall  L.,  but  gradually 
leaving  it,  make  our  way  northward  across  the  side  of  Zeal  Hill,  with 
the  old  naphtha  works  about  200  yards  below  us  R.,  and  here  we  have 
a  fine  view  of  the  valley  above  Shipley  Bridge,  with  the  tor  of  that 
name  on  the  opposite  steep.  [Gems,  Chap.  XVI.]  By  following  this 
course  we  shall  be  led  to  an  ancient  enclosure,  360  yards  in  circum- 
ference, the  wall  of  which  is  composed  of  very  large  blocks  of  granite, 
though  in  one  place  these  are  much  scattered.  Within  this  pound 
there  are  fourteen  hut  circles,  the  whole  of  them  being  placed  across 
the  upper  portion  of  it.  There  is  one  lower  down,  but  that  is  situated 
on  the  outside  of  the  wall.  Above  this  pound  is  a  second,  and  near  by 
vestiges  of  three  others.  The  visitor  must  not  mistake  the  mounds 
on  this  part  of  the  hill  for  barrows.  They  are  really  old  rabbit  shelters, 
and  are  known  as  Zeal  Burrows — or  "  burys,"  as  the  moor  people  call 
them — and  mark  the  site  of  a  former  warren. 

Northward  of  this  group  of  remains  Black  Tor,  over  1,100  feet, 
rises  above  the  defile  E.,  in  which  Brent  Moor  House  is  situated.  To 
this  we  make  our  way,  and  on  reaching  the  rocks  shall  look  down  upon 
Long-a-Traw,  a  name  which  we  shall  be  ready  to  acknowledge  is 
appropriately  borne  by  the  valley  through  which  the  Avon  here  comes 
down,  for  seen  from  this  point  it  may  certainly  be  likened  to  a  long 
trough  (Ex.  29).  Keeping  along  the  brow  of  the  hill  we  shall,  at  the 
distance  of  rather  less  than  ^  m.  from  the  tor,  come  upon  two  more 
enclosures,  and  a  few  hut  circles,  but  they  are  very  small.  They  are 
plainly  to  be  seen,  when  the  sun  is  shining  upon  them,  from  the  summit 
of  Brent  Hill.  Close  to  them  N.  is  a  little  stream,  on  which  may  be 
noticed  a  few  specimens  of  the  mountain  ash,  and  on  crossing  this  we 
shall  find  ourselves  close  to  what  is  certainly  one  of  the  most  interest- 
ing of  the  pounds  to  be  found  on  Dartmoor.  This  ruined  settlement, 
which  occupies  a  commanding  situation  on  Ryder's  Plain,  is  known  as 
The  Rings.  It  is  of  considerable  length,  measuring  no  less  than  380 
yards  from  end  to  end.  Its  southern  portion,  where  is  its  greatest 
breadth,  is  120  yards  across,  and  its  northern  105  yards.  It  is  nar- 


EXCURSION    30.      THE    RINGS.      RYDER'S    PLAIN.  S3 

rowest  near  its  centre,  where  it  measures  76  yards  across.  The  circuit 
of  the  wall  is  975  yards,  and  although  this,  as  in  similar  enclosures  on 
the  moor,  has  fallen,  its  lower  courses  can  in  places  be  seen,  and  these 
show  it  to  have  been  about  ten  feet  thick.  Extending  across  the 
whole  length  of  this  enclosure,  and  immediately  within  the  upper  wall, 
is  a  row  of  small  courts,  and  a  few  are  also  to  be  seen  in  the  lower 
part  of  it.  These  are  about  thirty  in  number,  and  some  of  them 
appear  to  be  of  later  date  than  the  pound  itself.  One  of  them  is 
obviously  so.  This,  which  will  be  found  towards  the  N.E.  end,  is 
similar  hi  plan  to  the  tinners'  houses  near  the  streams.  It  measures 
19  feet  by  8  feet  on  the  inside.  One  of  the  courts  is  42  feet  by  36  ; 
another  33  feet  by  28  ;  while  a  detached  one,  which  is  roughly  circular 
in  shape,  is  about  38  feet  in  diameter  ;  all  internal  measurements. 
It  is  these  courts  that  render  the  pound  so  interesting,  for  although 
one  or  two  are  sometimes  to  be  seen  within  the  enclosing  wall,  as,  for 
instance,  at  Grim's  Pound,  they  are  not  to  be  found  in  such  numbers 
in  any  other  part  of  the  moor.  Something  similar,  but  on  a  much 
smaller  scale,  occurs  in  the  Half  Ring,  on  Red  Brook,  in  this  locality, 
and  is  noticed  in  Ex.  31.  There  are  a  number  of  hut  circles  within 
The  Rings,  one  of  them  adjoining  a  corner  of  the  building  we  have 
spoken  of  as  resembling  a  tinner's  house.  A  particularly  striking 
example  will  be  found  near  the  centre  of  the  pound  ;  in  this  the  wall 
is  composed  of  two  concentric  rows  of  stones.  It  seems  probable  that 
this  enclosure  after  being  vacated  by  its  original  builders  was  again 
occupied,  perhaps  at  a  much  later  period,  and  that  some  of  the  courts 
at  least  were  then  added.  It  is  certain  that  the  "  tinners'  house  " 
formed  no  part  of  the  early  settlement.  There  are  three  entrances 
to  the  pound  ;  one  at  each  end,  and  one  in  the  upper  wall  towards  the 
north. 

(N.  of  The  Rings,  or  Brent  Rings  as  they  are  often  called,  and 
close  to  the  wall,  are  Ryder's  Rocks,  an  extensive  clatter  covering 
much  of  the  hillside,  and  N.  of  this  is  the  steep  Zeal  Gully,  through 
which  a  little  stream  runs  down  to  Apton's  Marsh  and  into  the  Avon. 
This  it  joins  just  above  Viger's  Corner,  the  higher  bend  on  the  river 
under  Gripper's  Pound  (Ex.  29),  close  to  which  is  Ryder's  Ford.  At 
Long-a-Traw  Corner,  the  next  bend  downward,  there  is  another 
crossing- place). 

On  leaving  The  Rings  we  shall  proceed  N.W.  over  Zeal  Plains, 
keeping  along  the  brow  of  the  hill,  and  at  the  distance  of  i  m.  shall 
reach  Eastern  Whitaburrow,  1,539  feet.*  To  this  fine  cairn,  accord- 
ing to  the  perambulators  of  1240,  and  the  jurors  of  1609  and  1786,  the 
forest  boundary  came  up  from  the  confluence  of  the  Avon  and  Wella 
Brook.  But  it  is  now  regarded  as  being  altogether  outside  the  forest, 
the  boundary  being  carried  up  the  Avon  to  the  Buckland  Ford  Water, 
and  thence  up  the  hill  to  Western  Whitaburrow,  which  was  indeed 
claimed  as  the  line  between  Brent  Moor  and  the  forest  so  early  as 
1557.  (See  Perambulation  in  the  Terms  Section).  Eastern  Whitaburrow 
is  a  very  fine  example  of  an  ancient  burial  heap.  It  consists  entirely 
of  stones,  and  is  90  yards  in  circumference  at  its  base,  and  1 2  yards  in 
height.  Huntingdon  Warren  and  Hickaton  Hill  (Ex.  29)  are  com- 
manded from  it,  while  there  is  a  good  distant  view.  North-eastward 

•  Pronounced  White-a-burrow,  and  often  without  the  a. 


54 


BRENT   DISTRICT. 


the  Buckland  Woods  are  seen,  with  the  lofty  Rippon  Tor  beyond,  and 
still  further  away  the  heights  of  Haldon.  The  Channel  bounds  the 
prospect  southward  until  it  is  lost  behind  the  Beacon  Rocks,  on  Ug- 
borough  Moor.  In  the  opposite  direction  Great  Mis  Tor  is  seen  about 
N.W.,  and  to  the  R.  of  it,  beyond  the  dusky  ridge  extending  westward 
from  Aune  Head,  the  hills  of  the  north  quarter  of  the  forest.  S.E.  by 
S.  is  the  town  of  Brent,  and  this  great  stone  heap  can  readily  be  dis- 
cerned from  the  eastern  railway  bridge  there.  The  hillside  N.  of 
Eastern  Whitaburrow,  at  the  foot  of  which  the  Avon  runs,  is  known 
as  Bush  Meads,  which  there  is  evidence  to  show  is  a  corruption,  or 
contraction,  of  Bishop's  Meads.  In  a  sixteenth  century  document  this 
tract  is  referred  to  as  "  Bishop's  Mead,  otherwise  Busshe  Mead,"  so- 
that  we  not  only  learn  from  this  the  true  name,  but  also  that  over 
three  hundred  and  fifty  years  ago  bishop  became  bushop  (pronounced 
booshup)  in  the  Devon  vernacular  as  it  does  to-day. 

From  this  lofty  burial  heap  we  shall  direct  our  steps  westward  to 
Western  Whitaburrow,  noticing  Bush  Pits,  the  remains  of  former 
mining  operations  which  extend  along  the  brow  of  the  hill,  as  we 
proceed.  The  ground  is  sometimes  rather  marshy  near  the  object  we 
are  approaching,  and  it  may  therefore  be  necessary  to  keep  a  little  to 
the  R.,  at  the  same  time  taking  care  not  to  descend  the  hill. 


N.  His- 

Staple  Roose   worthy  Mis 
Tor.      Tor.        Tor.     Tor. 


Gt. 

Links   Maiden   Balrdown 
Tor.        Hill.  Tor. 


FROM   PETRE'S   CROSS.      LOOKING   N.W. 

Western  Whitaburrow  forms  the  extreme  southern  bondmark  of 
the  forest,  according  to  the  limits  now  recognized.  In  our  Cosdon 
section  we  have  mentioned  this  cairn  as  being  visible  from  that  hill 
the  northernmost  point  of  the  forest  boundary  line.  If  the  visitor  to 
Whitaburrow  looks  in  a  northerly  direction  he  will  see  a  small  mound 
on  the  ridge  about  2\  m.  distant.  This  marks  the  situation  of  Aune 
Head,  the  morass  at  the  source  of  the  river  being  also  distinguishable. 
Beyond  this  the  openings  between  the  hills  through  which  the  East 
Dart  and  the  North  Teign  flow,  permit  him  to  see  the  rounded  form 
of  Cosdon,  1 6  m.  distant.  It  bears  a  little  W.  of  N.  from  this  point. 
Looking  in  the  opposite  direction  Three  Barrows  will  be  seen,  2  m.  S. 
(Ex.  31  j  ;  Pen  Beacon,  with  Shell  Top  overlooking  it,  about  4  m.  W.S.W. 
(Ex.  34)  ;  nearer  to  us,  and  extending  from  S.S.W.  to  W.,  the  long 


EXCURSION   30.      WESTERN    WHITABURROW.  55 

range  of  Stall  Moor  (Ex.  33)  ;  F,rme  Head,  2  m.  W.N.W.,  and  nearly 
6  m.  beyond  it,  North  Hisworthy,  N.W.  (Princetown  District  and 
R.  58),  with  Great  Mis  Tor  to  the  R.,  and  still  further  away  (Ex.  6)  ; 
from  this  fine  tor  a  distant  range  extends  R.  to  Cut  Hill,  1 1  m.  N.N.W. 
(Ex.  1 1),  to  the  R.  of  which,  N.  by  W.,  is  seen  Siddaford  Tor  (Ex.  20)  ; 
further  R.  is  White  Ridge,  10  m.  N.  (Ex.  45),  over  the  western  slope 
of  which  is  seen  the  far-away  Cosdon.  Quite  near  to  us  is  Huntingdon 
Warren  (Ex.  29),  and  looking  across  this  in  a  north-easterly  direction 
we  have  a  view  of  Rippon  Tor  and  Hey  Tor.  Western  Whitaburrow 
is  generally  referred  to  as  Petre's  Cross  from  the  former  existence  on 
the  cairn  of  a  cross  forming  a  bondmark  of  Sir  William  Petre's  manor 
of  Brent,  where  it  abutted  on  the  forest  (Ex.  31).*  This  was  partly 
destroyed  about  1847  by  the  workmen  employed  at  the  turf  ties  at 
Red  Lake  Mires,  but  a  portion  of  the  shaft  may  still  be  seen. 
[Crosses,  Chap.  II.]  The  men,  who  mostly  lived  at  or  near  Brent, 
built  a  house  on  the  cairn,  the  foundations  of  which  are  still  observable, 
and  here  they  remained  during  the  week.  Dried  heather  and  straw 
formed  their  bedding,  and  when  their  supplies  of  food  were  running 
short,  or  they  desired  a  change  of  diet,  they  made  incursions  into 
Huntingdon  Warren.  Men  who  worked  there  have  told  me  of  the 
large  number  of  rabbits  they  have  seen  prepared  for  dinner  or  supper. 
In  view  of  this  fact  we  can  quite  understand  the  necessity  of  the 
little  watch-house  of  the  warrener  above  Higher  Bottom,  of  which 
we  have  already  spoken  (Ex.  29).  The  Whitaburrow  house  was  slated, 
but  when  work  at  the  ties  at  Red  Lake  Head  ceased  and  the  place 
was  deserted,  the  roof  was  taken  off  by  the  late  Mr.  Meynell,  the 
owner  of  the  manorial  rights  of  Brent  Moor,  and  the  materials  removed. 
Whitaburrow  is  63  yards  in  circumference,  but  its  original  height  cannot 
be  determined,  as  the  stones  were  cleared  from  the  centre  where  the 
house  stood,  but  this  does  not  appear  to  have  been  very  great. 
The  altitude  of  this  hill  is  given  as  1,575  feet,  but  that  of  the  bench 
mark  on  the  shaft  of  the  cross,  which  stands  on  the  cairn,  is  1,580 
feet. 

North-eastward  of  the  cairn  is  a  bondstone  on  the  brow  of  the 
hill,  sometimes  called  Little  Petre.  From  this  the  forest  line  descends 
nearly  to  Buckland  Ford  (T.  i),  and  thence  to  the  Avon. 

[EXTENSION  over  Green  Hill  to  Ducks'  Pool,  add  5  m.  Close  to 
Whitaburrow  is  the  old  Zeal  Tor  tram-road,  elsewhere  noticed  (T.  60), 
and  over  which  the  peat  from  the  ties  £  m.  N.W.  was  conveyed  to  the 
works  at  Shipley.  From  the  former  there  is  a  stiff  ascent  to  this  point, 
but  on  passing  the  cairn  there  is  a  level  for  some  distance,  and  then 
for  a  greater  distance  a  descent  to  its  termination.  If  we  extend  our 

*  Sir  William  died  in  1571.  He  left  one  son,  John,  who  was 
advanced  to  the  dignity  of  a  Baron  of  England  by  the  title  of  Lord 
Petre  of  Writtle  in  Essex,  in  1603.  It  was  Robert,  seventh  Lord 
Petre,  who  provided  Pope  with  the  idea  of  The  Rape  of  the  Lock,  by 
stealing  a  lock  of  hair  from  the  head  of  his  beautiful  cousin,  Arabella 
Fermor.  The  famous  Father  Petre,  who  acted  as  confessor  to  James 
II.,  belonged  to  a  branch  of  this  family.  The  late  Lord  Petre  died  in 
December,  1908  ;  his  elder  brother  had  been  domestic  prelate  to  the 
Vatican. 


56  BRENT   DISTRICT. 

ramble  to  Green  Hill  this  old  tram-road  will  become  our  path  for  a 
little  way,  as  in  R.  58,  which  route  we  shall  follow  to  Dark  Lake. 
£  m.  from  the  cairn  we  reach  the  Crossways,  just  beyond  which,  at  the 
bottom  of  the  descent,  and  on  the  R.  of  the  road,  a  great  wooden  press 
formerly  stood,  and  near  this  the  wagons  were  loaded.  At  the  Cross- 
ways  we  turn  L.  into  the  Abbots'  Way  (T.  i ),  and  follow  it  to  Red  Lake 
Ford,  having  as  we  proceed  the  mire  below  us  R.,  and  Brown  Heath  L. 
It  is  this  part  of  the  old  monks'  road  that  the  moormen  generally  refer 
to  when  they  speak  of  Jobbers'  Path  (See  T.  i,  61).  On  nearing  Red. 
Lake  a  bondstone,  sometimes  called  the  Outer  U  Stone,  will  be  noticed 
on  its  bank,  and  one  or  two  others  will  be  seen  on  the  slope  of  Brown 
Heath,  L.  These  form  the  end  of  the  line  running  out  from  the  dip 
between  Three  Barrows  and  Sharp  Tor  (Ex.  32),  and  mark  the 
boundary  between  Ugborough  and  Harford  Moors.  If  the  clay  works 
now  formed  in  this  retired  part  of  the  moor  do  not  interfere  with 
the  purity  of  its  waters,  the  rambler  will  acknowledge  that  Red  Lake 
is  most  suitably  named.  It  certainly  appears  to  be  of  that  hue, 
though  unlike  the  river  of  Adonis,  in  Phoenicia,  which  the  marl  of 
Lebanon  stained  red  at  the  time  of  the  spring  floods,  it  is  not  really 
so.  The  water  is  perfectly  clear  ;  it  is  only  the  pebbles  in  its  bed 
that  are  coloured.  Heaps  of  stones  thrown  up  by  the  tinners  here 
line  the  banks  of  the  stream  ;  the  large  rock  standing  in  the  midst  of 
the  workings,  some  little  distance  below  the  crossing-place,  is  called 
the  Cracker  Stone.  (See  commencement  of  Route). 


Three 
Barrows. 


Sharp 
Tor. 


FROM   GREEN  HILI,.      LOOKING   S.S.E. 


r  Prom  Red  Lake  Ford  we  follow  a  north-westerly  course  across 
Green  Hill,  and  in  a  little  over  •§•  m.  shall  reach  a  grass-covered  gully, 
known  as  Middle  Mires,  though  except  in  winter  it  is  dry,  In  that 
season  a  rivulet  rises  in  the  lower  part  of  it,  and  there  it  has  been 
streamed  ;  below  this  are  Dry  Lake  Rocks.  The  ruins  of  a  small 
rectangular  miners'  hut  may  be  seen  on  its  bank,  not  far  above 
where  it  joins  the  Erme.  This  little  feeder  has  been  not  in- 
appropriately called  Dry  Lake,  though  it  is  occasionally  referred 
to  as  Middle  Brook,  but  its  true  name  is  Hux  Lake  (Ock  ?).  Carried 
across  the  upper  end  of  the  gully  is  the  stone  row  noticed  in  Ex.  33. 


EXCURSION  30.     DUCKS'  POOL.     THE   WOLLAKE.  57 

which  runs  out  from  Stall  Moor  to  the  higher  part  of  Green  Hill,  i,SS3 
feet,  4^  m.  R.,  where  it  terminates  in  a  ruined  kistvaen.  This  hill 
affords  the  best  pasturage  in  this  part  of  the  moor,  and  is  probably 
identical  with  the  "  preda  de  Irm  "  named  in  an  account  of  John 
D'Abernon,  Constable  of  Lydford  Castle  and  Custos  of  Dartmoor  in 
the  reign  of  Edward  III. 

Still  proceeding  N.W.  we  shall  in  less  than  4-  m.  reach  Stony  Hole, 
the  extensive  stream  work  on  Dark  Lake,  and  from  which  Black  Lane 
runs  N.  (T.  75).  As  mentioned  in  our  description  of  this  track  a 
rivulet  flows  into  Dark  Lake,  or  the  Wollake,  to  give  the  stream  its 
old  name,  at  the  head  of  the  working.  It  comes  in  from  the  L.  in 
ascending,  and  near  here  are  the  remains  of  a  miners'  building,  to 
which  the  name  of  Ducks'  Pool  House  has  been  given.  This  is  of  the 
usual  type,  but  of  small  size,  being  only  8  feet  9  inches  long  by  5  feet 
6  inches  wide  on  the  inside.  A  fire-place  and  the  ruins  of  a  chimney 
are  to  be  seen.  Following  the  rivulet  upward  L.,  we  shall  be  led  direct 
to  Ducks'  Pool  (T.  75),  now  emptied  of  water  either  by  the  stream 
having  worn  its  channel  down  to  the  level  of  the  bottom  of  the  tarn, 
or  by  artificial  means.  This  hollow  bears  a  resemblance  to  Cranmere 
in  more  ways  than  one.  It  is  still  called  a  pool,  though  containing  no 
water  ;  it  is  in  a  remote  situation  in  the  midst  of  the  fen  ;  and  has  been 
associated  with  the  heron,  or  crane.  The  latter  appears  in  the  name 
of  the  more  northern  hollow,  and  in  the  present  case  in  Crane  Hill, 
above  the  head  of  the  Plym,  which  source  is  only  a  short  distance  to 
the  N.W.  But  whether  the  name  is  derived  from  the  bird  is  open  to 
question  ;  it  may  possibly  be  a  corruption  of  a  word  meaning  something 
quite  different,  (cf.  Cranmere  Section  in  Part  III).  The  name  which 
this  hollow  now  bears  may  have  reference  to  wild  ducks ;  at  all  events, 
the  valley  of  the  Erme  near  Stony  Bottom,  about  2  m.  distant,  was 
once  much  frequented  by  those  birds. 

We  shall  now  return  to  the  stream  work,  from  which  we  have  a 
view  of  the  hills  above  the  Erme  valley,  the  principal  being  Three 
Barrows  and  Sharp  Tor,  with  Butterdon  Hill  and  the  Western  Beacon 
"beyond  (Ex.  32),  and  on  its  western  side  the  great  mass  of  Stalldon 
Barrow  (Ex.  33).  Making  our  way  down  the  workings  we  notice  that 
the  piles  of  stones  are  in  many  instances  faced  with  a  dry  wall.  Near 
the  lower  end  we  shall  come  upon  two  tinners'  houses  similar  to  the  one 
already  described,  but  larger.  One  measures  19  feet  by  8  feet,  on  the 
inside  ;  the  other  1 3  feet  by  7  feet.  Below  the  site  of  the  streaming 
operations  the  Wollake  enters  a  glen,  on  the  eastern  side  of  which  are 
some  masses  of  granite  called  Black  Rocks,  and  having  traced  its 
course  partly  through  this,  we  shall  find  on  the  R.  bank  the  remains  of 
what  there  is  documentary  evidence  to  show  was  once  a  tin  mill,  or 
place  for  crushing  the  ore,  even  were  signs  wanting  that  such  was  the 
case.  In  a  forester's  account  of  the  time  of  Henry  VIII.  there  is  an 
entry  of  3d.  having  been  received  as  rent  from  "  Richard  Coole  and 
Thomas  Hele,  for  a  mill  called  Wallack  Mill,  and  two  acres  adjoining  in 
the  Forest  of  Dartmoor."  Behind  this  little  building  is  a  ruined  wall, 
which  makes  a  semi-circular  sweep  on  the  hillside,  and  is  continued  on 
the  L.  bank  of  the  stream.  This,  it  will  be  seen,  encloses  a  space  of 
about  two  acres,  which  there  can  be  little  doubt  is  the  parcel  of  land 
named  by  the  forester.  That  the  building  was  a  mill  is  shown  by  the 
remains  of  a  water-course  leading  to  it.  On  the  inside  it  measures 


58  BRENT   DISTRICT. 

1 7  feet  by  7  feet.     Within  the  wall,  on  the  L.  bank,   s  another  erection,. 

1 8  feet  by  8  feet,  but  no  doorway  is  to  be  seen.* 

Below  these  remains  the  Wollake  runs  on  through  the  rocky 
hollow  to  the  Erme,  flowing  past  what  is  now  generally  referred  to  as 
Erme  Pits  Hill,  R.,  but  which  is  probably  the  same  that  was  known 
in  the  seventeenth  century  by  the  name  borne  by  the  stream,  and  on 
which  there  are  several  deep  excavations.  John  Webster,  the  author  of 
Metalographia  (1672),  obtained  some  information  about  the  mining 
in  this  locality  from  one  Thomas  Creber,  a  tinner,  of  Plympton.  He 
learnt  that  "  the  hills  where  they  get  tin  ore,  near  that  place  where  he 
lived,  are  called  Yelsbarrow  and  Woolack."  The  former,  though  now 
spelt  Eylesbarrow,  which  is  a  near  approach  to  its  ancient  form,  is 
always  pronounced  as  Webster  spell's-  it.f  The  working  just  described, 
as  well  as  those  at  Erme  Head  near  by,  give  a  good  idea  of  the  different 
means  employed  by  the  tinners  in  their  search  for  ore.  Streaming  was 
the  earlier  mode  ;  the  sinking  of  pits  a  more  modern  practice.  Erme 
Head  is  noticed  in  Ex.  33. 

A  short  distance  from  the  confluence  of  the  Wollake  and  the 
Erme  (the  tributary  is  here  the  larger  stream),  the  former  is  crossed 
by  the  Abbots'  Way  (T.  i ),  at  Black  Lane  Brook  Pord.  This  old  track 
runs  along  the  foot  of  Green  Hill,  close  to  the  Erme,  and  is  seen  again, 
at  Dry  Lake  Ford,  less  than  £  m.  further  E.  As  we  make  our  way 
over  it  we  have  Horton's  Combe  across  the  river,  R.,  and  on  passing 
the  last-named  ford  shall  notice  another  combe  also  on  that  side, 
which  the  moormen  call  Knocking  Mill.  These  are  described  in  Ex.  33. 
Here  the  valley  of  the  Erme  is  seen  extending  southward,  between 
Stall  Moor  R.,  and  Brown  Heath  and  Quickbeam  Hill,  L.  Keeping 
near  the  Erme  we  soon  reach  Red  Lake  Rushes,  below  which  we  shall 
find  a  little  fording-place  close  to  the  confluence  of  the  two  streams. 
We  cross  here,  and  strike  up  over  Brown  Heath  E.S.E.  to  Western 
Whitaburrow,  i£  m.  distant. 

[Should  the  visitor  desire  to  include  Erme  Pound  and  the  anti- 
quities near  it  (Ex.  32)  in  this  ramble  he  may  do  so  without  increasing 
the  distance  very  much.  In  such  a  case  he  will  keep  near  the  Erme 
on  crossing  Red  Lake,  his  course  being  S.  The  pound  is  only  about 
\  m.  down  the  valley.  Western  Whitaburrow,  which,  however,  is  not 
in  sight,  bears  E.  from  it,  and  E.N.E.  from  the  lower  end  of  Stony 
Bottom.  But  it  will  be  the  better  plan  not  to  return  thither,  but  to- 
follow  the  bottom  to  its  head,  and  leaving  Whitaburrow  £  m.  L-  strike 
E.S.E.  to  Knattaburrow  Pool.] 

Turning  from  the  cairn  from  which  we  have  had  such  an  extensive 
view  of  the  moor,  we  make  our  way  S.  along  the  Zeal  Tor  tramroad, 
and  at  the  distance  of  4r  m.  shall  notice  that  it  is  crossed  by  a  reave 
running  N.  and  S.  This,  which  is  sometimes  referred  to  as  Meynell's. 
Bank,  was  thrown  up  some  years  ago  when  an  attempt  was  made  to- 
enclose  Brent  Moor,  but  which  was  resisted  by  the  commoners.  Should 
the  rambler  desire  to  return  direct  to  Shipley  he  will  follow  the  tramroad 

*  A  more  detailed  account  of  this  old  mill  was  given  by  me  in  the 
Western  Antiquary,  in  1889,  and  also  of  the  stream  works  in  this  part 
of  the  moor. 

f  The  name  has  also  been  spelt  Ailsborough,  and  there  are  several 
other  renderings. 


EXCURSION  30.     BALA  BROOK.     KNATTABURROW.        $9 

as  in  R.  7,  walking  on  the  edge  of  it  when  he  reaches  that  part 
upon  which  the  bog  has  encroached.  This  will  take  him  by  the  pits 
of  the  deserted  Brent  Moor  Clay  Works  R.,  an  undertaking  started 
about  1872,  but  which  had  a  very  short  existence.  These,  which  will  be 
seen  at  the  head  of  a  Streamwork,  are  sometimes  referred  to  as  Petre's 
Pits,  but  this  merely  on  account  of  their  being  in  the  vicinity  of  Petre's 
Cross.  One  of  the  pits  is  named  Hill's  Pit,  and  another  Hall's  Pit, 
from  two  of  the  adventurers,  who  may  consequently  be  said  to  have 
left  something  besides  their  money  on  the  moor.  Further  down, 
where  the  tramroad  bends  R.,  is  Broad  Rushes  I,.,  which  extends  to 
Ryder's  Plain,  and  with  that  tract  separates  Zeal  Plains  from  Zeal  Hill. 
On  the  R.  of  the  rambler  is  Bala  Brook  Heath,  and  here,  on  rather 
miry  ground,  are  a  number  of  hut  circles  within  enclosures.  Bala 
Brook,  which  rises  at  the  workings  referred  to  above,  is  one  of  three 
streams  that  run,  when  united,  under  Zeal  Bridge,  and  fall  into  the 
Avon.  The  others  are  Middle  Brook  and  Red  Brook.  Between 
Bala  Brook  and  Middle  Brook  is  Knattaburrow  Hill,  and  between 
Middle  Brook  and  Red  Brook  is  Old  Hill ;  southward  of  the  last-named 
stream  is  Hickley  Ridge  and  Plain.  The  banks  of  all  have  been  worked 
for  tin,  and  the  name  of  the  principal  one,  Bala  Brook,  there  is  very 
little  doubt  has  reference  to  this,  bal,  signifying  a  mine,  and  being  in 
use  among  miners  in  the  West  at  the  present  day.  On  the  I/,  bank  of 
this  brook,  and  near  its  confluence  with  the  middle  stream,  are  the 
remains  of  one  of  those  little  buildings  which  seem  not  inappropriately 
to  have  been  named  caches  (see  Terms  Section).  Near  Broad  Rushes 
a  mile-stone  will  be  seen  by  the  side  of  the  tramroad,  and  further  on 
another  marked  "  J."  Here  the  rambler  may  leave  the  path  and 
strike  L.  over  Zeal  Hill  to  Shipley. 

If  we  decide  to  return  by  way  of  Knattaburrow  and  Red  Brook 
we  shall,  on  reaching  Meynell's  Bank  (from  which  a  distant  view 
of  Plymouth  is  obtained)  follow  it  across  Whitey  Mead,  the  depression 
between  the  head  of  Stony  Bottom,  R.,  and  the  source  of 
Bala  Brook,  I,.  On  reaching  its  termination  we  shall  notice  that  the 
Brent  Moor  boundary  is  marked  by  upright  posts.  This  line  extends 
nearly  to  Three  Barrows,  and  runs  roughly  parallel  to  the  one  we  have 
already  noticed  on  Brown  Heath.  The  area  between  these  lines  forms 
a  part  of  Ugborough  Moor,  which  is  here  very  narrow  ;  the  tract  to  the 
west  of  the  latter  is  in  Harford  parish.  We  shall  follow  the  boundary 
line  S.  for  ^  m.,  when  we  shall  find  ourselves  close  to  Knattaburrow 
Pool,  L.  This  is  probably  an  old  clay  pit,  but  its  irregular  shape  conceals 
its  true  character,  and  gives  it  the  appearance  of  a  natural  tarn. 
In  this  respect  it  is  certainly  more  interesting  than  the  better-known 
Crazy  Well  Pool,  which  is  clearly  artificial.*  Knattaburrow, 
which  is  a  fine  cairn  and  well  placed,  will  be  seen  a  short  distance  off 
S.E.,  and  to  this  we  now  make  our  way.  Here  we  strike  the  track 
leading  from  Ball  Gate  to  Bala  Brook  Head,  and  which,  as  we  have 
already  stated  (T.  61),  is  sometimes  called  Jobbers'  Path  (in  fact, 
it  is  so  named  on  the  Ordnance  Map),  but  incorrectly.  Jobbers' 
Path  is  really  the  Abbots'  Way,  and  elsewhere  I  have  brought  forward 
evidence  to  show  that  the  name  is  found  upon  that  path  at  several 

*  Knattaburrow  Pool  is  sometimes  spoken  of  as  Petre's  Pits  Pool 
the  name  being  taken  from  the  cross  in  the  vicinity. 


<5o  BRENT   DISTRICT. 

points  between  the  Avon  and  the  western  side  of  the  moor  (Crosses, 
Chap.  IX.)*  The  track  is  question  runs  to  the  Zeal  Tor  tramroad, 
which  in  turn  touches  the  Abbots'  Way  at  the  Crossways,  as  we  have 
seen,  and  it  is  this  connection  which  has  probably  led  to  the  name 
having  been  given  to  it.  Much  confusion  has  arisen  from  the  loose 
manner  in  which  names  have  sometimes  been  applied  to  places  and 
objects  on  Dartmoor.  Lakehead  Hill,  near  Post  Bridge,  has  been 
turned  into  Naked  Hill,  and  I  have  before  me  an  account  of  a  run 
with  the  fox  hounds  hi  which  the  ruined  building  bearing  the  name  of 
Snails'  House  (derived  from  a  story  attaching  to  it)  is  referred  to  as 
Mr.  Snell's  house  (Ex.  44).  I  could  give  a  number  of  similar  instances. 
Following  the  track  S.W.,  we  soon  reach  the  head  of  the  combe 
down  which  Middle  Brook  runs,  and  which  is  known  as  Petre's  Pits 
Bottom.  In  this  are  the  ruins  of  a  building,  in  which  it  used  to  be 
said  that  the  horses  employed  at  the  Red  Lake  Peat  Works  were  stabled. 
It  now  goes  by  the  name  of  Petre's  Pits  House,  and  sometimes  as 
Uncle  Ab's  House.  Below  the  higher  part  of  the  hollow  Middle  Brook 
bends  a  little  to  the  L.,  and  flows  between  high  banks  covered  with  the 
debris  of  old  mining  operations,  as  well  as  of  more  recent  ones,  as  a 
comparatively  modern  building  and  wheel  pit  will  show.  Passing  the 
combe  the  track  goes  on  over  Red  Brook  Ball,  as  the  higher  part  of 
Old  Hill  is  called,  to  Red  Brook  Mires,  \  m.  S.,  which  it  crosses  at 
Higher  Ford,  but  we  shall  now  leave  it  and  bear  L.,  our  course  being 
S.E.  by  S.,  for  i  m.  This  will  bring  us  to  Lower  Ford,  which  is  situated 
on  Red  Brook,  about  the  middle  of  its  course,  and  at  a  point  where 
the  stream  turns  rather  abruptly  to  the  L.  Among  the  mining  remains 
on  Red  Brook  are  a  few  small  buildings,  and  near  the  ford  is  a  shallow 
granite  trough.  (Further  N.,  on  the  other  side  of  Old  Hill,  is  another 
crossing-place,  also  known  as  Lower  Ford.  This  is  on  Middle  Brook, 
and  just  beyond  it  is  Bala  Brook  Ford  ;  they  are  both  near  the  con- 
fluence of  the  two  streams  named). 

Tracing  Red  Brook  downward  we  shall  speedily  be  led  to  one  of 
those  little  beauty  spots  that  are  found  occasionally  in  some  out-of-the- 
way  corner  of  the  moor.  This  is  Henchertraw,  where  the  stream  is  shut 
in  between  high  banks,  approaching  closely  to  each  other,  and  covered 
in  places  with  moss.  Heather  grows  on  their  edges,  and  from  their 
sides  mountain-ash  trees  spring,  the  tremulous  leaves  hanging  over 
the  tiny  cascades  formed  by  the  brook  as  it  forces  its  way  through 
this  miniature  canyon.  [Gems,  Chap.  XVI.]  Below  this  the  waters 
run  into  the  united  Bala  Brook  and  Middle  Brook,  and  here  on  the  R. 
bank  is  the  interesting  hut  enclosure  called  the  Half  Ring,  to  which 
we  have  already  referred.  The  wall,  which  is  204  yards  from  end  to 
end,  and  about  4^  feet  in  height,  describes  the  greater  part  of  a  circle, 
but  does  not  appear  ever  to  have  formed  a  complete  one,  the  river  being 
probably  deemed  a  sufficient  protection  on  one  side.  Within  it  are  four 
hut  circles  in  a  fairly  good  state  of  preservation,  and  vestiges  of 
others.  In  the  higher  part  of  the  enclosure  there  are  several  small 
courts,  similar  to  those  we  have  already  noticed  at  The  Rings,  on 

*  In  a  proclamation  naming  the  bounds  of  Erme  Plains  the  boun- 
dary is  said  to  run  from  "  Petre's  Cross,  and  so  on  to  Abbots'  Way, 
otherwise  Jobbers'  Path,  and  from  thence  to  Red  Lake  Head."  See 
Ex.  32. 


EXCURSION  31.     DIAMOND    LANE.     THREE   BARROWS.     61 

Ryder's  Plain.  Close  to  the  stream  on  the  opposite  bank  is  another 
enclosure,  in  which  there  are  also  hut  circles. 

Passing  downward  we  soon  reach  a  small  plantation,  close  to  which 
is  a  hunting-gate.  From  this  a  path  running  near  to  the  Bala  Brook 
will  lead  us  across  two  fields  to  the  road  at  Zeal  Bridge  (T.  73).  Here 
we  turn  R.  to  Didworthy,  or  Aish. 

[For  the  direct  route  to  Western  Whitaburrow  from  Shipley  see 
R.  58  and  S.  Ex.  107.] 

Ex.  31. — Diamond  Lane,  Hickley  Plain,  Three  Barrows,  Hobajmt's 
Cross  [EXTENSION  to  Erme  Pound,  add  5  m.],  The  Rowe  Rew,  The 
West  Glaze,  Stone  Rows,  Fallen  Dolmen,  Ball  Gate,  Coryndon  Ball,  Aish 
Ridge,  8£  m. 

Our  first  point  will  be  the  Shipley  road,  near  Didworthy  Bridge, 
which  we  may  reach  either  by  way  of  Lutton  or  Aish,  as  in  Ex.  30. 
Thence  we  proceed  towards  the  moor,  and  in  £  m.  shall  find  ourselves 
at  the  foot  of  Diamond  Lane,  which  runs  up  to  the  commons  L.  This 
bridle  track,  of  which  we  have  already  spoken  (T.  59),  will  now  become 
our  path,  and  though  it  is  steep  and  rugged,  it  is  probable  that  we  shall 
make  better  progress  than  did  the  coach  and  four  which,  according 
to  local  tradition,  was  once  driven  up  here  [Crosses,  Chap.  XVI.] 
Near  the  head  of  the  lane  the  rambler  will  notice  a  granite  trough, 
apparently  an  unfinished  one  ;  objects  such  as  this  were  usually  cut 
on  the  spot  where  a  stone  suitable  for  the  purpose  was  found,  and 
for  certain  reasons  were  sometimes  never  completed.  The  ancient  track 
goes  on  between  two  newtakes,  when  the  common  is  reached,  but  we 
shall  strike  up  the  slope  R.,  and  on  gaining  the  head  of  the  short  stroll, 
turn  L,.  and  make  our  way  over  Hickley  Plain,  our  course  being  a  little 
N.  of  W.  In  i^  m.  from  the  newtake  corner  we  shall  reach  the  summit 
of  the  hill  known  as  Three  Barrows,  which  rises  to  a  height  of  1,521 
feet,  and  forms  an  important  landmark  in  this  part  of  the  moor.  It 
derives  its  name  from  a  group  of  three  large  cairns,  the  centre  one  of 
which  stands  on  the  crest  of  the  eminence.  These  are  on  the  great 
reave  which  we  have  already  noticed  in  the  Terms  Section.  The 
centre  cairn  is  in  the  line  of  it,  though  some  of  the  stones  have  been 
removed  during  the  past  seventy  years ;  the  southernmost  is 
close  to  it ;  and  the  northernmost  only  a  few  yards  removed  from  it. 
This  reave,  which  is  referred  to  in  the  sixteenth  century  as  "  a  long 
conger  of  stones  called  L,e  Rowe  Rew,"  comes  up  the  hill  S.  from  above 
East  Glaze  Head,  where  it  presents  the  usual  appearance  of  a  bank  of 
turf.  North  of  the  cairns  its  character  is  different.  Here  it  may  be 
likened  to  a  causeway,  though  it  is  difficult  to  see  how  it  could  ever  have 
served  the  purpose  of  a  road,  as  has  been  suggested,  since  it  is  only 
continued  for  a  short  distance. 

In  1871  the  late  Mr.  Spence  Bate,  while  engaged  in  some  anti- 
quarian investigations  here,  found  the  mutilated  head  of  a  cross. 
This  in  all  probability  was  the  remains  of  one  of  four  set  up  in  1557  by 
Sir  Thomas  Dennys  and  others  who  had  been  appointed  to  survey  the 
bounds  of  Brent  Moor,  which  was  then  in  the  possession  of  Sir  William 
Petre.  The  commissioners  certified  that  they  had  erected  these  as 
follows  : — One  on  the  middle  cairn  at  Three  Barrows  ;  another  at 
Western  Whitaburrow,  which  we  have  already  noticed  (Ex.  30)  ;  a 
third  at  Buckland  Ford,  of  which  I  have  never  been  able  to  discover 


62  BRENT   DISTRICT. 

any  traces  ;  and  a  fourth  at  Wella  Brook  Foot,  at  the  corner  of 
Huntingdon  Warren,  which  is  still  standing  (Ex.  29).  On  the  old 
map  of  Dartmoor  now  in  the  Albert  Memorial  Museum  at  Exeter,  and 
which  it  seems  probable  was  prepared  in  connection  with  this  inquisi- 
tion on  the  Brent  Moor  boundary,  a  cross  is  shown  southward  of  Three 
Barrows,  standing  on  a  calvary,  and  bearing  the  name  of  Hobajon's 
Cross.  As  no  cross  is  now  to  be  found  on  the  spot  indicated,  it  is 
possible  that  it  was  removed  by  the  commissioners  to  Three  Barrows. 
[Crosses,  Chap.  II.]  But  the  name  is  now  attached  to  an  object  about 
•J  m.  N.  by  W.  of  the  centre  cairn — a  small  pile  of  stones  on  the  boundary 
between  the  parishes  of  Brent  and  Ugborough.  This  is  also  a  bond- 
mark  of  that  tract  of  moor  known  as  Erme  Plains,  which,  though 
partly  in  the  parish  of  Ugborough  and  partly  in  Harford,  is  within  the 
manor  of  Ermington.  But  I  do  not  find  that  in  the  proclamation 
read  at  the  time  of  perambulating  the  bounds  of  Erme  Plains  any 
mention  of  Hobajon's  Cross  is  made.  The  point  in  question  is  there 
referred  to  as  "a  small  heap  of  stones  near  Left  Lake  Head,  at  the 
end  of  the  ridge  of  stones  which  proceeds  north-west  from  the  middle 
borough  of  Three  Boroughs."  (See  Ex.  32,  33).* 

[EXTENSION  to  Erme  Pound  and  the  Brown  Heath  Antiquities,  add 
5  m.  Erme  Pound  may  readily  be  reached  from  Three  Barrows, 
from  which  it  is  distant  2^-  m.  The  rambler  will  proceed  down  the 
"  ridge  of  stones  "  to  the  "  small  heap,"  whence  the  boundary  of  Brent 
Moor  is  marked  by  a  row  of  posts  running  N.,  the  same  which  we 
saw  at  Meynell's  Bank  (Ex.  30).  This,  however,  must  not  be  followed. 
Instead,  the  rambler  will  strike  down  the  hill  L.  towards  the  row 
erected  on  the  line  between  Ugborough  Moor  and  Harford  Moor,  and 
at  the  distance  of  a  few  hundred  yards  will  strike  the  Blackwood 
Path  (T.  63),  into  which  he  will  turn  R.  This  will  lead  him  to  a  ford 
immediately  below  Left  Lake  Mires,  and  shortly  afterwards  to  the 
U  Stone,  where  he  will  cross  the  boundary  line.  The  path  runs  on 
W.  of  the  latter,  and  nearly  parallel  to  it,  to  a  ford  on  Hook  Lake  in 
Stony  Bottom,  and  not  far  from  the  hut  enclosures  referred  to  in 
Ex.  30,  and  described  in  Ex.  32.  These  will  be  found  L.  soon  after 
crossing  the  stream.  This  part  of  the  moor,  which  is  particularly 
interesting  from  an  antiquarian  point  of  view,  is  noticed  in  the  last- 
named  excursion.] 

The  view  from  Three  Barrows  embraces  a  great  extent  of  moor, 
on  one  hand,  and  of  cultivated  country  on  the  other.  It  overlooks 
the  frontier  heights  in  this  part  of  Dartmoor,  being  nearly  300  feet 
higher  than  Ugborough  Beacon  Rocks,  and  considerably  more  than 
400  feet  higher  than  the  Western  Beacon,  above  Ivybridge.  Much  of 
the  Erme  Valley  is  in  sight,  but  due  W.  (where  it  is  formed  by  this 
conspicuous  height  and  the  lofty  down  crowned  with  Stalldon  Barrow) 
it  cannot  be  seen.  To  look  upon  that  part  of  it  the  rambler  must 
descend  the  hill  for  a  little  way.  On  this  -side,  below  the  line  of  the 
Harford  boundary  stones,  there  are  several  groups  of  hut  circles,  some 
of  the  examples  of  these  ruined  dwellings  being  particularly  good. 

*  Among  other  forms  of  this  name  are  Threberis,  Tryberie 
Boroughs,  Triborough,  and  Tre  Boroughs.  Hobajon's  is  always 
Hoppyjone's  with  the  moormen. 


EXCURSION   31.      THE   GLAZES.  63 

Turning  from  the  three  huge  piles  of  stones  we  shall  follow  the 
reave  down  the  hill  S.S.E.  for  about  ^  m.,  passing  on  the  way  a  small 
tumulus  of  the  kind  usually  heaped  over  a  kistvaen.  The  boundary 
line  of  Brent  Moor  goes  on  to  East  Glaze  Head,  but  we  shall  leave  it 
-and  continue  S.S.E.  to  West  Glaze  Head,  and  follow  that  stream  for 
nearly  |  m.  to  Glascombe  (i.e.,  Glaze  Combe)  Corner.  At  its  source 
scattered  stone  heaps  covered  with  moss,  and  a  shallow  gully,  attest 
the  former  presence  here  of  the  tinners,  and  on  the  way  down  we  notice 
-other  objects  reminiscent  of  them.  The  stream  at  first  runs  through 
a  rather  wide  and  flat  bottom,  having  low  banks,  but  soon  these 
approach  each  other  and  form  a  hollow.  In  this,  at  the  head  of  a 
marshy  spot,  is  a  cache,  not  unlike  the  one  we  have  noticed  on  Rue  Lake, 
near  Rival  Tor  (Ex.  19),  in  being  partly  the  work  of  Nature.  This 
little  secret  store  place  is  nine  or  ten  feet  long  and  about  three  feet  high. 
About  twenty  yards  from  it  is  a  granite  trough.  Further  down,  and 
not  far  from  Glascombe  Corner,  a  very  extensive  working  commences, 
and  at  the  head  of  this,  among  the  heaps  of  debris,  is  a  mould  stone. 
Part  of  this  working  is  within  the  farm  enclosures  which  are  now 
reached,  the  wall  having  been  carried  through  it.  At  the  corner  there 
is  a  ford  where  the  track  from  Buckfast  to  Plympton  crossed  the  stream 
(T.  59).  This  we  shall  notice  is  roughly  paved. 

[Should  the  rambler  desire  to  return  by  way  of  Owley,  which  route 
will  take  him  down  the  valley  of  the  Glaze,  he  will  follow  the  in- 
structions given  hi  S.  Ex.  1 10.  The  valley  itself,  and  also  Ugborough 
Beacon,  are  noticed  in  S.  Ex.  111.] 

Turning  eastward  we  make  our  way  along  the  ancient  path  with 
the  wall  of  the  enclosures  close  to  us  R.,  and  shall  shortly  come  upon 
a  group  of  pre-historic  remains  which,  if  not  particularly  striking,  is 
yet  of  more  than  ordinary  interest  to  'the  antiquarian  visitor.  It 
consists  of  eight  parallel  rows  of  stones  ;  one  running  westward  from 
a  low  tumulus,  and  seven  seemingly  being  connected  with  a  small 
•circle,  of  which  only  a  part  now  exists.  The  rows,  which  extend  for 
about  a  hundred  yards,  are  incomplete,  and  the  stones  composing  them 
are  small,  but  their  number  is  unusual,  and  it  is  this  feature  that  will 
attract  the  attention  of  those  who  are  interested  in  such  monuments. 
Perhaps  these  remains  may  properly  be  regarded  as  forming  two 
monuments  ;  one  consisting  of  a  single  row,  the  other  of  seven. 

Passing  onward  we  soon  reach  the  East  Glaze,  at  Glascombe 
Upper  Plantation,  where  there  is  another  ford.  This  stream  is  now 
regarded  as  forming  the  western  boundary  of  the  parish  of  Brent,  but 
It  has  been  said  that  formerly  this  extended  to  the  West  Glaze.  In  a 
document  dated  1812,  in  which  the  acreage  of  the  commons  and  waste 
lands  of  the  manor  of  South  Brent  are  set  forth,  there  is  an  entry 
referring  to  the  Glazes,  which  is  stated  to  consist  of  over  sixty-four 
acres,  and  to  be  situated  "  between  Easter  and  Wester  Glazes." 
Another  entry  refers  to  Glascombe,  which,  according  to  the  document, 
was  "  formerly  said  to  be  in  the  parish  of  South  Brent."  It  is  further 
stated  that  it  "  now  pays  rates  and  taxes  to  Ugborough  ;  said  to  be 
lost  from  Brent  by  a  man  who  was  found  dead  on  the  spot  and  buried 
by  the  charity  of  the  inhabitants  of  Ugborough,  and  is  in  measure 
42a.,  ir.,  38p."  This  story,  which  we  remember  to  have  heard  many 
years  ago,  is  a  counterpart  of  the  one  related  in  connection  with 
Sourton  Common  (S.  Ex.  35  ;  cf.  also  Ex.  34),  and  is  also  met  with  in 


64  SHORTER    EXCURSIONS    FROM    BRENT. 

other  places.  It  would  appear,  however,  that  the  existing  bounds  of 
Brent  Moor  in  this  locality,  are  the  same  as  those  recognized  in  the 
sixteenth  century,  for  a  document  of  the  date  1557  draws  them  from 
"  a  certain  valley  or  place  where  and  in  which  two  waters  called  I<es- 
Glases  run  together  into  one  "  to  Glaze  Head,  and  thence  by  the  reave 
running  up  to  Three  Barrows  (Ex.  31). 

Making  our  way  by  the  wall  we  soon  draw  near  Ball  Gate,  and  here, 
on  the  L.,  close  to  a  despoiled  cairn,  of  which  little  now  remains,  is  a 
ruined  dolmen.  It  is  unfortunate  that  this  should  have  fallen,  or 
perhaps  have  been  intentionally  overthrown,  as  examples  of  this  kind 
of  monument  are  rare  on  Dartmoor.  The  supporters  show  that  it 
was  not  of  great  height,  but  its  surroundings  must  have  rendered  it 
very  striking,  particularly  when  the  cairn  near  it  was  intact. 

Northward  of  these  remains  is  Brent  Fore  Hill,  or,  as  it  is  some- 
times called,  Homer  Hill,  meaning  the  hill  nearest  the  Brent  in-ground. 
Still  further  N.  is  Hickley  Plain,  over  which  we  passed  on  our  way 
from  Diamond  L,ane  to  Three  Barrows. 

Passing  through  Ball  Gate  and  the  little  drift  court  (see  Court  in 
Terms  Section)  we  enter  upon  Coryndon  Ball,  and  follow  the  road  over 
this  with  Treeland  Down  on  the  further  side  of  the  wall  I,.,*  as  in 
S.  Ex.  109,  where  the  way  over  Aish  Ridge  is  described. 

From  Ball  Gate  we  may  also  return  by  way  of  Merrifield,  as  shewn 
in  S.  Ex.  108. 

[A  rather  more  direct  route  from  Brent  to  Three  Barrows,  4  m., 
is  via  Aish  and  Ball  Gate,  S.  Ex.  1 10  ;  from  Wrangaton,  4  m.,  by  Peek 
Gate  and  the  Glaze,  S.  Ex.  in  ;  from  Ivybridge,  4-^  m.,  by  Addicombe 
and  Hangershell  Rock,  Ex.  32  and  S.  Ex.  115.] 


Shorter  Excursions  from  Brent. 

S.  Ex.  99. — Brent  Hill,  3  m.  This  fine  hill  of  trap  rock  attains- 
an  elevation  of  1,017  feet,  and  commands  extensive  views  of  the  South 
Hams  and  south-eastern  border  heights  of  the  moor.  It  may  be 
reached  by  way  of  L,utton  (Ex.  29).  Turn  R.  on  reaching  the  green 
and  pass  up  through  a  narrow  lane  to  the  down.  Soon  after  entering 
upon  it  the  rambler  will  observe  a  little  gate  in  the  wall  above.  Pass 
through  this  and  turn  I,.,  and  keeping  near  the  wall,  make  for  the 
summit.  This  part  of  the  down  is  known  as  Beara  Common.  Shortly 
before  reaching  the  top  a  rampart  and  ditch  will  be  seen,  the  hill  having 
formerly  been  fortified  on  this  side  (cf.  Brent  Tor,  Ex.  9).  The  other 
side  was  naturally  protected,  being  there  very  steep  and  rocky.  Of 
the  little  building  which  once  crowned  this  conspicuous  height  only  a 
fragment  now  exists.  This  we  have  noticed  in  our  Terms 
Section  (see  Beacon).  From  no  hill  on  the  moorland  borders  is  the 
view  more  varied  than  from  this  one.  Southward  there  is  a  fine 

*  On  this  down  are  several  hut  circles  which  are  sometimes 
referred  to  as  the  Pixies'  Rings. 


SHORTER    EXCURSIONS   FROM    BRENT.  65 

panorama  of  field  and  woodland,  with  farmsteads  and  towers  of  village 
churches.  The  valley  of  the  Avon  can  be  traced  for  many  miles  ; 
glimpses  of  the  Channel  off  Torbay  and  westward  of  the  Bolt  Tail  are 
obtained  ;  the  higher  part  of  Torquay  is  seen,  and  several  landmarks 
on  the  coast,  with  Berry  Head  and  the  Bolt  Head.  S.W.  is  Ugborough 
Beacon,  with  the  moor  extending  from  it  northward  ;  the  valley  above 
Shipley  is  seen  N.  by  W.  ;  beyond  it  rises  Eastern  Whitaburrow,  and 
to  the  R.  of  this  Huntingdon  Warren  house  is  seen  peeping  over  Dock- 
well  Ridge.  Away  to  the  N.  is  Hameldon,  and  between  it  and  Challa- 
combe  Down,  W.  of  it,  the  break  in  the  huge  hill  is  which  Grim's 
Pound  is  situated  is  plainly  discernible.  R.  of  Hameldon  are  the 
lofty  tors  above  the  E.  side  of  the  Widecombe  valley,  and  when  the 
sun  is  shining  on  it  the  tower  of  Widecombe  Church  clearly  reveals 
itself.  N.  by  E.  is  Rippon  Tor,  with  the  bosses  of  Hey  Tor  looking 
over  the  shoulder  of  the  hill  it  crests,  and  below  it  the  woods  of 
Buckland.  To  return  strike  down  the  hill  due  E.  to  a  gate  opening 
upon  a  bridle  path.  Turn  R.  to  the  high  road,  and  passing  Leigh 
Cross  descend  to  the  village. 

(The  crags  on  the  W.  side  of  Brent  Hill  are  best  seen  by  turning 
I/,  on  entering  upon  the  down  above  Lutton.  If  this  route  is  followed 
the  visitor  may  make  his  way  to  the  summit  by  the  grassy  slopes 
between  the  piles.  Another  way  to  the  summit  is  by  the  steep  path 
E.  of  Underbill  Farm). 

S.  Ex.  100. — The  Valley  of  Dean  Burn,  12  m.  With  road  to  Deari 
Prior  Church  and  Buckfastleigh.  For  the  first  3  m.  the  way  lies  along 
the  old  road  to  Buckfastleigh.  Cross  the  eastern  railway  bridge 
and  ascend  Leigh  Cross  Hill.  Keep  L.  at  the  fork.  Note  the  bridle 
path  leading  to  Beara  Common  L.  just  beyond.  Straight  on  to  Har- 
bournford  Cross,  then  down  the  hill  to  Harbournford  hamlet,  where 
there  is  a  footbridge,  built  clapper  fashion,  over  the  Harbourn  (Ex. 
29).  Ascend  the  hill  passing  Dean  Cross  and  Clampits  Stile,  to  a 
plantation,  where  the  road  forks. 

(The  lane  R.  leads  to  Dean  Prior,  the  way  to  which  by  the  new  road 
from  Brent  is  shown  in  R.  66.  Here  Herrick  was  vicar  from  1629  until 
1647,  when  he  was  deprived  of  the  living,  but  he  returned  to  it  after  the 
Restoration,  and  died  here  in  1674.  The  road  going  straight  on  leads 
to  Dean  ;  Buckfastleigh  is  about  i  m.  beyond  that  place.) 

The  road  L.  is  the  one  we  must  follow,  leaving  the  plantation  on 
our  R.,  and  just  after  passing  this  must  again  turn  L-,  and  then  almost 
immediately  R.  The  lane  will  take  us  down  to  Dean  Combe,  beyond 
which  we  reach  Warn  Bridge  on  the  Dean  Burn.  Close  to  this  is  a 
gate  where  we  gain  access  to  the  narrow  valley  named  after  the  stream, 
and  which  extends  upwards  to  Lambs  Down  and  Cross  Furzes.  The 
scenery  throughout  is  of  a  romantic  character.  The  sides  of  the 
vale  are  wooded,  and  in  places  grey  crags  thrust  themselves  from 
amid  the  foliage,  while  the  stream  forcing  its  way  through  its  rocky 
channel  forms  more  than  one  fine  cascade.  [Gems,  Chap.  XV.]  The 
sound  of  falling  water  tells  the  visitor  that  he  is  near  one  of  these  ere 
he  has  advanced  far  into  the  wood.  This  is  the  spot  where  one 
Knowles,  a  weaver,  is  condemned  to  do  penance  in  the  form  of  a  black 
hound,  according  to  a  tradition  gathered  in  the  neighbourhood  by 
Richard  John  King,  an  authority  on  Devon  folk-lore  and  antiquities. 

r4 


66        SHORTER  EXCURSIONS  FROM  BRENT. 


The  basin  into  which  the  water  falls  is  known  as  the  Hound's  Pool  ; 
further  up  is  Pan  Pool,  and  this  also  has  its  story.  Passing  up  the 
valley  under  Dean  Clatters,  and  noticing  Skerraton  Farm  high  up  on 
the  side  of  a  combe  L-,  the  visitor  will  draw  near  Larkham  Wood  and 
reach  the  termination  of  the  path,  when  he  will  find  it  his  best  plan  to 
climb  the  side  of  the  valley  R.  to  Wallaford  Down.  Over  this  he  will 
make  his  way  northward  to  Cross  Furzes,  where  he  will  turn  down  I,. 
and  cross  the  Burn.  From  this  point  the  homeward  route  is  shown 
hi  R.  33  and  S.  Ex.  103.  Cross  Furzes  and  Lambs  Down  Farm  near 
by,  are  noticed  in  S.  Ex.  101,  as  also  is  Skerraton  Down,  from  which 
there  is  a  fine  view  of  the  valley. 

S.  Ex.  101.  —  Cross  Furzes  and  Scorriton  Down,  14  m.  With  road 
to  Holne.  By  the  Lutton  road  to  the  little  green  beyond  Bloody  Pool, 
as  hi  Ex.  29.  Thence  down  the  lane  R.  to  Gigley  Bridge,  which  spans 
the  Harbourn.  On  the  L.  are  the  enclosures  of  Dockwell  Farm  and 
Reddacleave  Farm,  and  in  the  valley  R.  Higher  and  Lower  Thyna- 
combe  Woods,  past  which  the  stream  flows  on  to  Zempson  Bridge  and 
Harbournford.  Pass  upward  from  the  bridge  and  turn  L.  Avoid  the 
lane  R.,  which  leads  by  Dean  Combe  to  Buckfastleigh  and  Ashburton 
(R.  73).  This  is  marked  by  a  guide-  stone  showing  the  direction  of 
the  last-named  town,  and  also  that  of  Totnes,  Plympton  (or  Plymouth). 
and  Tavistock.  Continue  onward  to  Skerraton  Down,  and  leaving  the 
road,  follow  the  green  track  which  runs  up  over  it. 

[By  striking  across  the  down,  near  the  hedge  R.,  the  brow  of  the 
hill  forming  the  western  side  of  the  valley  of  Dean  Burn  will  be  speedily 
reached,  and  a  fine  view  of  that  romantic  glen  obtained.  On  the  R., 
overlooking  Dean  Wood,  but  unseen,  is  Skerraton  (S.  Ex.  100),  the 
ancient  Sciredun,  once  held,  together  with  lands  in  Shipley,  by  David. 
by  the  serjeantry  of  two  arrows  when  the  king  hunted  on  Dartmoor. 
It  was  afterwards  similarly  held  by  Roger  Mirabel,  but  being  forfeited 
by  him  was  given  to  Walter  Medicus,  and  in  1275  was  in  the  possession 
of  John  Boy  vile,  who  married  Dionisia,  the  daughter  of  Medicus. 
Skerraton  appears  in  a  forester's  account  of  1  502  as  "  Shiridon  in 
parochia  de  Dene,"  and  then  paid  a  venville  rent  of  7d.] 

The  track  leads  to  a  gate  at  the  higher  part  of  the  down  opening 
on  to  Dean  Moor,  and  from  this  goes  onward  by  the  wall  of  Lambs' 
Down  to  Water  Oke  Corner,  from  which  point  the  reave  referred  to  in 
the  section  on  The  Moors  of  Holne  and  Buckfastleigh  runs  up  the  hill 
to  Pupers.  If  the  visitor  is  driving  to  Cross  Furzes  he  must  pass 
through  this  gate,  and  turning  R.  to  another  enter  upon  Lambs'  Down, 
the  way  then  running  in  front  of  the  ruined  farm.*  But  the  pedestrian 
will  leave  the  gate  L.  and  pass  across  the  higher  side  of  the  down  near 
the  wall,  and  will  shortly  afterwards  descend  to  a  little  feeder  of  the 
Dean  Burn  stream.  Pass  through  the  hunting-gate  and  up  the  narrow 
path.  Here  is  a  fine  view  of  the  valley.  Close  by  are  the  ruined  walls 
of  Lambs'  Down  Farm,  locally  Lemson  Farm.  The  track  now  descends 
to  the  Burn,  where  is  a  fording-place,  and  a  single  stone  clapper  1  1  feet 

*  The  down  is  usually  referred  to  as  Lambs'  Down  Waste  in  order 
to  distinguish  it  from  the  farm.  Just  above  Cross  Furzes  on  the  Dean 
Burn  is  Lower  Ford,  and  still  further  up  is  Higher  Ford,  and  Forder 
Farm. 


SHORTER  EXCURSIONS  FROM  BRENT.        67 

8  inches  long,  3  feet  7  inches  wide  at  its  centre,  and  about  10  inches 
thick.  At  its  western  end  the  date  1705,  followed  by  the  script  letters 
G.R.,  is  cut  upon  its  surface,  and  about  the  middle  of  it  near  its  edge 
is  a  later  one — 1737,  preceded  by  the  letters  B.D.A.  From  the  bridge 
we  ascend  the  side  of  Cross  Furzes,  a  small  open  space  where  several 
roads  cross  (T.  i).  The  first  on  the  R.  runs  S.E.  across  Wallaford 
Down,  a  common  between  the  Dean  Burn  valley  S.  and  King's  Wood 
N.,  and  thence  by  Wallaford  Cross  to  Buckfastleigh.  The  next  on  that 
side  runs  about  E.  down  the  hill  between  King's  Wood  R.  and  Brook 
Wood  L.  to  Hockmoor  Head,  on  the  road  from  Buckfastleigh  to  the 
moor.  The  one  running  N.  from  the  higher  corner  is  the  Scorriton 
and  Holne  road  ;  and  the  other  bearing  L.,  or  N.W.  from  the  corner 
goes  on  past  the  entrance  to  Hayford  to  Lid  Gate,  which  opens  on 
Buckfastleigh  Moor.  Note  the  guide-stone  near  the  corner  with  the 
initials  of  Brent,  Tavistock,  and  Ashburton.  Following  the  road 
Tunning  N.,  the  rambler  will  descend  to  Two  Oaks,  £  m.,  and  take  the 
L.  branch  at  the  fork,  and  \  m.  further  on  will  cross  the  Mardle  at 
Combe  Bridge.  About  £  m.  beyond  this  is  the  hamlet  of  Scorriton, 
-where  a  road  turns  L.,  or  W.,  up  the  hill  to  Scorriton  Down. 

[From  Scorriton,  where  is  a  small  inn  called  The  Tradesmen's 
Arms,  the  Holne  road  runs  to  Holy  Brook  Bridge,  near  which  a  lane 
leads  L.  to  Michelcombe,  a  small  hamlet.  (The  Holy  Brook  comes 
<iown  from  Gibby's  Combe  Wood  through  Michel  Combe,  which  gives 
name  to  this  little  place).  On  crossing  the  bridge  keep  R.  up  the  hill. 
At  the  top  turn  L.  to  Play  Cross,  and  then  R.  to  the  village.] 

The  rambler  will  make  his  way  to  the  down  as  above,  passing 
Clarke's  Barn  Plantation  immediately  before  he  reaches  it.  Here  he 
will  follow  a  track  for  a  short  distance  W.,  which  will  lead  him  to  Chalk 
Pord,  on  the  Mardle  (T.  56),  which  stream  enters  Scae  Wood  just  below. 
{For  a  notice  of  the  objects  in  this  locality  see  the  Section  on  The  Moors 
of  Holne  and  Btickfastleigh.)  Above  the  ford  the  Wheal  Emma  leat 
will  be  seen  rushing  down  the  hill  into  the  Mardle,  from  which  the  water 
is  again  taken  above  Combe  and  conducted  to  the  mine.  Turn  S.up 
the  hill  on  crossing  the  footbridge,  keeping  the  enclosures  close  I,. 
Pass  the  stroll  leading  to  Lid  Gate,  and  also  Hayford  Plantation,  L-. 
and  about  £  m.  further  on  Water  Oke  Corner  will  be  reached.  Here 
the  rambler  may  turn  eastward,  and  keeping  the  wall  L.,  make  his  way 
to  Skerraton  Down,  on  entering  upon  which  he  will  follow  the  in- 
structions given  in  R.  33  and  S.  Ex.  101  ;  or  he  may  bear  S.  and  strike 
the  green  path  running  to  Dockwell  Gate  (T.  55)  This  path  leaves 
Parnell's  Hill  L-,  and  descends  to  the  head  of  Dockwell  Hole,  (note 
the  bond-stone  called  The  Goose,  R.),  where  it  is  a  plainly  defined  track, 
and  can  be  readily  followed  to  the  gate.  Pass  up  the  wide  stroll  to 
the  little  green,  whence  the  way  to  Brent  is  shown  in  S.  Ex.  103. 

S.  Ex.  102. — Cross  Furzes  and  Pupers,  13^  m.  To  Cross  Furzes 
as  in  the  preceding  excursion.  Strike  L.  from  the  higher  corner  up  the 
lane  to  Lid  Gate,  with  Hayford  L.  On  emerging  on  the  moor  the 
rambler  will  find  himself  at  the  foot  of  Pupers  Hill,  the  rocks  on  its 
summit  being  about  ±  m.  distant.  These  are  noticed  in  the  Section 
on  The  Moors  of  Holne  and  Buckfastleigh.  Having  visited  them  the 
rambler  may  follow  the  reave  extending  S.S.E.  from  Inner  Pupers. 
i.e.,  the  eastern  pile,  down  the  hill  to  Water  Oke  Corner.  Here  he  may 


68  SHORTER    EXCURSIONS   FROM    BRENT. 

choose  his  homeward  route  as  in  the  last  excursion.  The  most  direct 
route  to  Pupers  from  Brent  is  by  way  of  this  corner,  which  may  be 
reached  as  directed  in  S.  Ex.  101,  or  S.  Ex.  104. 

S.  Ex.  103. — Dockwell  Hole  and  Skerraton  Down,  8  m.  Dockwell 
Gate  is  the  first  point  ;  see  Ex.  29.  (From  here  Shipley  Tor  is  f  m. 
distant  I,.,  the  way  to  it  lying  along  by  the  wall  outside  the  enclosures). 
Turn  R.  soon  after  passing  through  the  gate,  and  descend  the  slope  to 
Dockwell  Hole,  as  directed  in  Ex.  29,  where  the  remains  near  Harbourn 
Head  are  noticed.  A  track  goes  eastward  from  Harbourn  Head  Ford 
to  a  gate  in  the  wall  of  Skerraton  Down,  whence  a  road  runs  by  the 
side  of  it  to  the  lower  corner,  S.,  at  which  it  is  entered  upon  from 
Gigley  Bridge,  as  described  in  S.  Ex.  101.  This  the  rambler  may- 
follow,  or  he  may  strike  across  from  the  Long  Stone  to  the  gate  further 
N.,  at  the  higher  part  of  the  down,  as  noticed  in  the  same  excursion. 
In  either  case  his  point  will  be  the  lower  corner.  On  leaving  the  down 
here  follow  the  lane  and  take  the  first  turning  R.  to  Gigley  Bridge,  as 
directed  in  R.  33.  On  crossing  the  bridge  pass  up  the  lane  to  the  little 
green,  and  bear  L.  Exactly  £  m.  on,  and  just  after  passing  Bloody 
Pool  R.,  is  Gingaford  Cross  (guide-post).  Here  take  the  R.  branch. 
A  short  distance  further  on  the  road  again  forks,  the  R.  branch  going; 
on  past  Downstow  to  Yolland  and  the  moor.  Take  the  L.  branch, 
and  |  m.  on  Lutton  Green  will  be  reached.  Continue  on  the  road,  and 
at  the  foot  of  Splatton  Hill  keep  I/,  to  the  village,  with  the  vicarage 
grounds  R. 

S.  Ex.  104. — Huntingdon  Warren  direct,  via  Dockwell  Gate  and 
Water  Oke  Plain.  The  Warren  House  is  6  m.  from  Brent.  To  Dock- 
well  Gate  as  in  Ex.  29.  Thence  the  way  will  lie  over  the  Combestone 
Tor  track,  with  Dockwell  Hole  at  the  bottom  of  the  slope  R.  On. 
passing  the  head  of  the  hollow  Parnell's  Hill  is  R.,  and  Small  Brook 
Plains  L.  A  straight  line  to  the  Warren  House  would  take  the  rambler 
to  Brock  Hill  Ford  and  over  Hickaton  Hill,  but  the  better  way  is  to 
continue  on  the  green  track  over  Water  Oke  Plain  to  a  little  fording- 
place  on  the  leat,  \  m.  N.W.  of  Water  Oke  Corner.  (The  route  to  this 
point  via  Gigley  Bridge  is  shown  in  S.  Ex.  101).  Huntingdon  Bridge,. 
in  front  of  the  house,  is  i  m.  distant  W.  by  N.,  and  the  ground  is  good, 
throughout  the  way. 

[The  warren  may  also  be  reached  from  Shipley  (Ex.  30,  S.  Ex.  106). 
If  the  I,,  bank  of  the  Avon  be  chosen  it  should  be  followed  up  to  Lower 
Huntingdon  Corner,  and  the  Wella  Brook  be  crossed  there  at 
Huntingdon  Ford  ;  if  the  rambler  proceeds  to  the  corner  by  the  R.. 
bank  (S.  Ex.  106)  he  will  cross  the  river  there  at  Avon  Ford.] 

A  return  route  from  the  warren  is  given  in  Ex.  29. 

S.  Ex.  105. — Yolland,  Dockwell  Ridge,  and  Shipley,  7  m.  To- 
Lutton  Green  as  in  Ex.  29.  Straight  on  N.  for  about  £  m.,  when  a  gate 
L.  must  be  entered  and  the  footpath  followed  over  some  fields.  Cross 
the  lane  at  Over  Brent  Farm  and  another  field,  then  turn  R.  into  a 
second  lane  ;  follow  it  for  a  few  score  yards  and  turn  up  the  hill  L. 
At  Downstow  Cross.  $  m.,  a  lane  turns  L.  to  Didworthy  Bridge.  Here 
note  the  view  :  northward  Shipley  Tor,  westward  Ugborough  Beacon, 
Rocks,  and  southward  Brent  Hill.  A  little  further  on  is  Yolland 
Cross.  Enter  the  gate  and  follow  the  road  past  the  farm  and  the  fine 


SHORTER    EXCURSIONS   FROM    BRENT.  69 

grove  near  it  (R.  73).  A  short  distance  beyond  this  leave  the  path  and 
strike  L,.  across  Yolland  Waste  to  a  hunting  gate,  Yolland  Warren 
being  I/.  On  passing  through  the  gate  Dockwell  Ridge  is  reached. 
Under  this  name  is  comprehended  that  part  of  the  Brent  common  land 
.situated  on  the  E.  side  of  the  Avon,  and  consisting  of  374  acres,  the 
jiorthern  boundary  of  which  is  marked  by  the  line  of  posts  extending 
irom  Dockwell  Hole  to  Small  Brook  Foot.  Turn  L,.  to  Shipley  Tor, 
\  m.  westward.  Shortly  before  this  is  reached  a  circular  stone,  3  feet 
10  inches  in  diameter,  and  10  inches  thick,  will  be  seen  built  into  the 
"wall.  It  is  similar  to  the  one  we  have  already  noticed  near  Dockwell 
•Gate  (Ex.  29)  and  the  same  size,  but  the  hole  in  its  centre  is  only  about 
2|  inches  deep.  This  wall  cuts  across  Shipley  Tor,  and  another  runs 
•down  the  hill  S.  from  the  rocks  at  right-angles  to  it.  On  the  W.  side 
•of  the  latter  is  Black  Brake,  and  on  the  lower  side  of  this,  there  are 
more  of  these  circular  stones.  (These  may  be  reached  by  passing 
through  the  hunting-gate  near  the  tor  to  another  gate  R.,  a  little  way 
down  the  hill.  Just  above  this,  one  of  them,  in  a  partly  finished  state, 
may  be  seen  in  the  wall,  and  below  the  gate  but  on  that  side  of  the  wall 
facing  W.,  is  another.  The  others  are  further  down  ;  one  is  on  its 
face,  and  partly  built  upon,  and  another,  which  is  also  on  its  face,  is 
hidden  among  scattered  rocks  and  bushes.  These  were  probably 
intended  for  mill  stones,  and  not  for  crushing  ore.  I  have  known 
those  who  remember  when  it  was  customary  to  go  to  the  moor  to  cut 
stones  for  the  corn  mills,  and  that  this  had  been  done  for  a  long  period 
is  most  likely). 

Prom  the  hunting-gate  we  pass  down  the  hill  S.  to  the  road  (R.  33) 
where  we  turn  R.  to  the  moor  gate.  The  return  from  Shipley  Bridge 
to  Brent  is  given  hi  Ex.  29.  If  the  rambler  chooses  the  route  via 
Didworthy  he  need  not  cross  the  bridge  from  the  point  he  has  now 
reached,  but  may  make  his  way  to  that  place  by  a  pleasant  footpath. 
Close  to  the  gate  is  another,  L,.  ;  this  he  will  enter,  and  the  path  will 
lead  him  across  some  fields  to  the  one  opening  on  the  yard  at  the  back 
of  the  Sanatorium.  The  wooded  Didworthy  Bottom  (noticed  in  the 
next  excursion)  is  kept  R. 

S.  Ex.  106. — Shipley  Bridge  and  Long-a-Traw,  9  m.  To  Shipley 
via  Lutton  and  Didworthy,  or  via  Aish,  as  in  Ex.  30.  If  via  Didworthy 
the  rambler  may  take  the  field  path  from  that  place  to  Shipley,  as  in 
the  last  excursion.  He  will  cross  the  lane  on  leaving  the  yard  of  the 
Sanatorium,  and  passing  up  by  some  cottages  will  soon  reach  the 
fields,  over  which  he  will  follow  the  path  with  Didworthy  Bottom  L. 

[A  private  path  runs  through  the  woods  from  Didworthy  Bridge 
to  Shipley.  This  is  carried  along  the  L.  bank  of  the  Avon,  and  from 
it  a  view  of  the  confluence  of  that  river  and  Red  Brook,  or  Bala  Brook, 
is  obtained  (Ex.  30),  the  picture  being  a  very  charming  one.  It  also 
passes  close  to  a  rocky  canyon  known  as  Zeal  Pool,  at  the  head  of  which 
is  a  cataract,  and  still  further  up  a  series  of  beautiful  cascades.  Just 
below  the  latter  the  path  approaches  quite  near  to  the  river.  [Gems, 
Chap.  XVI.] 

From  Shipley  the  road  running  eastward  by  the  enclosures  of 
Shipley  Cottage  should  be  followed  for  about  £  m.,  when  a  gate  will  be 
reached  L.,  from  which  a  hunting  path  leads  ^p  the  tor  (R.  64).  A 
track  runs  N.  from  the  latter  over  Stone  Heath,  and  parallel  to  it,  and 


70  SHORTER    EXCURSIONS   FROM    BRENT. 

near  to  the  wall,  is  another,  but  neither  goes  very  far  out.  By  follow- 
ing the  line  of  these  the  rambler  has  a  good  view  of  the  narrow  valley 
below,  with  Brent  Moor  House  and  Brent  Moor  Cottages  close  to  the 
river.  Keeping  near  the  decayed  boundary  hedge  I,,  he  will  pass, 
above  the  two  clatters  that  stream  down  into  the  river,  known  as- 
Woolholes  and  Higher  Woolholes,  in  which  Reynard  sometimes  finds 
a  shelter.  Near  the  point  where  the  hedge  turns  down  the  hill  some 
small  pounds  containing  hut  circles  will  be  noticed,  and  further  E.  on 
Dockwell  Ridge  are  several  low  reaves.  Here  the  rambler  will  descend 
to  Woola  Plain  on  the  L.  bank  of  the  river  at  the  lower  end  of  Long-a- 
Traw  (Ex.  29),  where  is  a  deserted  granite  quarry.  He  will  now  make 
his  way  upward,  noticing  Long-a-Traw  Island  as  he  proceeds.  Not 
far  from  this,  on  a  part  of  the  plain  called  Peathy's  Path,  are  the  faint 
vestiges  of  a  hut,  or  building  of  some  sort.  In  front  is  Gripper's  Hill, 
and  between  it  and  Small  Brook  is  Itifer  Bottom,  which  runs  up  to- 
Small  Brook  Plains.  This  part  of  the  moor,  including  the  canyon 
through  which  the  Avon  flows,  is  noticed  in  Ex.  29.  Crossing  the  river 
either  immediately  below  the  canyon,  or  at  Viger's  Corner  a  little  way 
above  it,  the  rambler  will  make  his  way  down  the  R.  bank.  (The 
Rings  are  on  the  brow  of  the  hill  above  him,  Ex.  30).  Ere  he  has  pro- 
ceeded far  it  will  be  necessary  to  leave  the  river,  as  near  it  is  Black 
Tor  Mire,  but  when  opposite  to  the  granite  quarry,  and  under  Black 
Tor,  he  may  again  approach  it,  and  will  then  follow  the  road  down, 
its  R.  bank.  The  little  building  near  where  he  strikes  it  was  once  a 
smithy  connected  with  the  quarry,  and  not  far  from  this,  and  close  to 
the  path,  there  was  formerly  a  rock  to  which  the  name  of  Hobbs* 
Nose  was  given,  from  its  fancied  resemblance  in  form  to  the  nasal 
organ  of  a  certain  quarryman  of  that  name  who  once  worked  there. 
Just  below  Brent  Moor  House  a  granite  pedestal  will  be  noticed  on  a 
rock  R.  This  was  erected  to  the  memory  of  a  little  daughter  of  Mr. 
Meynell,  who  formerly  resided  here.  The  river  here  runs  over  a  solid 
bed  of  granite.  A  little  further  down,  R.  of  the  way,  and  below  Stone 
Hollow,  is  the  Hunter's  Stone,  a  rock  bearing  the  names  of  four  fol- 
lowers of  hounds  well  known  on  Dartmoor  in  a  former  day — Treby, 
Trelawny,  and  Bulteel  being  graven  on  its  sides,  and  on  the  top  Carew. 
This  memorial  was  the  work  of  Mr.  C.  A.  Mohun-Harris,  who  lived 
at  Brent  Moor  House  for  a  time.  Not  far  below  there  is  a  fine  water- 
fall. Passing  the  buildings  originally  erected  as  a  naphtha  factory, 
and  afterwards  repaired  and  utilized  by  the  Brent  Moor  Clay  Company 
(T.  60),  the  rambler  reaches  Shipley  Bridge.  For  routes  to  Brent 
see  Ex.  29,  S.  Ex.  105.  See  end  of  S.  Ex.  112. 

S.  Ex.  107. — Western  Whitaburrow  direct.  This  cairn  is  5  m. 
from  Brent.  To  Shipley  as  in  Ex.  30.  Then  by  the  old  Zeal  Tor 
tramroad  as  shown  in  R.  58. 

S.  Ex.  108. — Hickley  Ridge,  Henchertraw,  arid  Merrifield,  64-  m. 
To  Zeal  Bridge  and  through  the  gateway  close  to  to  it,  L.  On  reaching 
the  common  keep  near  the  river  to  the  Half  Ring,  and  then  follow  up 
Red  Brook  L.  to  Henchertraw  (Ex.  30).  Just  above  this  strike  S.S.E. 
over  Hickley  Plain  to  Merrifield  Plantation,  f  m.,  which  keep  L.  Near 
to  this  is  the  grave  of  Quicksilver,  a  hunter  belonging  to  Mr.  Calmady, 
\vhich  dropped  dead 'here  when  being  ridden  by  his  owner  with  the 


SHORTER    EXCURSIONS   FROM    BRENT.  71 

Dartmoor  hounds  about  thirty-five  years  ago.  Enter  the  gate  below  the 
plantation,  and  follow  the  path  past  Merrifield  Farm  to  Badworthy 
Brook,  where  turn  up  the  hill  R.  to  Binnamore  Cross.  Turn  R.  to 
Aish. 

S.  Ex.  109. — Merrifield,  Brent  Fore  Hill,  and  the  East  Glaze,  6|  m. 
To  Aish  and  on  by  the  Shipley  road,  or  by  the  pathfields  entered  above 
Lydia  Bridge,  as  in  Ex.  30.  \  m.  beyond  the  hamlet  Binnamore  Cross 
is  reached.  Turn  L,.  and  descend  the  hill  with  Staddon  Plantation  on 
that  side,  to  Badworthy  Brook,  where  a  track  leads  I,,  to  Treeland. 
On  passing  over  the  brook  turn  I,,  up  across  the  fields  past  Merrifield 
to  the  common.  Strike  W.N.W.  over  Brent  Fore  Hill  to  some  rocks 
known  as  Sharp  Tor,  not  far  from  East  Glaze  Head,  which  is  £  m.  S.E. 
of  Three  Barrows.  This  stream  rises  in  a  marsh,  on  the  lower  side  of 
which  vestiges  of  the  operations  of  the  old  tinners  are  observable. 
Following  it  downward  a  small  working  is  soon  reached,  and  a  little 
removed  from  the  L,.  bank  is  a  gert  over  100  yards  in  length,  and  about 
15  feet  deep.  Below  the  working  a  leat  is  taken  from  the  stream,  and 
here,  but  on  the  opposite  bank,  is  a  hut  circle.  Still  following  the 
Glaze  the  rambler  will  speedily  reach  Glascombe  Upper  Plantation, 
where  he  will  turn  L.  to  Ball  Gate.  Here  is  the  fallen  dolmen  and 
ruined  cairn  noticed  hi  Ex.  31.  Passing  through  the  gate,  as  in  that 
excursion,  the  rambler  will  follow  the  road  by  the  side  of  Coryndon 
Ball  R.  to  the  plantation  of  the  same  name.  The  road  will  lead  him 
down  by  the  side  of  this  to  a  stroll  at  the  end  of  which  is  a  gate.  Pass 
through  this  and  up  the  hill  to  Aish  Ridge.  Then  leave  the  road  and 
strike  L.  up  over  the  common  by  the  gravel  pit  following  the  green 
path  to  the  gate  at  its  eastern  corner.  From  here  a  lane  runs  down 
the  hill  to  Aish,  £  m.  distant.  (Another,  leading  to  some  fields, 
branches  from  it ;  on  reaching  this  keep  R.) 

S.  Ex.  no. — Aish  Ridge,  Coryndon  Ball,  Glascombe  Bottom,  Owley, 
6£  m.  To  Aish  as  in  Ex.  30.  Avoid  the  first  turning  L.,  but  take  the 
next  on  that  side  at  the  higher  part  of  the  hamlet,  and  follow  this  up 
to  the  down.  Thence  across  this  westward  to  Aish  Ridge  Plantation. 
Keep  this  L.,  and  descend  the  hill  to  the  gate.  Pass  through  the  stroll, 
and  up  the  narrow  lane  with  Coryndon  Ball  Plantation  L.  Thence 
the  road  runs  straight  on  to  Ball  Gate.  Coryndon  Ball  is  an  enclosed 
down,  extending  about  •£•  m.  from  N.  to  S.  and  the  same  from  E.  to  W. 
It  is  bounded  on  the  W.  by  the  East  Glaze,  and  on  the  slope  above  that 
stream  there  are  some  small  pounds  and  hut  circles  ;  there  are  also 
some  stones  having  something  of  the  appearance  of  a  row.  At  Ball  Gate 
the  rambler  will  turn  L.,  his  route  being  the  reverse  of  that  described 
in  Ex:  31,  to  which  he  is  referred  for  notices  of  the  objects  passed. 
This  will  bring  him  to  Glascombe  Corner,  i  m.  distant.  (Three  Bar- 
rows is  ij  m.  distant  N.W.  by  N.  See  Ex.  31  ;  Ugborough  Beacon 
Rocks  i£  m.  S.S.E.  See  S.  Ex.  112).  Turning  L.  he  will  trace  the 
West  Glaze  down  the  valley,  passing  the  great  stream  work  men- 
tioned in  Ex.  31.  This  is  succeeded  by  Glascombe  Lower  Plantation, 
below  which  is  Glaze  Meet.  The  objects  in  this  valley,  which  is  usually 
referred  to  as  Glascombe  Bottom,  being  noticed  in  the  following 
excursion  it  is  unnecessary  to  describe  them  here.  Near  Glaze  Meet 
is  a  fine  pound  through  which  the  rough  track  running  down  from,  the 


72  SHORTER    EXCURSIONS   FROM   WRANGATON. 

corner  will  take  us.  Below  the  pound  this  crosses  the  little  tributary 
called  the  Scad,  and  soon  after  leaves  the  commons  at  Owley  Gate. 
It  then  runs  for  a  short  distance  between  the  enclosures  to  Owley 
where  the  rambler  will  turn  L.  to  Owley  Bridge,  and  crossing  the 
Glaze  will  ascend  the  hill  to  Bulhornstone  Cross.  Here  is  a  circular 
stone  similar  to  those  noticed  near  Shipley  (S.  Ex.  105)  ;  it  was  origi- 
nally intended  to  be  used  at  Owley  Mill.  The  road  I/.,  or  N.,  runs  up  to 
Aish  Ridge  ;  the  one  R.  runs  S.  to  Broad  Moor  and  Pennaton  Bridge  ; 
but  the  rambler  will  keep  straight  on  N.E.,  and  will  soon  reach  the 
road  below  Aish,  where  he  will  turn  R.  to  I/ydia  Bridge. 

S.  Ex.  in. — The  Valley  of  the  Glaze,  8  m.  Crossing  Lj-dia  Bridge 
the  rambler  from  Brent  will  ascend  the  hill  towards  Aish,  and  turn  I/, 
below  the  hamlet.  A  few  yards  on  he  will  turn  up  R.  and  follow  the 
road  past  Bulhornstone  Cross  to  Owley  Bridge  (S.  Ex.  1 10).  Thence  he 
will  pass  up  to  Owley,  and  turn  R.,  and  hi  less  than  £  m.  will  reach 
the  moor  gate.  On  his  L.  is  Owley  Corner,  to  which  a  track  comes 
out  from  Peek  Gate  (S.  Ex.  112),  and  is  the  one  by  which  visitors  from 
Wrangaton  will  reach  this  point  (Ex.  31).  The  road  the  rambler  has 
been  following  from  Owley  now  becomes  a  rough  track.  About  200 
yards  from  the  gate  it  forks,  the  L.  branch  running  past  the  source  of 
the  little  Scad  up  the  hill  to  Spurrell's  Cross,  whence,  marked  by  small 
stone  heaps,  it  goes  on  to  Harford  Gate  (T.  62,  59  ;  the  R.  branch 
running  a  short  distance  up  the  valley.  The  latter  he  will  follow,  and 
not  far  on  will  cross  the  Scad,  near  where  it  joins  the  Glaze.  At 
that  point  there  is  a  ford  on  the  latter,  from  which  a  private  road 
runs  up  the  hillside  between  Coryndon  Wood  R.  and  Skitscombe  Wood 
L.  to  Coryndon  Farm.  Soon  the  rambler's  road  begins  to  climb  a 
slope,  and  before  him  he  sees  grey  stones  and  ferns  and  thorn  bushes. 
When  he  reaches  these  he  will  find  himself  at  the  wall  of  an  ancient 
pound  of  a  more  than  ordinarily  pleasing  character.  The  vegetation 
which  has  partially  covered  the  vallum  though  not  increasing  its 
interest  from  an  antiquarian  point  of  view,  certainly  does  so  from  the 
standpoint  of  the  picturesque.  In  places  moss  covers  the  stones, 
and  amid  them  sturdy  thorns  and  a  holly  are  growing,  while  ferns  are 
everywhere  abundant.  A  thorn  bush  has  also  found  shelter  in  the 
wall  of  one  of  the  two  dilapidated  hut  circles  within  this  enclosure. 
The  vallum  is  422  yards  in  circuit,  and  some  parts  of  it  now  cover  a 
space  of  ten  or  eleven  feet  in  width.  It  is  intact  except  for  a  few 
breaches  where  tracks  have  been  carried  through  it.  One  of  these  is 
that  by  which  we  have  reached  the  pound,  and  this  crosses  it  and  goes 
on  to  Glascombe  Corner,  from  which  Three  Barrows  is  i^  m.  distant. 
(See  S.  Ex.  1 10,  Ex.  31).  The  surroundings  are  of  a  romantic  character. 
Eastward  there  is  a  steep  descent  to  the  Glaze,  which  here  partly  hides 
itself  in  a  wooded  hollow,  the  acclivity  above  the  further  bank  being 
clothed  with  trees.  In  other  directions  rise  the  bare  slopes  of  the  moor, 
with  the  rocks  of  Ugborough  Beacon  crowning  the  hill  to  the  south, 
about  i  m.  distant.  Passing  down  to  the  river  E.  the  rambler  will 
make  his  way  up  its  R.  bank,  and  very  speedily  find  himself  at  the 
meeting-place  of  its  two  branches.  On  the  peninsula  which  these  form 
is  Glascombe  Lower  Plantation,  and  on  leaving  this  the  united  streams 
flow  for  a  short  distance  below  Newland's  Brakes,  which  stretch  upward 
to  Coryndon  Ball.  (S.  Ex.  1 10).  Glaze  Meet  is  one  of  the  beauty  spots 


SHORTER    EXCURSIONS   FROM   WRANGATON.  73 

of  Dartmoor.  Here  are  great  boulders  of  granite,  some  with  coats  of 
moss,  ferns  and  heather,  and  sturdy  hawthorns,  a  charming  cascade. 
and  a  dark  pool  over  which  trees  spread  their  branches.  This  is  the 
Wishing  Pool,  and  it  is  said  that  those  who  leap  across  it,  and  while 
doing  so  loudly  express  a  wish,  will  obtain  what  they  desire.  In  the 
plantation,  and  near  to  the  confluence,  are  two  heaps  of  moss-covered 
stones,  not  unlike  the  ruined  basements  of  huts,  but  their  true  nature 
cannot  be  determined.  They  are  only  interesting  as  perhaps  being 
the  remains  of  a  building  shown  on  the  old  map  of  the  moor  to  which 
•we  have  alluded  in  Ex.  31  as  existing  on  this  tongue  of  land  in  the 
sixteenth  century.  (On  the  same  map  Glaze  Bridge,  lower  down  the 
stream,  appears  as  Glaas  Bridge). 

Leaving  this  delightful  spot  the  rambler  will  proceed  up  stream 
for  about  ^  m.,  when  he  will  leave  it  and  strike  up  the  slope  westward, 
or  a  little  N.  of  W.  This  course  will  bring  him  to  a  stone  row,  which 
is  of  rather  exceptional  interest,  in  being  single  at  one  end,  the  N.E., 
and  double  at  the  other.  From  this  he  will  proceed  westward  to  the 
brow  of  the  ridge,  and  then  turn  S.  to  the  cairn  on  Glascombe  Ball, 
I  m.  N.W.  of  Ugborough  Beacon.  This  is  known  as  Glas  Barrow, 
and  is  nearly  due  W.  of  the  pound  on  the  Glaze,  but  40x3  feet  above  it. 
These  ancient  burial  mounds  abound  in  this  part  of  the  moor  ;  on 
the  summit  of  every  hill  between  the  West  Glaze  and  the  Erme  they 
are  found  in  groups,  and  are  also  scattered  in  the  lower  slopes.  Less 
than  £  m.  S.  of  Glascombe  Ball  is  Spurrell's  Cross,  where  the  Black- 
wood  Path  (T.  63)  and  the  track  from  Owley  to  Harford  (T.  62)  inter- 
sect each  other,  but  of  the  monument  which  once  marked  the  spot 
only  a  fragment  now  remains.  [Crosses,  Chap.  III.)  A  short  distance 
westward  is  a  single  stone  row  running  approximately  N.  and  S.,  and 
starting  from  a  small  cairn,  another  cairn  being  near  it.  It  is  rather 
over  120  yards  in  length,  but  most  of  the  stones  have  fallen.*  Another 
is  to  be  seen  northward  of  Glascombe  Ball. 

Turning  eastward  into  the  Owley  path  the  rambler  will  follow  it 
down  the  hill  to  Owley  Gate,  whence  he  will  return  to  Brent  as  in  the 
preceding  excursion. 

S.  Ex.  112.  —  Ugborough  Beacon,  8  m.  The  summit  of  this  hill  is 
3  m.  from  Brent,  via  Owley  and  Peek  Gate,  and  i£  m.  from  Wrangaton 
Station,  via  Wrangaton  Gate.  The  first  point  will  be  Owley  as  in 
S.  Ex.  in,  but  instead  of  there  turning  R.  to  the  moor,  the  rambler 
•will  follow  the  road  for  about  £  m.  further,  when  he  will  reach  Peek 


*  This  row  is  referred  to  in  my  book  on  the  crosses  of  the  moor 
<ist  Edition,  1884).  When  the  late  Mr.  R.  N.  Worth  was  preparing  a 
paper  on  the  stone  rows  of  Dartmoor  for  the  Devonshire  Association 
{1892)  he  wrote  to  me  about  the  Butterdon  row,  noticed  later  on 
(Ex.  32),  and  in  my  reply  I  happened  to  mention  that  eastward  there 
was  another  running  parallel  to  it,  referring  to  this  row  near  Spurrell's 
Cross.  He  states  this  in  his  paper,  but  the  description  he  gives  is  that 
of  the  one  on  the  slope  of  the  West  Glaze,  which  we  have  spoken  of 
above,  S.  Ex.  1  1  1  .  These  rows  were  named  by  me  to  the  Ordnance 
Surveyors  in  1883  in  response  to  an  enquiry  relative  to  the  stone  remains 
in  this  locality. 


74  SHORTER    EXCURSIONS   FROM   WRANGATON. 

Gate,  between  the  plantations  of  that  name.*  The  rocks  on  the 
summit  of  the  Beacon  Hill  are  more  than  530  feet  above  this  gate,  and 
over  |  m.  from  it  W.  by  S. 

[The  visitor  from  Wrangaton  should  enter  upon  the  common  at 
the  gate  of  that  name.  Prom  the  station  bridge  he  will  follow  the 
Ivybridge  road  for  a  few  score  yards  and  then  turn  R.  into  Green  Lane. 
This  will  shortly  bring  him  to  Marwood's  Cross,  where  is  a  guide-post. 
Here  he  will  cross  the  old  highway,  which  runs  I,,  past  Wrangaton  to 
Bittaford,  and  R.  past  Glazebrook  to  Brent  Bridge,  and  make  his  way 
up  the  lane  to  Wrangaton  Gate,  £  m.  from  the  station,  at  which  point 
the  Blackwood  Path  commences  (T.  63).  The  rocks  are  £  m.  N.W.  by 
W.  Other  gates  opening  on  this  part  of  Ugborough  Moor,  are  Shute 
Gate,  a  little  to  the  N.  of  the  last-named,  and  Leigh  Gate  further 
W.  Shute  Gate  is  close  to  Deals  Brake,  and  at  the  head  of  Deals 
Bottom  ;  Leigh  Gate,  mentioned  in  the  sixteenth  century  as  Laye  Yeat, 
is  W.  of  Knowle  Plantation,  which  abuts  on  the  golf  links.  On  a  kind 
of  sketch  plan  of  the  moor  appended  to  the  document  Instructions  for 
my  Lord  Prince,  temp.  Henry  VIII.  South  Steeryton  Yeatte  appears 
opposite  to  what  may  be  taken  to  be  the  venville  lands  of  Dean  and 
Ugborough.  It  is  probable  that  this  gate  was  to  be  found  nearer  the 
former  place  than  the  latter.  There  is  also  early  mention  of  Eston 
Gate  in  this  neighbourhood,  but  this  cannot  be  identified.  Leigh 
Gate  is  the  most  convenient  for  visitors  from  Bittaford  Bridge.  The 
golf  links  at  the  foot  of  this  hill  may  be  approached  by  either.] 

The  tor  crowning  this  fine  frontier  eminence  consists  of  several 
distinct  piles,  neither  of  them  being  of  great  height,  yet  forming  a  rather 
striking  group.  They  are  sometimes  spoken  of  as  the  Beacon  Rocks, 
though  more  often  as  Ugborough  Beacon,  and  sometimes  as  the  Eastern 
Beacon.  But  the  ordnance  map  gives  the  name  of  Ugborough  Beacon 
to  one  of  the  piles  only — the  westernmost  one,  round  which  a  cairn 
84  yards  in  circumference  has  been  built — and  applies  the  name  of  the 
Eastern  Beacon  to  another  cairn  178  yards  S.S.W.  of  the  former. 
(This  one  is  so  dilapidated  and  overgrown  with  grass  that  I  found  it 
difficult  to  take  a  correct  measurement  of  it,  but  it  is  about  48  yards 
in  circumference).  On  what  authority  these  cairns  were  so  named 
I  do  not  know,  but  if  the  hill  ever  was  a  station  on  which  signal  fires 
were  lighted,  it  is  highly  improbable  that  there  were  two  within  a  few 
yards  of  each  other.  It  is,  however,  very  doubftul  whether  this  hill 
was  a  signalling  station.  I  have  elsewhere  brought  forward  some 
evidence  to  show  that  in  this  instance  the  word  Beacon  is  probably  a 
corruption  of  Pigedon,  i.e.,  Peek  Down.  [Crosses,  Chap.  II.],  and  have 
also  referred  to  the  subject  in  the  Terms  Section  (see  Beacon).  One 
of  the  masses  of  granite,  it  will  be  seen,  is  nicely  balanced  on  a  very 
small  base,  and  another,  on  the  northern  pile,  overhangs  and  forms  a 
rude  canopy,  beneath  which  is  a  seat  of  such  convenient  proportions 
as  almost  to  lead  one  to  suppose  that  the  work  of  Nature  has  been 
supplemented  by  that  of  man.  Perhaps  it  was  here  that  a  certain 
Mr.  John  Elliott — Lord  Elliott,  as  he  was  often  called — once  took 
his  seat,  when  he  came,  as  it  used  to  be  said,  to  this  lofty  spot  to  look 

*  Shown  as  Picke  Yeat  on  the  old  map  in  the  museum  at  Exeter 
referred  to  in  Ex.  31.  The  farm  of  East  Peek  is  between  Peek  Gate 
and  Cheston. 


SHORTER    EXCURSIONS   FROM   WRANGATON.  75 

down  upon  Brent,  of  which  manor  hewas  then  contemplating  the  purchase 
and  which  he  subsequently  acquired.  The  seat  seems  to  have 
escaped  the  notice  of  former  antiquaries,  otherwise  it  is  nearly  certain 
they  would  have  told  us  that  it  was  the  chair  of  an  arch-druii.  A  fine 
view  is  obtained  from  the  rockj,  the  height  of  which  is  1,233  Ieet 
The  village  of  Brent  is  seen  E.N.E.,  and  Ugborough  S.S.E.,  together 
with  many  places  in  the  South  Hams,  the  whole  of  which  district  is 
visible.  Much  that  is  commanded  from  Brent  Hill  (S.  Ex.  99)  the 
visitor  looks  upon  here,  and  westward  sees  other  objects,  among  them 
being  the  great  rounded  Kit  Hill  on  the  further  side  of  the  Tamar. 

(To  the  S.S.W.  of  the  cairn  to  which  the  name  of  the  Eastern 
Beacon  has  been  attached,  and  135  yards  from  it,  are  two  others. 
25  yards  apart.  The  larger  is  94  yards  in  circumference,  the  other  being 
70  yards,  and  both  are  much  covered  with  vegetation.  A  short  dis- 
tance down  the  hill,  in  the  midst  of  some  old  workings,  is  a  small 
mound,  but  its  real  nature  is  not  apparent). 

Turning  from  this  fine  group  of  rocks  the  rambler  will  make  his 
way  down  the  slope  of  Beacon  Plain,  his  course  being  a  little  N.  of  W. 
This  will  bring  him  to  a  shallow  gert  in  which  the  Lud  rises,  and  to 
which  the  name  of  Main  Head  has  been  given.*  Here  there  are  two 
small  mounds  of  earth,  each  enclosed  by  a  low  stone  wall,  but  they 
present  nothing  remarkable,  f  From  this  spot  Spurrell's  Cross  is 
about  £  m.  distant  N.  by  W.  (S.  Exs.  in,  113),  and  is  approached  by 
the  Blackwood  Path  (T.  63).  Into  this,  which  runs  near  the  L,.  bank 
of  the  little  stream,  the  rambler  will  now  turn,  and  following  it  south- 
ward by  Creber's  Rock,  will  soon  reach  the  golf  links.  He  will  here  leave 
it  L.  if  making  his  way  to  Leigh  Gate  ;  for  Wrangaton  he  will  follow 
it  to  the  enclosures  ;  and  for  Peek  Gate  will  leave  it  on  the  R.  and 
strike  northward  towards  the  plantations  close  to  it.  If  he  is  bound 
for  Brent  he  will  there  turn  L.  to  Owley,  whence  the  road  is  described 
in  S.  Ex.  1 10. 

[For  Routes  from  Brent  see  end  of  Ivybridge  District.  Directions 
for  reaching  Hexworthy  via  Holne  Moor,  or  via  Heng  Lake  and  Aune 
Head,  will  be  found  at  the  end  of  the  Routes  Section.] 

The  right  of  way  past  Brent  Moor  House  has  recently  been 
questioned,  but  it  has  been  exercised  by  the  public  for  very  many  years. 


*  The  Lud  leaves  the  moor  just  above  Bittaford  Bridge,  and 
flowing  past  Ludbrook  falls  into  the  Ernie  below  Ermington. 

f  These  mounds  are  evidently  not  particularly  old,  nor  do  they 
seem  to  partake  of  the  character  of  mining  remains.  In  1861  there 
was  a  military  encampment  on  this  part  of  the  moor,  and  it  is  possible 
that  the  mounds  were  thrown  up  for  some  purpose  by  the  soldiers. 


76  SOUTHERN    DARTMOOR. 


IVYBRIDGE   DISTRICT. 

For  Distances,  and  Important  Points  and  Landmarks  in  the 
locality,  see  commencement  of  Brent  District.  Other  points  in  the 
south  quarter  of  the  forest  are  here  shown. 


Important  Points  in  Southern  Dartmoor. 

Aune  Head  ;  the  source  of  the  Avon,  on  high  ground,  two  miles 
southward  of  Hexworthy  ;  a  track  leads  to  it  from  that  place. — Black 
Lane  ;  a  path,  q.  v.,  running  from  Fox  Tor  to  Erme  Head. — Broad 
Rock;  a  natural  boundary  mark,  on  the  Abbots'  Way,  q.  v.,  near  Erme 
Head. — The  Crossways  ;  the  point  where  the  Abbots'  Way  is  crossed 
by  the  disused  Zeal  Tor  tramroad  ;  less  than  £  mile  north  westward 
of  Western  Whitaburrow,  a  cairn  on  the  forest  boundary  line. — Erme 
Pits ;  very  deep  tinners  excavations,  close  to  the  head  of  the  Erme. — 
Green  Hill ;  a  favourite  pasturage  ground  above  the  Erme,  between 
the  Black  Lane  Brook  and  Red  Lake. — Heng  Lake  Gully  ;  a  stream 
work  on  the  Avon,  above  Higher  Bottom. — Huntingdon  Hill ;  the 
highest  part  of  Huntingdon  Warren,  on  the  Avon. — Petre's  Cross, 
on  Western  Whitaburrow  :  See  The  Crossways. — Plym  Head  ;  the 
source  of  the  Plym;  i  mile  S.  by  W.  of  Fox  Tor,  and  i|  miles  S.E.  of 
Nuns'  Cross. — Plym  Steps;  the  point  where  the  Abbots'  Way,  q.  v., 
crosses  the  Plym,  about  2  miles  from  its  source. — Red  Lake  Ford;  the 
point  where  the  Abbots'  Way  crosses  Red  Lake,  about  i  mile  N.W.  of 
Western  Whitaburrow. — Ryder's  Hill ;  a  lofty  height,  rather  over 
\  mile  E.S.E.  of  Aune  Head. 


Delightfully  situated  on  the  Erme,  one  of  the  most  beautiful  of 
the  Dartmoor  rivers,  the  large  village  of  Ivybridge  extends  itself  into 
four  parishes,  and  these  meet  at  the  structure  which  gives  the  place 
its  name.  On  the  E.  side  of  the  river  is  the  parish  of  Harford  to  the 
N.  of  the  bridge,  and  Ugborough  to  the  S.  of  it  ;  on  the  west  side  Corn- 
wood  to  the  N.  and  Ermington  S.  The  first  three  each  embrace  a 
considerable  portion  of  the  moor,  and  extend  to  the  forest,  the  latter 
does  not  touch  the  waste,  but,  as  we  have  already  seen  (Ex.  31),  the  lord 
of  the  manor  of  Ermington,  possesses  certain  rights  upon  Erme  Plains, 
which  tract  of  moor  lies  within  the  bounds  of  Harford  and  Ugborough, 
and  thus  the  bridge  may  be  regarded  as  the  centre  of  four  places  having 
a  connection  with  Dartmoor.  The  present  lord  of  the  manor  of  Erming 


EXCURSION  32.     STOWFORD.     THE   WESTERN   BEACON.    77 

ton  is  Mr.  P.  B.  Mildmay,  M.P.,  of  Flete.  In  spite  of  its  modern 
sounding  name  Ivybridge  has  long  been  so  called,  for  Risdon  speaks  of 
one  Alfred  de  Ponte  Hedera,  to  whom  a  grant  of  land  here  was  con- 
firmed by  Sir  John  Peverell,  lord  of  Ermington,  in  Edward  the  First's 
time.  The  bridge  was  formerly  very  narrow  (the  visitor  will  probably 
be  inclined  to  think  it  is  not  much  other  now)  being  only  of  sufficient 
width  to  admit  of  a  packhorse  crossing  it.  This  structure  still  exists 
(though  it  is  probably  not  the  original  one)  as  may  be  seen  from  the 
rocks  in  the  stream  under  it,  where  the  mark  between  the  older  and  the 
added  portions  is  plainly  visible.  The  bridge  is  situated  immediately 
in  front  of  the  London  Hotel. 

Ivybridge  Church,  being  a  modern  structure,  possesses  no  features 
of  particular  interest.  Neither  does  the  old  church  it  replaces,  though 
this  is  certainly  a  picturesque  object.  Its  dismantled  walls,  and  the 
low  tower,  thickly  covered  with  ivy,  will  be  seen  close  by,  and  give  the 
impression  of  the  ruin  of  an  ancient  building,  and  yet  it  is  only  of 
comparatively  recent  date.  But  the  visitor  with  a  taste  for  ecclesi- 
astical architecture  will  find  something  to  reward  him  when  he  makes 
his  way  to  the  fine  church  of  Ugborough,  or  to  Ermington  Church, 
with  its  curious  bent  spire,  while  Harford  and  Cornwood,  though  much 
smaller,  are  good  examples  of  moorland  churches. 

Ivybridge  is  placed  amid  scenery  of  a  charming  character.  The 
Erme,  with  its  deep  pools  and  cascades,  the  wooded  valley  of  Stowford 
Cleave,  the  moor  hills  that  look  down  upon  it,  the  pleasant  pastures 
on  the  south  and  east  and  west,  all  make  up  a  picture  that  will  delight 
the  rambler  who  fixes  upon  this  village  as  a  base  whence  to  explore 
the  southern  part  of  Dartmoor. 


Excursions  from  Ivybridge. 

Ex.  32. — The  Western  Beacon  [Ugborough  Beacon]  Butter  don  Hill, 
Sharp  Tor  [Three  Barrows'],  Erme  Plains,  Antiquities  on  Brown  Heath, 
Erme  Pound,  Mining  Remains  on  the  Erme,  Piles  Copse,  Butter  Brook, 
Addicombe  Slaggets,  14  m. 

Our  starting-point  will  be  the  old  bridge  from  which  we  shall  pass 
up  the  hill  with  the  extensive  paper  mills  of  the  Messrs.  John  Allen 
and  Sons,  Ltd.,L.,  and  soon  after  crossing  the  railway  reach  Stowford.  Of 
the  ancient  mansion  very  little  now  remains.  This  formerly  belonged 
to  Matthew  de  Ivybridge,  as  Risdon  calls  him,  whose  daughter  brought 
it  to  the  Dymocks.  It  afterwards  came  to  the  crown,  and  was  purchased 
by  Adam  Williams,  whose  descendent,  Thomas  Williams,  was  Speaker 
of  Parliament  in  the  time  of  Elizabeth.  There  is  a  brass  to  his  memory 
in  Harford  Church.  John  Prideaux,  who  became  Bishop  of  Worcester, 
was  born  of  humble  parents,  in  a  cottage  at  Stowford.  He  is  also 
commemorated  by  a  brass  in  that  church.  Turning  R.  behind  the  house 
we  pass  up  a  lane  to  the  commons,  and  then  strike  eastward  to  the 
Western  Beacon,  which  is  about  |  m.  distant,  and  nearly  400  feet  above 


78  IVYBRIDGE   DISTRICT. 

the  moor  gate.  (This  may  possibly  be  Stonorde  Yeat,  of  which  there 
is  early  mention).  The  view  from  this  fine  border  height,  the  southern- 
most of  all  the  Dartmoor  eminences,  is  one  of  great  beauty.  The 
estuary  of  the  Erme  is  in  full  view,  and  we  are  placed  so  high  above  it 
(i, 088  feet)  that  it  looks  quite  near.  This,  the  West  Pigedon  of  an 
older  day,  forms  a  conspicuous  landmark  from  numerous  points  in  the 
South  Hams.  Eastward  rises  East  Pigedon,  now  represented  by  the 
hill  crowned  with  the  Beacon  Rocks  (S.  Ex.  1 12).  Much  of  the  tor  has 
been  destroyed  by  quarrymen,  and  the  six  cairns  that  are  to  be  seen 
here  have  also  been  despoiled.  One  of  these  was  placed  on  the  rocks,  but 
very  little  of  it  now  remains.  The  foundations  of  a  small  square 
building  are  to  be  seen  upon  it.  It  is  not  possible  to  obtain  a  correct 
measurement  of  all  of  these  cairns,  but  one  of  them  is  85  yards  in 
circumference,  and  another  67  yards. 

A  line  of  boundary  stones  runs  N.  to  Butterdon  Hill,  £  m.,  and  this 
we  shall  now  follow.  About  mid-way  is  Black  Pool,  through  which 
the  line  passes,  the  eastern  part  of  it  thus  being  in  Ugborough  parish 
and  the  western  in  Harford.  This  pool,  which  is  very  shallow,  is 
oblong  in  shape,  and  95  yards  in  circumference.  A  dilapidated  cairn 
may  be  seen  close  to  it  on  the  S.W. 

[If  the  rambler  desires  to  visit  Ugborough  Beacon  from  this  part 
of  the  moor  he  will  find  it  the  better  plan  to  branch  off  here,  and  not 
ascend  Butterdon  Hill.  The  summit  of  the  Beacon  Hill  is  just  over 
i  m.  from  the  pool,  and  the  course  to  be  steered  is  N.E.  by  E.  The 
way  lies  N.  of  Cuckoo  Ball  Corner,  and  I/ud  Brook  is  crossed  about 
mid-way.  The  rocks  to  which  the  name  of  Claret  Tor  has  been  given 
will  also  be  passed.  The  beacon  is  noticed  in  S.  Ex.  112.] 


Cairns. 


Ugborough  Beacon. 


Cairns. 
FROM   BUTTERDON  HIU.. 


LOOKING  N.E. 


Continuing  on  our  way  we  pass  the  Long  Stone,  as  the  first  boundary 
pillar  N.  of  the  pool  is  called,  and  then  climb  up  between  the  scattered 
rocks  to  the  summit  of  Butterdon,  1,204  feet.  Here  there  are  three 
cairns,  while  others  are  found  on  the  slopes  near  by.  These  three  are 
nearly  in  a  line  running  N.E.  and  S.W.  The  N.E.  one  is  92  yards  in. 
circumference  ;  the  middle  one  80  yards ;  and  the  other  50  yards. 
Close  to  the  centre  cairn  are  the  foundations  of  three  small  comparatively 
modern  enclosures.  W.N.W.  is  Weatherdon  Hill,  the  summit  of  which 
is  only  £  m.  distant.  On  this  there  are  two  cairns,  115  yards  apart. 


EXCURSION  32.      BUTTERDON    HILL. 


79 


one  79  yards  in  circumference,  and  the  other  62  yards.  They  appear 
to  have  been  opened  ;  at  all  events  hollows  have  been  made  in  them. 
Between  the  two  hills  there  is  another  cairn,  53  yards  in  circumference. 


Eastern 
Whitaburrow. 


Piles  Hill.    Hangershell 
Rock. 

FROM  BUTTERDON  HILL.      LOOKING  N. 

About  43  yards  N.E.  of  the  north-eastern  cairn  is  a  stone  circle 
35  feet  in  diameter,  enclosing  a  cairn  the  diameter  of  which  is  about 
20  feet.  Only  eight  stones'are  now  to  be  seen,  and  these  have  all 
fallen  bu+  two,  which  are  in  a  slanting  position.  From  this  circle  a 
stone  row  extends  northward  for  a  distance  of  1,791  yards,  and  this 
has  been  adapted  as  the  boundary  between  the  moors  of  Ugborough 
and  Harford.  We  shall  now  follow  it,  and  when  at  a  distance  of  460 
yards  from  the  circle,  with  Hangershell  Rock,  noticed  in  S.  Ex.  114. 
L-,  shall  reach  a  small  grass-covered  cairn  R.  On  this  a  small  shelter 
has  been  formed.  I  remember  when  some  horse  races  were  held  here, 
and  the  course  can  still  be  seen  near  this  tumulus.*  It  is  connected 
with  a  track  that  comes  up  from  the  in-country  southward  of  the 
Western  Beacon.  (On  the  E.  side  of  the  ground  the  course  touches 
the  Blackwood  Path  (T.  63).  About  ^  m.  N.  of  the  tumulus  the  stone 
row  crosses  the  path  from  Owley  to  Harford  (T.  62),  which,  however, 
is  here  not  very  clearly  defined.  Spurrell's  Cross  is  less  than  £  m.  E., 
and  a  little  nearer  to  us  than  that  point  is  the  stone  row  we  have 
already  noticed  (S.  Ex.  in,  T.  62),  which  runs  parallel  to  the  one  we 
are  following.  A  little  further  on  we  cross  a  depression  extending 
upwards  from  the  source  of  Butter  Brook,  and  in  this  are  eight  rifle 
butts,  four  on  each  side  of  the  shallow  hollow.  These  are  of  granite 
and  were  erected  when  the  soldiers  were  encamped  near  here  in  1861 
(S.  Ex.  112).  The  cairn  on  Glascombe  Ball  (S.  Ex.  in)  is  £  m.  R.. 
or  E.  of  this  point. 

Still  following  the  stone  row  we  pass  up  the  slope  N.,  and  soon 
arrive  at  its  termination,  which  is  marked  by  a  small  pillar  about 
3i  feet  in  height,  set  in  the  centre  of  a  circular  pavement  6  feet 

*  This  was  about  forty-five  years  ago,  and  the  meeting  was  attended 
by  a  large  number  of  people  from  the  neighbouring  parishes. 


So  IVYBRIDGE   DISTRICT. 

9  inches  in  diameter.  On  its  W.S.W.  face  is  an  incised  cross  7  inches 
high  and  5-J-  inches  across  the  arms.  On  the  old  map  of  Dartmoor,  to 
which  we  have  several  times  referred,  Hobajon's  Cross,  noticed  in 
Ex.  3 1 ,  is  shown  as  standing  in  this  row,  and  I  have  elsewhere  suggested 
that  this  stone  with  the  incised  cross  may  not  improbably  mark  the 
place  it  occupied  [Crosses,  Chap.  II].  From  this  point  the  Ugborough 
and  Harford  boundary  is  marked  in  the  same  way  as  it  is  S.  of  Butterdon 
Hill,  that  is,  by  a  row  of  posts,  and  this,  which  we  have  already  noticed, 
we  shall  follow,  and  on  Piles  Hill  shall  strike  the  Elackwood  Path 
(T.  63),  which  comes  up  R.  from  Spurrell's  Cross.  Here  we  see  a  cairn 
I,.,  and  on  the  further  side  of  this  is  the  branch  path  which  enters  on 
the  moor  at  Harford  Gate  (T.  63).  A  little  way  oh  is  another  cairn  L., 
and  just  beyond  this  the  two  tracks  unite.  Some  distance  below  us 
L.,  is  Piles  Gate,  at  the  S.E.  corner  of  Higher  Piles,  which  we  shall 
pass  on  our  homeward  route. 

Leaving  the  track  we  strike  L.  to  Sharp  Tor,  a  solid  mass  of  rock 
placed  on  the  brow  of  a  steep  hill  and  overlooking  Piles,  the  higher 
wall  of  which  enclosure  is  carried  along  the  side  of  the  declivity  below  it. 
Close  to  the  tor  is  a  large  cairn.  The  summit  of  Three  Barrows  is  about 
£  m.  distant  (Ex.  31).  Making  our  way  northward  we  shall  strike  the 
track  again,  and  soon  pass  Piles  Corner,  where  the  wall  turns  downward 
to  the  Erme.  Immediately  inside  it  are  some  hut  circles,  and  a  noted 
fox  holt  known  as  The  Dungeon,  where,  so  Mr.  C.  A.  Harris  tells  us  in 
his  Foxhounds  of  Devon,  a  well-known  master,  deeming  the  occasion 
demanded  it,  once  thundered  forth  the  Epistle  to  the  Danmonians. 

Our  track  will  lead  us  below  Three  Barrows  and  Hobajon's  Cross, 
which  are  noticed  in  Ex.  31,  to  the  long-deserted  I/eft  Lake  clay  pits, 
and  on  passing  over  the  brook  at  Left  Lake  Ford  we  find  ourselves  on 
Enne  Plains,  of  which  tract  of  moorland  we  have  already  spoken. 
This  comprises  Quickbeam  Hill  and  Brown  Heath,  though  on  the 
Ordnance  map  the  name  is  attached  only  to  a  narrow  stretch  of  level 
ground  through  which  the  Erme  flows,  this  flat,  we  presume,  being 
considered  the  only  justification  for  calling  any  spot  near  here  a  plain. 
(See  that  word  in  the  Terms  Section).  The  first  recorded  perambula- 
tion of  the  bounds  of  this  tract  took  place  in  1603,  and  subsequently 
it  was  customary  to  view  them  once  in  every  seven  years.  When  this 
was  done  a  proclamation  was  read  at  certain  points  on  the  Erme  giving 
notice  of  the  perambulation,  and  setting  forth  the  rights  belonging 
to  the  manor  of  Ermington.  The  tenants  have  the  right  of  pasture, 
and  the  lord  the  right  of  free  fishery,  not  only  where  the  river  bounds 
the  tract  in  question,  but  from  its  source  to  the  sea,  and  also  the  right 
to  all  wreckage  found  in  the  river,  or  as  far  from  its  mouth  seawards 
"  as  an  umber  or  tar  barrel  can  be  seen."  (See  Exs.  31,  33). 

Passing  onward  we  cross  the  Ugborough  boundary  line,  and  make 
our  way  along  the  lower  side  of  Quickbeam  Hill,  with  several  groups 
of  hut  circles  below  us  L.  In  about  i  m.  we  reach  Belter's  Ford  on 
Hook  Lake,  in  Stony  Bottom,  less  than  ^  m.  below  the  line,  one  of  the 
pillars  in  which,  near  the  hollow,  bears  the  initial  letter  of  Ugborough, 
and  is  known  as  the  IT  Stone.  The  bottom  has  been  streamed  through- 
out, but  the  heaps  thrown  up  by  the  tinners  are  now  in  great  measure 
clothed  with  plants,  and  the  spot  is  a  favourite  one  with  whortleberry- 
gatherers.  At  its  head  are  some  deep  pits,  and  the  scanty  vestiges 
of  a  mining  hut.  On  crossing  it  we  are  on  Brown  Heath,  where  is  one 


EXCURSION   32.      REMAINS   ON    BROWN    HEATH.          8r 

of  the  most  interesting  groups  of  remains  on  the  moor.  These  consist 
not  only  of  relics  of  prehistoric  times,  but  also  of  those  of  mediaeval 
days.  The  cluster  comprises  three  pounds  forming  a  large  hut  settle- 
ment, a  stone  row,  and  kistvaens,  as  well  as  an  old  drift  pound  with 
accompanying  buildings,  and  vestiges  of  tinners'  operations,  which 
include  a  blowing-house  with  a  mould-stone. 

The  track  which  we  have  followed  to  this  point  now  bends  I,.,  and 
running  through  the  southernmost  of  the  hut  enclosures,  again  turns 
and  goes  N.  along  the  L.  bank  of  the  river  to  Erme  Pound.  It  is  here 
not  very  clearly  defined,  but  by  turning  in  the  direction  named  the 
visitor  will  speedily  arrive  at  the  ruined  wall.  On  the  side  nearest 
Stony  Bottom  this  makes  an  inward  sweep,  so  that  the  enclosure, 
which  measures  338  yards  in  circumference,  is  irregular  in  shape.  The 
stones  composing  the  wall  are  now  scattered  over  a  width  of  about 
1 1  feet ;  the  entrance  appears  to  have  been  on  the  northern  side.  In 
the  western  part  of  the  pound  a  wall  runs  across  it  N.  and  S.,  thus 
cutting  off  a  portion  of  it,  and  about  the  middle  of  this  wall  is  a  small 
hut  circle,  10  feet  in  interior  diameter.  Immediately  without  the  wall 
on  the  N.W.  the  basements  of  two  other  dwellings  are  to  be  seen. 
Two  walls  there  run  out  from  the  main  one  for  a  short  distance,  and 
the  two  huts  being  placed  between  these,  and  being  connected  with  a 
piece  of  wall  about  12  feet  long,  act  as  a  third  side,  and  thus  a  small 
court  is  formed.  The  larger  of  these  huts  has  a  very  perfect  basement. 
Its  diameter  is  1 6  feet ;  the  other  is  12  feet.  Another  hut  circle, 
about  2 1  feet  in  diameter,  will  be  seen  N.  of  the  enclosure,  and  in  this 
is  a  low  curved  wall,  which,  however,  does  not  run  entirely  across  it, 
the  part  that  appears  to  be  wanting  being  probably  the  doorway 
leading  into  what  may  have  been  an  inner  apartment. 

On  the  E.  side  of  this  lower  enclosure  a  wall  runs  out  from  the 
main  vallum  for  a  distance  of  about  eight  yards,  and  from  this,  but  at 
a  right  angle  to  it,  a  double  stone  row  runs  up  the  slope  for  a  distance 
of  170  yards,  and  terminates  in  a  small  circle  30  feet  in  diameter, 
enclosing  a  ruined  kistvaen.  At  its  lower  end  some  of  the  stones  in 
this  row,  which  is  about  five  feet  wide,  are  from  3  feet  to  4  feet  high, 
but  most  of  them  are  small.  Near  its  upper  end  it  passes  quite  close 
to  a  hut  circle,  and  above  this  it  is  nearly  obliterated.  Ten  stones 
remain  erect  in  the  circle,  one  of  them  being  5  feet  high  and  3  feet  wide  ; 
two  others  are  fallen,  and  some  are  missing.  The  best  view  of  the  row 
is  obtained  from  this  point,  where  the  beholder  looks  down  the  slope 
and  sees  it  throughout  its  length. 

This  circle  is  placed  close  to  the  wall  of  another  enclosure,  126 
yards  from  the  lower  one,  and  forming  a  particularly  fine  example  of 
an  ancient  hut  pound.  It  is  426  yards  in  circumference,  and  the  wall, 
which  is  formed  of  very  large  stones,  is  about  5  feet  in  height  and  of 
considerable  width.  In  places  these  are  seen  lying  in  courses.  On 
the  northern  side  is  a  block  9  feet  long,  which  has  its  ends  supported 
by  two  others,  a  hollow  being  formed  beneath  it.  Near  this  the 
wall  is  imperfect  for  a  distance  of  about  30  feet,  the  stones  perhaps 
having  sunk,  the  ground  here  being  rather  boggy.  There  appears  to 
be  an  entrance  on  the  S.E.,  and  another  on  the  S.,  and  here  a  wall  runs 
across  the  pound.  Close  to  this  is  a  hut  circle,  and  there  is  another 
in  the  middle  of  the  enclosure.  Outside  the  wall,  but  connected  with 
it  by  two  smaller  ones,  is  a  hut  circle  22  feet  in  diameter,  a  small  court 


82  IVYBRIDGE    DISTRICT. 

being  thus  formed  in  a  similar  manner  to  the  one  seen  in  the  lower 
pound. 

Thirty  yards  N.  of  this  enclosure  the  visitor  will  come  upon  the 
third,  in  which,  however,  there  is  nothing  particular  to  note.  The  wall 
now  resembles  a  low  reave,  and  near  it  are  what  appears  to  be  the 
remains  of  a  kistvaen.  It  closely  adjoins  Erme  Pound,  formerly  used 
for  estrays,  and  which  possesses  a  peculiar  interest  as  being  the  only 
things  of  its  kind  in  the  purlieus  of  the  forest,  and  throughout  Dartmoor 
with  the  exception  of  Dunnabridge  Pound,  above  the  West  Dart  (Ex.  5 ,42  )* 
The  wall  of  each  stands  on  the  line  of  an  ancient  circumvallation,  as 
even  a  slight  examination  is  sufficient  to  reveal,  and  although  there 
are  many  instances  of  newtakes  having  been  formed  on  the  sites  of  hut 
enclosures,  these  are  the  only  pounds  whose  walls  are  reared  on  such 
primitive  foundations.  When  Erme  Pound  was  built  the  stones  of 
the  older  enclosure,  the  line  of  which  it  followed,  would,  of  course,  be 
used,  but  it  is  probable  that  recourse  was  also  had  to  the  wall  of  this 
higher  one.  Other  later  enclosures  were  also  formed  here,  for  in  an 
account  of  the  forester  of  the  south  quarter  of  the  time  of  Henry  VII. 
there  is  an  entry  of  iM.,  "  being  new  rent  of  Thomas  Rawe,  John 
Beare,  and  others  for  one  acre  of  land  on  the  common  of  Devon  lying 
neare  to  Yerme  next  Erme  Pound  and  Quyocke  Bemefote  [Quickbeam 
Foot]  to  hold  to  them  according  to  the  custom  of  the  forest  of 
Dartmoor." 

The  view  from  the  higher  part  of  these  hut  groups,  which  extend 
upward  for  about  -J-  m.  from  the  foot  of  the  slope,  and  are  appropriately 
known  as  Erme  Pound  Rings,  embraces  the  most  solitary  parts  of  the 
extensive  southern  border  commons.  It  is  a  scene  of  desolation. 
Not  even  a  tor  is  Adsible  ;  only  long  stretches  of  heath  with  the  great 
ridge  of  Stalldon  rising  high  to  the  south.  The  Erme  pursuing  its  course 
through  the  long  valley  alone  gives  life  to  the  picture.  But  the  seclu- 
sion of  this  part  of  the  moor  endows  it  with  a  certain  charm,  while  the 
remains  of  an  older  day  found  here  on  every  hand  give  to  it  an 
exceptional  interest.  (See  remarks  Ex.  30.)  The  visitor  who  enters  the 
Erme  valley  where  the  cultivated  country  gives  place  to  the  moorlands, 
and  passes  up  through  it  till  he  reaches  the  spot  where  the  river  rises, 
will  find  something  to  attract  him  throughout  the  whole  of  the  way. 

We  shall  now  proceed  to  the  pound,  which  is  connected  with  the 
enclosure  last  noticed  by  some  old  walls.  It  is  situated  on  the  side  of 
the  hill,  the  lower,  or  western,  part  of  the  wall  being  at  its  foot,  and  011 
the  brink  of  the  river.  In  shape  it  is  roughly  circular,  and  is  345  yards 
in  circumference.  The  gateway,  which  is  8  feet  wide,  is  on  the  S.S.E., 

*  The  statement  that  has  been  made  that  "  there  are  several  other 
enclosures  in  this  neighbourhood,  of  which  most  appear  to  have  served 
a  purpose  similar  to  that  of  Erme  Pound,"  this  purpose  being  the 
securing  of  cattle  at  the  drifts,  is  incorrect.  The  only  enclosures 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  pound  are  those  described  above,  which 
nobody  ever  supposed  to  be  drift  pounds — that  is,  nobody  who  had 
visited  the  spot,  which  the  writer  of  the  statement  is  question  had  not. 
Nor  would  anyone  who  knew  much  about  Dartmoor  suppose  that  more 
than  one  drift  pound  would  be  found  in  any  locality.  As  a  matter  of 
fact  there  were  only  four  or  five  for  the  whole  of  the  moor.  The  manor 
pounds  near  the  border  villages  are  of  quite  a  different  character. 


EXCURSION  32.      ERME    POUND.  83 

and  here  the  wall  is  6  feet  thick.  It  is  from  4  feet  to  4.4  feet  in  height, 
being  at  its  lowest  on  the  higher  side,  where  the  ground  is  covered  with 
rocks.  The  lower  part  of  the  pound  is  fairly  clear  of  granite.  Four 
hut  circles  exist  within  it,  with  vestiges  of  others,  and  tiny  courts  may 
be  seen  adjoining  them,  but  the  remains  are  in  a  very  ruinous  state. 
Outside  the  gateway,  but  near  to  the  pound,  are  the  walls  of  a  curious 
little  building  22  feet  long  by  12  feet  wide.  A  low  stone  bench,  or  seat, 
15  inches  high  and  22  inches  wide,  runs  round  its  interior.  Further 
down  is  another,  which  is  rather  larger,  but  this  has  no  bench.  In 
this  a  gable  is  still  standing,  and  it  will  be  noticed  that  the  doorway 
is  protected  by  a  kind  of  passage.  These  buildings  were  probably 
erected  as  shelters  for  those  attending  the  drifts  when  the  pound  was 
in  use.  They  stand  in  a  small  clatter. 

[About  $  m.  above  Erme  Pound  the  river  receives  Red  Lake 
(Ex.  30,  R.  64).  W.  of  the  pound  is  the  stone  row  running  over  Stall 
Moor,  and  noticed  in  Ex.  33.  S.  of  it  is  a  ford,  where  the  track  coming, 
out  from  Watercombe  Waste  (T.  66)  crosses  the  river.  Should  the 
rambler  desire  to  make  his  way  down  the  R.  bank  of  the  Erme,  he  may 
cross  it  at  this  ford,  or  he  will  find  a  place  where  he  can  generally  do 
so  at  the  foot  of  Stony  Bottom.  Directions  for  this  route,  which 
will  lead  him  down  to  Harford  Bridge  and  past  the  church,  are  given 
in  Ex.  33.] 

Leaving  Erme  Pound  we  pass  down  with  the  river  R.  to  the  point 
where  Hook  Lake  falls  into  it,  and  very  near  to  this  shall  find  a  good 
example  of  a  blowing-house.  It  is  27  feet  in  length  by  \-j\  feet  wide, 
and  like  a  good  many  of  these  buildings  stands  against  a  bank.  A 
watercourse  may  be  seen  leading  to  it,  and  where  this  is  taken  from  the 
Erme  are  the  remains  of  a  weir.  Lying  within  the  entrance  is  a  granite 
block  in  which  there  are  two  tin  moulds,  one  in  a  complete  state,  the 
other  partly  destroyed.  It  is  interesting  to  find  a  notice  of  this  stream 
work  in  the  seventeenth  century.  In  a  lease  of  the  date  1661  it  is 
described  as  "  a  certain  Tynnwork  called,  or  known,  by  the  name  of 
Hooke  Lake,  situate  within  the  parishes  of  Brent  and  Ugborough, 
and  within  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Stannary  Courts  of  Plympton  and 
Ashburton."  Hook  Lake,  it  may  be  explained,  rises  on  Brent  Moor, 
and  then  crosses  Ugborough  and  Harford  Moors,  which  are  here  merely 
narrow  strips  of  land  running  out  to  the  forest.  Opposite  to  the  con- 
fluence of  Hook  Lake  and  the  Erme  is  Green  Lake  Bottom,  noticed  in 
Ex.  33.  (For  the  route  to  Brent  from  this  point  see  Ex.  30). 

Passing  down  the  valley  by  Quickbeam  Foot,  and  noticing  on 
one  hand  the  evidences  of  mediaeval  mining,  and  on  the  other  those  of 
the  presence  here  of  man  in  times  still  further  remote,  as  shown  by 
the  ruined  huts  on  the  slope  of  the  hill  L.,  we  shall,  when  about  i  m. 
below  Hook  Lake,  come  upon  some  ruined  walls  where  these  evidences 
are  combined.  At  the  lower  end  of  a  circular  enclosure  containing 
huts,  and  within  a  few  yards  of  the  river,  is  a  small  rectangular  building 
of  the  type  erected  by  the  tinners.  Just  beyond  this  we  cross  Dry 
Lake,  and  almost  immediately  afterwards  Left  Lake,  which  forms  the 
southern  boundary  of  the  tract  over  which  the  Ermington  manorial 
rights  extend.  Still  continuing  to  follow  the  Erme,  we  at  length  pass 
Crooked  Oak,  and  find  ourselves  at  the  wall  of  Higher  Piles.  On 


84  IVYBRIDGE    DISTRICT. 

the  hillside  L.  all  the  way  down  to  this  point,  hut  circles  and  small 
pounds  are  numerous. 

[The  rambler  who  does  not  care  to  scramble  through  the  rocky 
enclosure  below,  but  who  is  content  to  view  the  ancient  oak  wood 
known  as  Piles  Copse  from  a  distance,  may  here  turn  up  the  hill,  and 
on  arriving  at  the  higher  corner  of  the  newtake  will  turn  R.,  and  keeping 
close  to  Piles  Wall  pass  under  Sharp  Tor.  On  reaching  the  corner  at 
Piles  Gate,  where  the  wall  is  carried  down  the  hill  W.  by  the  side  of 
Piles  Brook,  he  will  leave  it  and  strike  due  S.  till  he  reaches  the  branch 
of  the  Blackwood  Path  (T.  63),  which  he  will  follow  to  Harford  Gate.] 

Entering  Higher  Piles  Newtake  we  shall  pass  down  by  the  stream 
finding  a  path  through  the  oak  wood,  or  between  it  and  the  river, 
along  the  bank  of  which  it  extends  for  about  £  m.  The  trees  are  not 
of  the  size  of  those  in  Wistman's  Wood  (Ex.  5)  ;  they  more  nearly 
resemble  those  at  Black  Tor  Copse,  on  the  West  Ockrnent  (Ex.  14). 
But  there  is  evidence  that  the  wood  is  of  considerable  age,  and  thus  an 
additional  interest  is  lent  to  it.  It  is  figured  on  the  old  map  of  Dart- 
moor now  in  the  museum  at  Exeter.  £  m.  below  it  we  shall  come  upon 
an  ancient  enclosure,  and  a  little  further  on  shall  cross  Piles  Brook 
and  enter  Lower  Piles,  up  across  which  we  shall  make  our  way  through  a 
wilderness  of  granite  to  Lower  Piles  Corner,  S.E.  Here  are  a  number 
of  hut  circles,  and  low  walls  arranged  in  such  a  curious  manner  as  to 
render  it  difficult  to  understand  the  plan  of  the  cluster. 

Outside  the  newtake  and  not  far  from  the  corner,  is  a  kistvaen 
near  a  dilapidated  hut  circle.  This  kist  is  about  3  feet  deep,  and  is 
placed  in  a  partly  demolished  circle,  of  which  only  seven  stones  are  now 
standing.  The  cover  stone  is  missing,  and  the  northern  end  of  the  kist 
is  composed  of  several  small  stones  instead  of  one  slab  like  the  other 
end  and  sides.  Striking  due  S.  we  soon  reach  Harford  Gate,  into  which 
the  rambler  may  turn  and  make  his  way  to  Ivybridge  past  Broomhill 
and  Lukesland,  as  in  Ex.  33.*  If  he  desires  to  return  by  way  of  Addi- 
combe  he  will  continue  S.  keeping  the  wall  R.,  and  just  before  reaching 
Butter  Brook  will  notice  some  very  fine  hut  circles.  Crossing  the  little 
stream  he  will  leave  Tor  Rocks,  a  very  interesting  pile,  R.,  and  still 
pursuing  a  southerly  course  will  soon  reach  the  wall  of  the  Combeshead 
enclosures,  where  a  track  will  lead  him  across  Addicombe  Slaggets  to 
the  moor  gate  (T.  64).  (Opposite  Addicombe  are  two  ancient  enclosures 
which  are  noticed  in  S.  Ex.  114).  From  the  moor  gate  the  rambler 
will  make  his  way  by  the  lane  to  Stowford,  and  thence  follow  the  road 
down  to  the  village. 


*  This  gate  appears  as  Harford  Yeat  in  the  sixteenth  century. 
Lukesland  stands  near  the  site  of  a  house  formerly  known  as  Lukesland 
Grove. 


EXCURSION    33,      HARFORD.  gs 


Ex.  33. — Harford,  Tristis  Rock,  Stalldon  Barrow,  Stall  Moor  Circle, 
~Erme  Head,  Valley  of  the  Erme,  Harford  Bridge,  17  m. 

We  shall  first  make  our  way  up  the  hill  to  Stowford,  as  in  Ex.  32, 
but  instead  of  turning  R.  to  the  common  shall  follow  the  lane  past 
Lukesland  and  Broomhill  to  Harford,  one  of  the  most  delightfully 
situated  hamlets  on  the  moorland  borders.  (Near  Broomhill  the 
rambler  may  desert  the  road  and  strike  over  some  fields  R.  to  the 
church,  crossing  the  Butter  Brook  a  little  way  below  Tor  Rocks,  by  a 
single  stone  clapper.  Here  may  be  seen  an  ancient  cross  which  was 
•discovered  a  few  years  ago  serving  as  a  gate-post,  by  the  rector,  the 
Rev.  John  A.  Uran,  and  was  set  up  by  him  in  its  present  situation.  It 
stands  on  the  line  of  the  track  connecting  the  two  religious  houses  of 
Buckfast  and  Plympton  (T.  59). 

[In  1 9 1 2  a  cross  was  discovered  near  Venn  Cross,  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Ugborough,  by  Mr.  Arthur  White,  of  Wrangaton  Manor,  and 
now  stands  on  the  lawn  there. 

Some  misapprehension  appears  to  have  been  caused  by  the 
existence  of  a  stone  at  the  point  the  moormen  call  Hobajohn's  Cross 
^Ex.  31,  32).  This  has  the  appearance  of  a  cross  with  one  rudely 
formed  arm  only,  and  is  similar  to  one  found  on  Dartmeet  Hill,  which 
examination  showed  to  be  shaped  by  natural  means.  But  even  if  the 
stone  in  question  were  really  the  remains  of  a  cross,  which  some  have 
imagined,  there  is  nothing  to  lead  us  to  suppose  that  it  would  be  the 
Hobajohn's  Cross  shown  on  the  map  setting  forth  the  bounds  of  Brent 
Moor  (Ex.  31).  That  cross  is  figured  as  an  important  object,  and  the 
head  discovered  on  the  cairn,  and  described  in  my  book  on  the  crosses 
of  the  moor,  would  fittingly  belong  to  such.  I  saw  the  fragment  during 
many  years,  but  it  now  appears  to  be  missing.] 

Descending  to  Harford  Bridge,  placed  at  the  head  of  the 
wooded  part  of  the  beautiful  valley  which  extends  upwards  from 
Ivybridge,  we  cross  it  and  enter  a  gate  R.  Here  we  are  on  the 
track  which  runs  up  by  the  Erme  under  Stalldon  Barrow  (T.  65), 
which,  however,  we  shortly  leave  and  climb  the  side  of  Hall  Newtake 
L.  towards  the  enclosures  of  the  ancient  farm  of  that  name.  This  was 
once  the  residence  of  Colonel  Chudleigh,  father  of  Elizabeth  Chudleigh, 
whose  absurdities,  as  Macaulay  observes,  Horace  Walpole  made  it  his 
serious  business  to  record,  and  who  afterwards  became  Duchess  of 
Kingston.  The  scanty  ruins  of  Hall  Pleasure  House  are  just  within 
the  plantation  on  the  verge  of  the  down.  They  are  surrounded 
by  a  wall  which  encloses  a  space  of  about  an  acre  in  extent.  On  the 
further  bank  of  the  river  is  Bullaven,  the  enclosures  belonging  to 
which  extend  nearly  to  Lower  Piles  (Ex.  32).  Our  way  will  take  us 
to  Tristis  Rock,  or  Hall  Tor,  as  it  is  sometimes  called,  whence  we 
have  a  good  view  of  Stalldon,  with  Sharp  Tor  and  Three  Barrows  on 
the  other  side  of  the  deep  Erme  valley. 

Not  far  from  the  rock  is  a  single  stone  row  which  starts  from  a 
ruined  circle  and  runs  N.  for  a  distance  of  400  yards,  and  consists  of 
112  stones.  This  we  shall  follow  to  Burford  Down,  and  then  crossing 
Yadsworthy  Waste,  where  are  a  number  of  hut  circles,  shall  pass 
upward  to  Stalldon  Barrow.  A  good  view  of  the  moor  opens  up  as 
we  proceed,  particularly  that  part  of  it  lying  between  the  Erme  and 


86 


IVYBR1DGE    DISTRICT. 

Three  Barrows. 
Sharp 
Tor. 


Erme  Valley. 
FROM   TRISTIS   ROCK.      LOOKING   N. 

the  West  Glaze,  the  prominent  heights  on  which  are  Ugborough  Beacon, 
Butterdon,  Weatherdon,  and  the  Western  Beacon,  and  on  the  slopes 
of  these  and  on  the  ridges  between  them  many  of  the  cairns  that  stud 
that  part  of  the  moor  are  seen  clearly  denned  against  the  sky. 

Stalldon  Barrow  is  really  a  cairn,  but  the  name  also  attaches  to 
the  lofty  hill  which  it  crowns.  This  hill  is  situated  near  the  southern 
extremity  of  Stall  Moor,  which  may  be  said  to  extend  from  the 
enclosures  of  Yadsworthy  to  Erme  Head,  a  distance  of  4  m.  Its 
northern  portion,  that  is  the  part  the  more  remote  from  the  cultivated 
country,  is  known  as  Outer  Stall.  This  moor  is  mentioned  in  the  Court 
Rolls  of  the  forest  temp  Edward  IV.  as  "  the  land  of  Stealdon." 

The  cairn  is  60  yards  in  circumference,  but  is  not  very  high.  On 
the  S.W.  side  the  stones  have  been  removed,  and  used  in  the  erection 
of  a  little  house  on  the  summit.  Of  this  only  three  walls  now  remain, 
but  they  are  very  substantially  built.  The  story  goes  that  a  child 
was  once  found  on  Stall  Moor,  and  was  adopted  by  some  good  people 

Hanger-  Weather- 

Ugborough         shell    Butterdon  don          Western     Tor      Tristis 

Beacon.  Rock.          Hill.  Hill.          Beacon.  Rocks.     Rock. 


Ernie  Valley. 
FROM    SOUTHERN    SLOPE    OF    STAIJ.DON    BARROW.      LOOKING    S.S.E. 


IG>.  BOE.NTAIWBRIDCE  DISTCT. 


88  IVYBRIDGE    DISTRICT. 

in  the  neighbourhood,  and  given  the  name  of  Hillson.  As  a  son  of 
the  hill  this  was  certainly  a  very  appropriate  one,  and  as  though  further 
to  justify  it,  the  foundling  betook  himself  to  Stalldon  Barrow  when  he 
grew  up,  and  built  a  little  house  there.  Here  he  dwelt  and  earned  a 
living  by  making  eight-day  clocks,  and  one  version  of  the  story  says 
that  the  first  ever  seen  in  the  neighbourhood  was  made  by  him.  Mr. 
W.  Hillson,  of  Wakeham's  Rook,  not  far  from  Cornwood  village,  has 
had  one  of  these  clocks  nearly  fifty  years ;  it  formerly  belonged  to  a 
family  named  Mumford,  of  Great  Steart,  in  this  parish.  "  I  cannot 
tell  how  the  truth  may  be  "  ;  all  I  can  vouch  for  is  that  the  little 
house  on  the  cairn  has  long  been  known  as  Hillson' s  Hut.  About  forty 
years  ago  I  used  to  hear  it  said  that  a  rain  gauge  was  once  to  be  seen 
here. 

On  the  slope  of  this  hill  to  the  N.E.  are  some  ancient  remains, 
and  others  occur  on  the  N.W.  side  of  it.  To  the  latter  we  now  make 
our  way,  and  shall  come  upon  the  first  of  these  objects  when  about 
125  yards  from  the  cairn.  This  is  a  circular  enclosure  22  yards  in 
diameter,  the  wall  being  formed  of  small  stones  and  covered  with  grass. 
Outside  this  wall  is  a  hut  circle,  but  there  are  none  within  it.  Further 
on,  and  nearly  £  m.  N.W.  of  the  Stalldon  cairn,  are  two  others,  one 
enclosed  in  a  circle  30  feet  in  diameter,  of  which  only  a  few  of  the 
stones  remain.  Both  cairns  are  covered  with  vegetation.  From  these 
remains  a  single  stone  row  runs  S.  for  a  distance  of  about  460  yards. 
Some  of  the  stones  are  large,  but  few  of  them  are  standing. 

Proceeding  in  the  same  direction,  that  is,  about  N.W.,  we  soon 
strike  the  track  running  out  to  Erme  Pound  (T.  66),  and  this  we  shall 
follow  R.  About  £  m.  on  we  cross  Bledge  Brook,  a  little  tributary  of 
the  Erme,  and  just  beyond  this  shall  reach  the  circle  sometimes  known 
as  The  Dancers,  and  also  as  Kiss-in-the-Ring.  This  is  54  feet  in 
diameter,  and  consists  of  26  stones,  of  which  three  are  fallen.  The 
average  height  of  these  is  2\  feet,  but  there  is  one  5  feet  high.  From 
this  circle  a  single  stone  row  runs  northward  for  a  distance  of  over  two 
miles,  terminating  in  the  ruined  kistvaen  we  have  already  observed  on 
Green  Hill  (Ex.  30).  The  groups  of  hut  circles  above  the  eastern  bank 
of  the  Erme,  noticed  in  Ex.  32,  are  here  plainly  visible,  as  also  are  Erme 
Pound  Rings,  also  described  in  that  excursion.  Looking  down  the 
valley  between  Stalldon  Barrow  R.  and  Sharp  Tor  and  Three  Barrows 
L.,  the  Western  Beacon  is  seen  4^  m.  distant  in  a  straight  line.  On 
the  slope  towards  the  river,  and  123  yards  from  the  circle,  is  a  hut 
enclosure  320  yards  in  circumference.  This  is  divided  into  three  parts 
by  low  walls,  and  contains  the  basements  of  several  ancient  dwellings. 
The  whole  is  in  a  very  ruinous  state.  Southward,  and  also  on  the 
slope,  is  another  decayed  enclosure  with  hut  circles.  The  Erme 
Islands  in  the  river  form  a  striking  feature  in  the  picture  seen  from 
these  remains. 

From  the  circle  we  follow  the  row  northward,  and  shall  notice 
that  the  stones  composing  it  become  smaller  as  the  distance  from  the 
starting-point  increases.  When  rather  over  \  m.  from  this  we  pass  a 
mossy  cairn  23  yards  to  the  I,.,  or  W.,  of  the  row,  44  yards  in  circum- 
ference, but  not  very  high.  R.  of  the  row  is  a  small  pound  with  hut 
circles.  Just  beyond  this  we  reach  Green  Bottom  opposite  Stony 
Bottom  (Ex.  32),  in  which  is  an  old  stream  work.  It  is  noticeable 
that  the  row  crosses  the  latter,  and  it  would  thus  appear  as  though  the 


EXCURSION   33.      NORTON'S   COMBE.  89 

mediaeval  tinners  (for  it  was  they  who  laboured  here,  as  the  ruins  of 
two  small  rectangular  buildings  in  the  combe  attest)  had  such  reverence 
for  pre-historic  monuments  that  they  did  not  disturb  the  row,  or 
•where  they  were  compelled  to  do  so,  carefully  set  up  the  stones  again 
upon  their  rubble  heaps.  The  circumstance  is  rather  difficult  to  under- 
stand. The  row  crosses  the  Erme  over  ^  m.  N.  of  the  bottom  (Ex.  32), 
and  then  runs  straight  to  Red  Lake,  which  it  also  crosses,  and  ascends 
Green  Hill,  where  there  is  a  considerable  break  in  it.* 

[The  following  routes  from  Ivybridge  cross  Green  Bottom  :  R.  59, 
to  Princetown  ;  R.  62,  to  Lydford  ;  R.  63,  to  Okehampton  ;  R.  64, 
to  Hexworthy  and  Chagford  (if  by  the  R.  bank  of  the  Erme)  ;  and  R. 
64,  from  Cornwood  to  Hexworthy  and  Chagford.] 

From  the  head  of  Green  Bottom  we  strike  N.W.  by  N.  over  the 
hill  to  Horton's  Combe,  passing  the  head  of  Knocking  Mill  on  the  way. 
This  latter  is  a  combe  running  down  to  the  Erme,  its  lower  end  being 
nearly  opposite  to  the  point  where  Dry  Lake  falls  into  that  river,  t 
In  winter  a  rivulet  flows  through  it,  but  there  is  no  stream  in  the  summer 
and  it  is  consequently  difficult  to  see  how  mining  operations  could  have 
been  conducted  here,  but  that  they  were  the  stone  heaps,  now  covered 
with  moss,  that  extend  throughout  the  length  of  the  combe  clearly 
show.  At  its  head  are  the  remains  of  two  small  mining  buildings, 
which,  like  the  workings,  are  clothed  with  moss.  A  little  way  down 
the  combe  another  runs  from  it  towards  the  S.W.,  the  lower  end  of  it 
being  on  the  brink  of  the  river  just  above  Erme  Pound.  This  also  has 
been  worked,  though  no  stream  runs  through  it.  Between  these  two 
combes  is  Stinger's  Hill,  at  the  eastern  foot  of  which  is  a  small  strip  of 
ground  known  as  The  Meadow.  Horton's  Combe  is  so  called  from 
having  formerly  been  the  spot  in  which  a  Cornwood  farmer  of  that 
name  was  in  the  habit  of  collecting  his  cattle.  It  is  sometimes  known 
as  Hortons'  Ford  Bottom,  and  the  stream  that  runs  through  it  as 
Hortons'  Ford  Brook.  By  continuing  our  N.W.  course  for  another 
£  m.  we  may  pass  above  Erme  Pits  to  the  springs  of  the  Erme,  or  we 
may  keep  more  to  the  R.  and  reach  the  river  where  it  is  yet  only  a 
rivulet  below  the  pits. 

*  I  have  always  striven  to  be  correct  in  taking  my  measurements 
of  objects  on  the  moor,  some  of  which  I  obtained  in  the  early  seventies, 
but  I  cannot  pretend  to  such  nicety  as  this  :  I  read  that  the 
Stall  Moor  Row  was  measured  in  1880  and  found  to  be  exactly 
11,239  ft.  8  ins.  in  length  !  This  monument  was  figured  in  a  paper  by 
the  late  Mr.  C.  Spence  Bate  read  before  the  Devon  Association  in  1871, 
and  a  plan  of  it  was  made  in  1880  by  the  Rev.  W.  C.  Lukis,  in  which 
year  I  also  briefly  described  it  in  the  second  volume  of  The  Antiquary. 
Nine  years  later  it  was  "  discovered  "  by  a  writer  during  a  flying  visit 
to  Southern  Dartmoor. 

f  Or  Hux  Lake  ;  see  Ex.  30.  In  1 502  there  is  mention  of  Hertes- 
lake  or  Hurtlake  in  connection  with  Whitepytte,  both  on  the  Erme. 
It  is  probable  that  this  refers  to  Hook  Lake,  Ex.  32,  and  not  to  Hux 
Lake.  Other  forms  of  Erme  are  Arme,  and  Irm.  In  1468  we  have 
Sedilburgh  Hill  and  Dertstream  Hill,  "  between  the  rivers  Erme  and 
Aune,"  but  these  cannot  now  be  identified. 


90  IVYBRIDGE    DISTRICT. 

[The  following  points  are  within  easy  reach  of  Erme  Head  :  Ducks' 
Pool  (Ex.  30)  |-  m.  N.  ;  kistvaen  on  Green  Hill  (Ex.  30)  i  m.  N.E-  ; 
Red  Lake  Ford  (Ex.  30,  R.  7)  i£  in.  E.  by  S.  :  Erme  Pound  (Ex.  32) 
i£  m.  S.E.  by  E.  ;  Yealm  Head  (Ex.  34)  i£  m.  S.S.W.  ;  Broad  Rock 
(Ex.  34)  ^  m.  N.W.  The  Abbots'  Way  (T.  i )  passes  here,  crossing  the 
infant  stream  at  Erme  Pits  Ford  in  the  midst  of  the  great  tin  work, 
and  again  at  Erme  Head  Ford  immediately  below  where  it  oozes 
from  the  mire,  and  goes  on  N.W.  to  Broad  Rock.  The  perambulators 
of  1240  mention  a  bound  in  this  part  of  the  moor  which  they  call 
Grymsgrove,  and  this  the  jurors  of  1609  considered  to  be  Erme  Head. 
The  next  point  named  in  the  1240  perambulation  is  Eylesbarrow,  bvit 
in  1609  the  line  was  carried  first  to  Plym  Head,  and  it  is  this  line  that  is 
now  regarded  as  the  boundary.  It  runs  from  near  Erme  Pits  Ford  to 
Erme  Head  Stone,  N.W.,  on  which  is  the  inscription  "  A  Head,"  the 
older  form  of  Erme  being  Arme  (which  is  still  used  by  the  moormen), 
and  then  abruptly  turns  westward  to  Broad  Rock,  which  is  near  by.] 

As  we  have  already  seen  (Ex.  30),  the  mining  remains  in  this  locality 
are  extensive,  and  afford  examples  of  streaming  and  also  of  open 
workings.  Of  the  latter  Erme  Pits,  by  which  name  the  excavations 
on  the  Cornwood  side  of  the  stream  are  generally  distinguished  from 
those  on  Erme  Pits  Hill,  are  the  largest  and  deepest.  These  probably 
represent  the  Armed  Pit  mentioned  in  1672  as  yielding  a  particular 
kind  of  ore  called  zill  tin.  The  remains  of  two  little  buildings  of  the 
usual  mining  type  may  be  seen  in  these  pits. 

Passing  down  through  the  stream  work,  where  we  shall  notice  a 
great  slab  of  granite  called  the  Table  Stone,  we  find  for  ourselves  a  path 
along  the  R.  bank  of  the  Erme,  and  in  about  i  m.  shall  reach  the  point 
where  Red  Lake  falls  into  it.  The  river,  which  will  be  our  companion 
as  far  as  Harford  Bridge,  here  bends  R.  We  pass  along  The  Meadow, 
and  when  opposite  Erme  Pound  shall  strike  the  Stall  Moor  stone  row, 
and  shortly  after  come  upon  the  track  leading  from  the  pound  to 
Watercombe  (T.  66).  Just  below  this  we  reach  Green  Bottom,  from 
which  point  downward  the  bank  is  covered  with  the  debris  of  the  tinners, 
among  which  we  shall  notice  the  remains  of  some  of  their  buildings,  one 
being  of  more  than  ordinary  interest  in  possessing  a  double  wall. 
Bledge  Brook  is  crossed  on  the  way.  When  opposite  Dry  Lake 
(mentioned  in  Ex.  32,  where  the  L.  bank  of  the  river  is  described)  the 
rambler  should  turn  aside  to  the  rocky  hollow  R.,  the  entrance  to 
which  is  marked  by  a  few  mountain  ash  trees.  It  is  really  the  work 
of  the  miners,  but  is  now  so  draped  with  plants  that  it  might  well 
pass  for  that  of  Nature.  Immediately  below  Dry  Lake  is  Left  Lake 
(both  on  the  E.  side  of  the  stream),  and  soon  after  passing  the  latter 
we  shall  come  upon  a  little  tributary.  A  short  distance  up  the  hollow 
R.  through  which  this  flows  is  the  best  example  of  a  miners'  cache 
to  be  found  on  Dartmoor.  It  is  on  the  L.  bank  of  the  little  stream, 
and  quite  close  to  it.  The  entrance  is  on  the  higher  side,  and  until 
this  is  seen  there  is  nothing  to  indicate  its  nature,  for  in  approaching 
it  up  stream  it  has  the  appearance  of  a  grass  covered  mound.  It 
is  known  as  Downing's  House,  and  sometimes  as  the  Smugglers'  Hole 
(see  Cache  in  Terms  Section),  and  a  story  is  related  of  its  having  been 
a  place  of  concealment  for  contraband  spirits.  A  short  distance 
above  it  is  a  little  crossing  place  on  the  stream,  sometimes  referred 


EXCURSION  34.     ANTIQUITIES   ON   THE   YEALM.  91 

to  as  Tinker's  Bridge.  On  the  hill  northward  of  the  cache  is  a  cluster 
of  hut  circles. 

Still  keeping  near  the  Ernie  we  pass  over  Tom's  Plain,  where  we 
shall  strike  the  track  coming  up  the  valley  from  Harford  Bridge,  2  m. 
further  down,  and  shall  follow  it  thither  (T.  65).  It  will  lead  us  through 
the  pass  in  which  the  ancient  oaks  of  Piles  Copse  find  shelter  (Ex.  32), 
and  above  which  Sharp  Tor  rises  on  one  hand  and  Stalldon  on  the 
other,  the  relative  situations  of  which  may  be  supposed  to  be  similar 
to  those  of  the  two  mountains  chained  together  by  Riquetti.  Thence 
our  way  will  lead  us  below  Burford  Down  where  are  pound -like  remains, 
to  Hall  Newtake,  where  we  emerge  on  the  road. 

Turning  I,,  we  ascend  the  hill  to  Harford  Church,  and  keeping  R. 
shall  make  our  way  past  the  hamlet  to  Broomhill,  £  m.  from  it.  Thence 
the  lane  will  lead  us  by  Lukesland  L,.  and  Erme  View  R.  (the  latter 
overlooking  the  romantic  Stowford  Cleave)  to  Stowford  House,  whence 
we  shall  pass  down  to  the  village. 

Ex.  34. — New  Waste,  Stall  Moor  Gate,  Antiquities  on  the  Yealnt 
[EXTENSION  To  Yealm  Head,  Langcombe  Bottom,  and  Broad  Rock, 
add  4  m.],  Broadall  Lake,  Pen  Beacon  [Shell  Top,  add  i  m.],  Rook 
Farms,  j\  m.  from  and  to  Corn  wood. 

Our  starting-point  will  be  the  moor  gate  at  Watercombe,  which 
we  may  reach  either  by  way  of  Harford  Bridge,  saving  about  \  m.,  or 
from  Cornwood.  If  we  choose  the  former  we  shall  pass  over  Burford 
Down  as  in  Ex.  33,  and  when  about  i  m.  from  the  bridge  shall  turn 
L.  at  the  end  of  the  Yadsworthy  enclosures,  and  steering  W.N.W. 
shall  arrive  at  the  gate,  or  the  track  near  it,  in  another  mile.  If  we 
go  by  way  of  Cornwood  we  follow  the  instructions  given  in  S.  Ex.  119 
for  reaching  that  village,  and  shall  then  take  the  road  running  N.E- 
from  the  open  space  in  front  of  the  inn.  This  will  bring  us  to  the 
Vicarage  Bridge,  on  the  Yealm,  $  m.  beyond  which  we  turn  L.  at  Tor, 
and  then  almost  immediately  bend  R.  At  the  fork  a  little  further  on, 
where  a  road  runs  R.  to  Yadsworthy,  we  keep  L.,  and  soon  reach  the 
gate  near  Watercombe  Farm.  Here  we  enter  on  New  Waste,  often 
called  Watercombe  Waste,  and  follow  the  track  northward,  and  crossing 
Redaven  Lake,  with  Redaven  Gulf  R.,  pass  through  Stall  Moor  Gate 
and  gain  the  open  common.*  This  track,  which  is  the  one  described 
as  running  over  Stall  Moor  to  Erme  Pound  (T.  66),  we  follow  from  the 
point  we  have  now  reached  for  \  m.,  when  we  shall  leave  it  to  examine 
the  fine  enclosure  below  us  on  the  L,.  This  is  of  considerable  size,  and 
contains  a  large  number  of  hut  circles.  In  shape  it  approaches  an 
oval.  On  the  S.E.  side  a  wall  is  carried  out  from  the  main  one  with 
a  semi-circular  sweep,  thus  forming  a  smaller  pound.  A  small  stream 
flows  through  the  larger  enclosure  and  falls  into  the  Yealm  in  Dendles 

*  New  Waste  Gate,  which  opens  upon  the  lane,  is  the  true  moor 
gate,  as  the  waste  has  only  been  enclosed  about  90  years.  It 
may  possibly  be  the  one  referred  to  at  Lydford  Castle  in  1479  as 
Abbot's  Gate,  for  allowing  which  to  be  ruinous,  to  the  nuisance  of  the 
country.  Walter  Abbot  and  another  were  fined.  It  is  described  as 
"  the  gate  of  the  Moor  at  Staledon,"  i.e.,  Stalldon.  That  part  of  the 
moor  E.  of  the  waste  is  sometimes  known  as  Steart  Ridge. 


92  CORNWOOD    DISTRICT. 

Wood.  This  wood,  with  the  bare  hill  of  Hawns  on  the  further  side  of 
the  valley,  which  together  form  the  well-known  Hawns  and  Dendles,  is 
in  full  view  from  the  pound. 

[Stalldon  Barrow  crowns  the  hill  E.,  and  is  about  i  m.  distant. 
It  is  also  about  i  m.  from  the  gate  near  Redaven  Gulf,  from  which  it 
bears  N.E.  by  E.  Ex.  33.] 

Close  to  the  hut  enclosure  a  track  comes  up  from  between  Dendles 
Wood  and  Harrowthorn  Plantation.  This  we  leave  R.  and  strike  N. 
to  a  little  affluent  of  the  Yealm  known  as  Ranny  Brook  which  flows 
from  the  E.,  and  on  crossing  this  shall  at  once  come  upon  an  extensive 
hut  settlement,  situated  with  regard  to  the  river  and  its  tributary 
like  the  one  on  Brown  Heath  (Ex.  32),  and  is  also  placed  on  a  slope. 
The  settlement  consists  of  two  pounds,  roughly  circular  in  shape, 
within  and  without  which  are  a  number  of  ruined  huts.  The  pounds 
are  joined  together,  and  the  wall  that  is  common  to  both  being  of 
smaller  proportions  than  the  main  one,  they  have  more  the  appear- 
ance of  a  single  pound  divided  into  two  parts.  Regarded  in  this  way 
the  enclosure  is  635  yards  in  circumference.  On  the  S.S.W.  is  an 
entrance  formed  by  two  large  slabs  about  four  feet  high,  one  of  which 
is  in  a  slanting  position,  and  there  are  other  openings.  Three  little 
huts  of  the  type  known  as  behive  huts,  that  is,  having  domed  roofs,  and 
which  were  probably  used  as  shelters  for  shepherds  or  herdsmen,  have 
been  formed  on  the  ruins  of  the  wall.  In  the  larger  of  the  divisions 
there  are  16  hut  circles,  some  being  good  examples,  and  in  the  smaller 
division  five  hut  circles.  One  of  these  is  21  feet  in  diameter,  and  the 
stones  of  which  its  wall  is  composed  are  laid  in  courses.  Between  the 
pounds  and  the  tributary  huts  are  numerous — one  has  the  door  jamb 
in  a  very  complete  state — and  there  are  also  appearances  of  a  reave. 
Above  the  pounds,  that  is  N.  of  them,  there  are  a  few  more  hut  circles,  and 
these  are  of  a  character  unlike  those  usually  found  on  the  moor.  The 
basement  wall  instead  of  being  formed  of  slabs  set  on  their  edges,  or,  as 
is  more  rare,  of  stones  piled  on  one  another,  is  composed  of  earth  with 
stone  facings,  and  in  one  example,  is  quite  ten  feet  thick.  About 
30  yards  S.S.E.  of  the  larger  pound  is  a  kistvaen  in  a  circle  13  feet  in 
diameter,  but  much  overgrown. 

From  this  ruined  settlement  of  the  early  men  of  the  moor,  we 
descend  westward  to  the  Yealm,  here  flowing  through  a  romantic  glen, 
into  which  it  falls  from  a  considerable  height  in  a  series  of  cascades. 
On  the  L.  bank  is  a  blowing-house  in  a  very  decayed  state,  and  within 
it  two  mould  stones,  one  of  which  is  broken.  By  following  the  river 
upward  and  crossing  it  near  Yealm  Rocks  we  shall  find  the  ruins  of 
another  building,  and  in  this  tin  was  also  smelted,  as  is  proved  by 
the  granite  mould  lying  within  it.  This  is  about  $  m.  above  the  for- 
mer. The  course  of  the  Yealm  on  the  moor  is  but  a  short  one,  for 
i£  m.  below  its  source  trees  begin  to  line  its  banks,  and  about  £  m. 
lower  down  it  enters  Dendles  Wood.  But  this  moorland  part  of  it  is, 
nevertheless,  full  of  interest.  Above  the  wood  is  a  great  Streamwork, 
and  at  the  head  of  that  the  hollow  through  which  we  have  now  traced 
it,  while  to  this  succeeds  a  scene  of  wildness  and  desolation.  The 
river  separates  the  two  divisions  of  the  common  lands  of  Cornwood  ; 
the  tract  to  the  E.  of  it  forming  Stall  Moor,  as  noticed  in  Ex.  33,  and 
that  to  the  W.  forming  Pen  Moor. 


EXCURSION   34.      GRYMSGROVE.  93 

[EXTENSION  To  Yealm  Head,  Langcombe  Bottom,  and  Broad  Rock 
add  5  m.  if  the  return  be  made  to  Yealm  Rocks  ;  if  the  rambler  returns 
direct  to  Pen  Beacon  via  Shell  Top,  add  4  m.  Passing  upward  we 
leave  the  source  of  the  Yealm,  less  than  f-  m.  distant,  and  500  feet 
higher  than  where  it  is  joined  by  Ranny  Brook  below  Yealm  Steps, 
on  the  R.,  in  order  to  avoid  the  mire.  We  soon  draw  near  the  summit 
of  the  ridge  running  N.E.  from  Shell  Top,  and  along  which  the  Corn- 
wood  boundary  is  carried.  This  ridge,  although  so  high,  is  very 
marshy,  but  the  ground  presents  no  real  obstacle  to  the  pedestrian. 
(In  R.  59  the  line  is  drawn  from  Yealm  Head  to  Broad  Rock  direct, 
the  marsh  being  avoided  by  keeping  a  little  to  the  R.,  but  we  now 
follow  another  course).  We  strike  N.N.W.  over  the  ridge,  and  in 
less  than  \  m.  shall  reach  firmer  ground.  Then  we  turn  due  N.  and 
make  our  way  for  %  m.  along  the  upper  slope  of  Langcombe  Hill  to 
Langcombe  Bottom,  which  we  should  strike  about  ^  m.  below  Lang- 
combe Head.  Here,  on  the  R.  bank  of  the  stream,  is  a  good  example 
of  a  kistvaen,  standing  in  a  small  stone  circle.  The  covering  slab  has. 
fallen,  or  has  been  thrown,  into  it.  The  late  Mr.  Spence  Bate  con- 
sidered that  this  ancient  tomb  may  have  been  the  Grymsgrove  of  the 
perambulators  of  1240  (Ex.  33),  but,  as  it  appears  to  me,  without 
any  better  reason  than  that  grove  may  have  meant  grave.  Had  there 
been  a  few  trees  in  the  locality  it  is  possible  that  the  name  might  have 
retained  the  form  in  which  we  have  received  it  from  the  perambulators ! 
But  there  are  no  trees  within  several  miles  of  Erme  Head,  while  a 
number  of  graves  are  to  be  found  not  far  from  it.  By  the  change  of  a 
single  letter  one  of  these  could  be  fixed  upon,  and  so  the  ancient 
bound  became  Grim's  Grave.  By  the  suggestion  that  Grim  may  have 
been  a  chieftain,  the  founder  perhaps  of  Grim's  Pound,  the  idea  was 
made  interesting.  But  that  is  all  that  can  be  said  for  it.  I  see  no 
reason  for  believing  that  the  jurors  of  1609  were  wrong  when  they 
supposed  the  Grymsgrove  of  the  "  auncient  recordes  "  to  be  identical 
with  Erme  Head.  At  the  same  time  they  certainly  appear  to  have 
been  so  in  carrying  the  line  from  that  place  to  Plym  Head.  By  so 
doing  the  common  lands  of  Shaugh  Parish  are  made  to  run,  as  it  were, 
into  the  forest.  We  have  already  noticed  the  occurrence  in  two 
localities  (S.  Ex.  35,  Ex.  31)  of  the  story  of  land  having  been  claimed 
by  a  parish  on  the  ground  of  having  given  burial  to  a  stranger  found 
dead  within  the  bounds  of  another  which  had  refused  to  do  so.  The 
story  is  also  met  with  in  this  part  of  the  moor,  and  though  probably 
having  no  more  truth  in  it  than  the  others,  at  least  points  to  some 
encroachment,  or  altering  of  boundaries  here.  The  man  was  found,  so 
the  tale  runs,  lying  on  the  moor  at  the  head  of  a  combe,  about 
i  m.  below  Broad  Rock,  and  not  far  from  some  scattered  granite 
known  as  Little  Gnats'  Head.  The  combe,  down  which  trickles  a 
small  feeder  of  the  Langcombe  Brook,  bears  the  name  of  Deadman's 
Bottom. 

Leaving  the  kistvaen  we  strike  N.E.  by  N.  over  Broad  Mead,  and 
in  f  m.  reach  Broad  Rock,  to  which  we  have  referred  in  Ex.  33  and 
in  R.  59.  This  object  is  important  not  only  as  a  bond  mark,  but 
also  as  indicating  the  point  where  the  Abbots'  Way  branched  (T.  i). 
It  is  only  1 1^  feet  long  by  j\  feet  wide,  and  not  being  more  than  3  feet 
high,  cannot  be  seen  from  a  distance,  but  I  remember  when  a  pole 


94 


CORNWOOD    DISTRICT. 


standing  by  the  side  of  it  made  it  a  very  convenient  landmark.     Re- 
cently another  has  been  set  up.     On  its  surface  is  this  inscription  : 

BB. 

BROAD  ROCK. 

The  initials  stand  for  Blachford  Boundary,  the  stone  here  denning 
the  limits  between  that  manor  and  the  forest. 


FROM  BROAD  ROCK.   LOOKING  S.E. 

The  view  eastward  embraces  Green  Hill,  Brown  Heath,  and 
Three  Barrows.  Over  the  ridge  beyond  Red  Lake  Mires  the  cairn  in 
Huntingdon  Warren  is  seen  due  E.,  and  to  the  R.  of  the  mires  the 
Abbots'  Way  where  it  approaches  Red  Lake  Ford.  R.  of  Brown  Heath 
is  Stony  Bottom  and  Quickbeam  Hill,  S.E.  Turning  toward  the  W. 
only  the  heath  on  which  the  beholder  is  standing  is  seen,  but  when  he 
has  walked  a  few  yards  from  the  rock  in  that  direction,  an  extensive 
view  suddenly  unfolds  itself. 

Sharp 
Tor 

Sheeps  Hart  Peak       Leather 

Yelverton.  Tor.  Tor.  Hill.  Tor. 


FROM  NEAR  BROAD  ROCK.   LOOKING  N.W. 

Sheeps  Tor,  Lether  Tor,  and  Sharp  Tor  are  prominent  objects  to 
the  N.W.,  beyond  which  is  a  fine  range  of  country,  backed  by  the 
Cornish  hills.  More  to  the  R.  of  the  picture  North  Hisworthy  and 
Mis  Tor  are  seen  uplifting  their  forms  against  the  sky. 


EXCURSION  34.      BROAD    ROCK.      SHELL   TOP. 


95 


(From  Broad  Rock  Plym  Head  is  £  m.  N.  ;  Ducks'  Pool  £  m.  N.E.  ; 
Erme  Head  over  J  m.  S.E.  ;  Langcombe  Head  over  £  m.  S.  by  W.  ; 
Plym  Steps  i  m.  W.  ;  and  Plym  Ford  i  m.  N.W.) 

The  Abbots'  Way  descends  the  hill  from  Broad  Rock  to  Plym 
Steps,  passing  the  head  of  Deadman's  Bottom,  on  the  side  of  which, 
about  midway  down,  is  a  hut  settlement.  The  Tavistock  branch  goes 
towards  Great  Gnats'  Head,  below  which  it  reaches  Plym  Ford. 

Mis  Tor. 

Cocks  Staple     Roose  N.  Hisworthy 

Eylesbarrow.  Tor.  Tors.        Tor.  Tor 


FROM  NEAR  BROAD  ROCK. 

The  boundary  between  Cornwood  and  Shaugh  is  carried  southward 
to  Shell  Top,  running  along  the  ridge,  as  we  have  already  observed. 
It  affords  no  guidance  as  the  bondmarks  are  few,  and  the  ground  being 
marshy  in  places,  it  will  be  better  to  keep  on  the  brow  of  the  hill  west- 
ward of  it,  unless  the  rambler  prefers  to  retrace  his  steps  to  Yealm 
Head.  In  either  case  he  will  first  return  to  the  kistvaen  by  the  Lang- 
combe  Brook,  and  then  if  he  decides  upon  the  former  route  will  strike 
S.W.  He  will  pass  below  Shavercombe  Head,  but  must  take  care  not 
to  descend  the  hill  too  much,  but  keep  some  distance  above  Hen  Tor 
(R.  7,  Ex.  37).  Bearing  L,.,  or  S.S.W.,  Shell  Top,  2±  m.  from  Broad 
Rock,  will  be  reached.  A  few  rocks  crown  its  summit,  and  round 
them  a  small  cairn  has  been  built.  But  the  rambler  who  climbs  this 
lofty  height  is  not  likely  to  bestow  his  first  thoughts  upon  objects 
such  as  this  ;  his  attention  will  be  attracted  by  that  which  is  seen 
from  it.  One  of  the  finest  views  to  be  obtained  from  any  Dartmoor 
border  height  is  spread  before  him.  From  the  giant  hills  that  look 
down  upon  the  waters  of  the  Walkham  in  the  north,  to  the  woods  and 
green  fields  of  the  western  part  of  the  South  Hams  in  the  opposite 
direction,  the  eye  ranges  over  a  succession  of  beauties.  A  striking 
feature  is  formed  by  the  rivers  that  fall  into  the  sea  near  Plymouth, 
which  are  seen  embosomed  amid  hills,  one  of  them  being  the  little 
stream  that  we  have  lately  traced  to  its  source. 

S.W.  of  the  cairn,  and  about  £  m.  from  it,  is  an  enclosure  with  hut 
circles,  -i-  in.  below  that  is  the  wall  of  Cholwich  Town  Waste.  On 
the  farm  of  that  name.  (Ex.  35)  in  a  field  called  Great  Hill,  is  a  fine 
single  stone  row,  over  230  yards  in  length,  with  the  remains  of  a  circle 
at  the  N.E.  end.  In  the  wall  on  the  slope  above  is  a  large  stone  that 
may  once  have  served  as  a  menhir. 


96  SHORTER    EXCURSIONS    FROM    IVYBRIDGE. 

Shell  Top  rises  to  a  height  of  1546  feet.  About  £  m.  S.  of  it  is- 
Pen  Beacon,  1407  feet.  A  reave  connects  the  two,  and  this  we  shall 
follow  down  to  the  lower  height  (R.  7).] 

Leaving  the  Yealm  we  make  our  way  south-westward  to  Broadall 
Lake,  the  upper  part  of  which  is  generally  referred  to  as  Broadall  Gulf. 
This  we  should  strike  near  the  point  at  which  it  enters  the  enclosures, 
where  are  a  number  of  hut  circles.  We  pass  upward  with  the  wall  I,, 
to  the  higher  corner  of  High-house  Waste,  which  is  close  to  the  head 
of  a  little  stream.  Thence  we  follow  a  reave  up  the  hill  to  a  pound 
250  yards  in  circumference,  and  containing  eight  hut  circles,  one, 
which  is  nearly  in  the  centre,  having  a  wall  about  six  feet  thick.  Above 
this  are  several  reaves,  which  in  places  cross  each  other.  One  goes 
westward,  and  seems  to  be  connected  with  a  longer  one  coming  up  the 
side  of  the  hill  from  the  Plym.  Another  runs  upward  to  Pen  Beacon, 
and  to  that  point  we  make  our  way.  On  this  is  a  barrow  72  yards  in 
circumference,  but  not  of  great  height.  On  its  S.  side  a  little  shelter 
has  been  built,  and  on  the  W.,  a  few  yards  from  it,  are  the  ruins  of  a 
small  rectangular  building.  Shell  Top  is  %  m.  N.  by  W. 

One  mile  S.S.E.  of  Pen  Beacon  is  West  Rook  Gate,  and  to  this  we 
shall  now  make  our  way,  and  follow  the  road  thence  by  the  Rook  farms 
to  Heathfield  Down  and  Cornwood  village,  as  in  R.  7.  The  return  to 
Ivybridge  will  be  by  way  of  the  road  running  S.E.  frpm  the  inn,  and 
will  lead  us  by  Moor  Cross  to  Houndle  Hill,  soon  after  which  we  pass 
Fardel,  R.,  and  in  about  i-J-  m.  reach  Dame  Hannah  Rogers'  School, 
where  we  turn  down  R.  to  the  village. 


Shorter  Excursions  from  Ivybridg-e. 

S.  Ex.  113. — The  Lud  Brook,  6  m.  Following  the  Brent  highway 
(R.  66)  for  2  m.  the  visitor  will  reach  Bittaford  Bridge,  where  a  road 
turns  L-  under  the  viaduct,  and  runs  past  the  hamlet  up  to  the  common. 
(Another  road  passes  under  the  viaduct  very  near  to  the  Horse  and 
Groom  Inn  ;  this  is  the  old  coach  road  noticed  in  S.  Ex.  112,  and  by 
following  it  to  Leigh  Cross,  a  short  distance  beyond  the  entrance  to 
the  Plymouth  Borough  Lunatic  Asylum,  at  Blackadon,  and  then 
turning  L.  the  visitor  is  led  to  the  commons  at  Leigh  Gate  and  the 
Golf  Links,  f  m.  from  the  summit  of  Ugborough  Beacon,  as  described 
in  S.  Ex.  112).  Blackadon  Farm  was  formerly  known  as  Blacket. 
On  reaching  the  moor  above  Bittaford  by  the  lane  running  by  West 
Peek  the  rambler  will  strike  N.,  with  Cuckoo  Ball  R.,  and  at  Cuckoa 
Ball  Corner  will  turn  R.  to  the  Lud  (S.  Ex.  112).  This  little  stream 
may  be  traced  to  its  source,  and  the  return  be  made  by  way  of 
Butterdon  Hill,  -§-  m.  S.W.  of  it,  whence  a  green  track  may  be  followed 
S.W.  for  i  m.  to  the  moor  gate  at  Quarry  Pit  Plantation.  Thence 
by  the  road  down  the  hill  past  Stowford  to  the  village.  Between 
Ivybridge  and  Bittaford  is  the  hamlet  of  Filham.  From  this  a  road 
runs  up  to  the  moor.  Fyllam  Yeat  (gate)  receives  early  mention. 
Further  on  is  a  second  turning,  L.,  to  the  moor,  and  then  a  third. 
The  latter  leads  to  Cantrell  Farm  and  Cantrell  Gate,  or  Cantrel  Yeat 
as  it  appears  in  the  sixteenth  century.  Near  it  are  the  remains  of  a 
stone  row  about  50  yards  in  length,  and  running  westerly  from  a  low 


SHORTER    EXCURSIONS   FROM    IVYBRIDGE.  97 

tumulus.     It  appears  to  have  been  double,  though  only  a  few  stones 
are  now  standing. 

S.  Ex.  114. — The  Wester  yi  Beacon,  Butter  don,  and  Hanger  shell 
Rock,  5 1  m.  The  visitor  will  first  make  his  way  past  Stowford  to  the 
gate  at  Quarry  Pit  Plantation,  and  will  then  pass  upward  to  the  Western 
Beacon,  as  in  Ex.  32.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  source  of  the 
Errne,  which  stream  flows  so  far  below  the  visitor,  is  over  260  feet 
above  this  lofty  point.  The  line  of  bond-stones  referred  to  in  Ex.  32 
comes  up  the  hill  from  behind  Stowford,  where  is  a  boundary  rock 
having  the  letters  H  U  cut  upon  it,  denoting  Harford  and  Ugborough. 
This  line  is  followed  N.  by  Black  Pool  to  Butterdon,  as  directed  in  the 
excursion  just  named,  whence  the  visitor  makes  his  way  N.  by  the 
ancient  row  to  Hangershell  Rock,  which  is  not  far  to  the  L.  of  it,  and 
about  £  m.  on.  The  view  from  this  point  is  particularly  good.  I 
remember  when  a  little  grave  was  to  be  seen  close  to  the  rock,  with  a 
headstone  bearing  the  following  inscription  : 

"  In  memory  of  Tiny,  a  faithful  and  affectionate  little  terrier, 
who  died  at  Lukesland,  March  igth,  1875,  aged  12  years. 

My  little  dog  lies  buried  here, 

Stranger  stop  and  drop  a  tear ; 

And  as  you  pass  this  little  grave, 

One  small  request  I  of  you  crave — 

Let  no  hand  nor  foot  of  thine 

Despoil  this  little  Tiny's  shrine.     S.F.M." 

Near  the  rock  a  green  path  will  lead  the  visitor  S.W.  past  Weather- 
don  Hill,  £  m.  distant  (Ex.  32).  I,ess  than  \  m.  S.  of  the  summit  of 
this  hill,  and  near  Addicombe,  are  two  ancient  pounds,  the  larger  of 
which  is  divided  by  a  wall  running  across  it.  It  is  165  yards  in  circum- 
ference. There  are  also  a  few  hut  circles,  but  the  remains  are  very 
much  decayed.  Crossing  Addicombe  Slaggets  S.  to  the  moor  gate  the 
visitor  will  descend  the  hill  as  in  S.  Ex.  113. 

S.  Ex.  115. — To  Three  Barrows  direct  (4%  m.  from  Ivybridge),  9  m. 
To  the  moor  gate  as  in  Ex.  32.  Thence  N.  across  Addicombe  Slaggets, 
and  up  the  green  path  with  Butterdon  R.  and  Weatherdon  Hill  L. 
Thence  past  Hangershell  Rock  to  the  stone  row.  Follow  this  N.  to 
its  termination,  when  the  bond-stones  will  form  a  guide.  These  lead 
past  Sharp  Tor  I,.,  about  |  m.  beyond  which  the  cairn  crowned  hill 
rises  R.  See  Ex.  32. 

S.  Ex.  116. — Piles  Copse  (4^  m.  from  Ivybridge),  81  m.  Harford 
Moor  gate  is  the  first  point,  and  this  the  visitor  may  reach  either  by 
way  of  Harford  as  in  Ex.  33,  from  which  place  he  will  turn  up  the  hill 
by  the  church,  or  he  may  go  by  way  of  the  gate  at  Quarry  Pit  Planta- 
tion as  in  Ex.  32.  Should  he  choose  the  latter  he  will  pass  over  Addi- 
combe Slaggets,  keeping  near  the  enclosures  L.  About  £  m.  from  the 
gate,  at  Combeshead  Brake,  the  wall  is  carried  westward  towards 
Tor  Rocks,  which  rise  above  the  southern  bank  of  the  Butter  Brook, 
and  which  the  rambler  should  visit.  The  direct  course  is  N.  to 
Butter  Ford  at  the  corner  |  m.  distant,  close  to  which  are  some  fine 
examples  of  hut  circles.  Harford  Gate  is  just  beyond  this.  Here 
three  tracks  start ;  one  being  the  Owley  Path  (T.  62),  another  the 


98  SHORTER    EXCURSIONS   FROM    IVYBRIDGE. 

branch  of  the  Blackwood  Path  (T.  63),  which  runs  up  to  Piles  Hill, 
and  the  third,  which  is  carried  along  by  the  wall,  going  to  the  gate  ot 
Lower  Piles,  4  m.  N.  The  rambler  will  follow  the  last-named.  Outside 
the  gate  of  Piles  is  the  kist  noticed  in  Ex.  32,  and  inside  it  the  curious 
hut  circles  also  mentioned  in  that  excursion,  which  embraces  Piles 
and  the  copse.  The  latter  is  i  m.  N.,  and  the  way  to  it  lies  through 
the  newtakes,  Piles  Brook  being  crossed  midway. 

S.  Ex.  117.  Stowford  Cleave,  5^  m.  The  beautifully  wooded  valley 
through  which  the  Erme  flows  from  Harford  Bridge  to  Ivybridge  bears 
the  name  of  Stowford  Cleave,  and  justly  takes  high  rank  among  similar 
spots  in  the  Dartmoor  borderland.  We  have  elsewhere  remarked  on 
the  word  Cleave,  Exs.  1 1,  23,  and  Terms  Section  in  Part  V.  The  visitor 
may  enter  this  close  to  the  viaduct  near  the  station,  where  he  will  find 
a  path  that  will  take  him  up  the  valley  by  the  R.  bank  of  the  river. 
When  this  is  lost  Harford  Church  comes  in  sight,  half  hidden  amid 
trees,  and  the  hills  begin  to  reveal  themselves,  the  picture  being  as 
fine  as  anything  the  fringe  of  the  moor  can  show.  [Gems,  Chap.  XVII.] 
Crossing  a  field  a  lane  is  reached  where  the  visitor  turns  R.  to  Harford 
Bridge.  Thence  the  return  route  is  by  the  church  as  in  Ex.  32. 

S.  Ex.  1 1 8. — Henlake  Down  and  Hangher  Down,  4  m.  A  road 
leads  up  through  the  wood  from  the  viaduct  near  the  station.  Follow- 
ing this  the  visitor  will  be  led  to  Henlake  Down  and  Pithill  Farm. 
From  the  down  there  is  a  fine  view,  which,  however,  is  greatly  extended 
when  Hangher  Down  is  reached.  A  track  in  the  higher  corner  of 
Henlake  leads  to  this.  On  the  summit  is  the  Round  Plantation,  a 
conspicuous  object  in  the  neighbourhood.  A  track  runs  over  the 
common,  going  northward  to  the  road  between  Harford  Bridge  and 
Cornwood.  N.W.  of  the  Round  Plantation  a  road  leads  down  to 
Moor  Cross  (S.  Ex.  119). 

S.  Ex.  119. — Cornwood  and  Hawns  and  Dendles  :  with  road  to 
Lutton.  (Cornwood  village  is  3  m.  from  Ivybridge,  and  i  m.  from 
Cornwood  Station  (G.W.R.)  ;  the  entrance  to  Hawns  and  Dendles  is 
at  Combe,  i^  m.  from  Cornwood  village).  The  Cornwood  road,  as 
stated  hi  Ex.  34,  runs  up  the  hill  with  Ivybridge  church  R.  to  Dame 
Hannah  Rogers'  School,  where  it  turns  L.  About  i^  m.  on  it  passes 
Fardle,  the  former  home  of  the  Raleighs,  though  not  the  birthplace  of 
Sir  Walter.  The  chapel  is  in  a  good  state  of  preservation.  Pasrdng 
over  Houndle  Hill  the  rambler  will  reach  Moor  Cross,  where  is  one  of 
the  entrances  to  Blachford. 

(The  road  running  L.  is  the  one  which  the  rambler  is  directed  to 
take  for  Lutton,  R.  57.  After  crossing  the  Yealm,  which  is  close  by, 
he  will  pass  the  first  turning  R.  and  at  the  next  cross  road  on  the  ridge, 
will  keep  straight  down  the  hill  to  Piall  Brook,  and  will  then  pass  up 
the  hill  and  bend  R.  to  Lutton,  a  hamlet  where  is  a  small  hostelry 
called  the  Mountain  Inn.  Below  the  bridge  over  the  Piall  Brook  is 
Slade  Hall,  the  residence  of  Mr.  J.  D.  Pode.  Here  an  ingot  of  tin  was 
found  in  iS"o.  It  measured  14  inches  by  8  inches,  and  was  about 
3  inches  thick,  its  weight  being  si^lbs.  I  mention  this  because  I  have 
seen  it  stated  that  the  tin  ingots  were  of  a  cubic  form.  The  rambler  on 
Dartmoor  who  has  examined  the  blowing-houses  there  will  know  better.) 


SHORTER    EXCURSIONS   FROM   CORNWOOD.  99 

From  Moor  Cross  we  make  our  way  to  Corn  wood,  which  is  some- 
times locally  spoken  of  as  Cross.  Here  on  the  open  space  in  the  centre 
of  the  little  village  is  a  fine  Latin  cross,  erected  in  1902  to  the  memory 
of  Frederic  Rogers,  Lord  Blachford,  and  of  Georgiana,  his  wife. 
[Crosses,  Chap.  IV.  and  Addenda.]  On  one  side  of  this  space  is  an 
entrance  to  Blachford,  and  on  the  other  the  gate  of  Delarnore. 

(A  road  branches  R.  from  the  one  leading  to  the  station  a  short 
distance  from  the  village.  This  runs  on  past  Lutton  and  through 
Sparkwell  to  Old  Newnham  and  Plympton  Station). 

From  the  cross  we  take  the  road  running  N.E.  as  in  Ex.  34,  and 
on  crossing  the  bridge  over  the  Yealm  near  the  vicarage  turn  L.  and 
follow  the  path  by  the  river.  Soon  we  bend  R.  and  here  there  is  a 
road  L.  leading  to  Wisdome  Mill.  We  pass  this  and  take  the  next 
turning  L-,  and  then  again  bend  R.  and  pass  up  by  Sweet's  Wood  to 
Combe  L.  Here  we  enter  Hawns  and  Dendles.  It  has  been  suggested 
that  this  charming  spot  owes  its  name  to  a  corruption  of  some  Celtic 
words,  meaning  twice,  or  doubly  beautiful,  but  in  this  idea  there  is 
more  poetry  than  probability.  It  seems  to  have  derived  its  curious 
appellation  from  the  names  of  two  owners  of  the  lands  that  form  it. 
The  existence  of  one  of  these,  however,  a  Madame  Hawns,  rests  only 
on  tradition  ;  that  of  the  other  has  the  authority  of  title-deeds,  in 
which  the  name  appears  as  Daniels.  Hawns  and  Dendles  is  a  wooded 
valley  through  which  the  Yealm  flows  on  quitting  the  moor,  and  in 
which  it  is  joined  by  Broadall  Lake,  the  confluence  being  between 
Fernfires  Wood  S.  and  Dendles  Wood  N.  The  tract  of  land  between 
these  streams  is  divided  into  two  parts,  the  western  one  being  called 
Hawns,  and  the  eastern  Dendles  Waste.  The  cascades  on  the  Yealm 
are  fine,  and  there  are  some  delightful  glimpses  of  the  surrounding 
moor.  [Gems,  Chap.  XVIII.]  At  the  northern  end  of  the  higher  path 
on  the  W.  side  of  the  valley  a  gate  opens  on  to  Combe  Waste, 
between  the  woods  and  Harrowthorn  Plantation.  The  path  is  continued 
on  the  moor,  and  is  the  one  referred  to  in  Ex.  34  ;  by  following  this 
Yealm  Falls  and  the  Yealm  Rings  or  Yealm  Circles,  as  the  pounds  are 
sometimes  called,  may  readily  be  reached.  The  public  are  admitted 
to  Hawns  and  Dendles  on  Monday,  Wednesday,  and  Saturday  in  each 
•week,  by  the  courtesy  of  the  owner,  Miss  Deare.  Near  the  head  of  the 
Broadall  Lake  are  the  Broadall  Mires. 

S.  Ex.  1 20. — Stone  Circle  on  Stall  Moor,  and  Erme  Pound,  from 
Cornwood,  io|-  m.  The  distance  is  from  and  to  Cormvood  village. 
The  Ivybridge  visitor  will  find  it  very  interesting  to  go  to  Erme  Pound 
by  this  route,  and  return  by  way  of  the  L.  bank  of  the  Erme  and 
Harford  as  in  Ex.  32,  or  by  the  R.  bank  as  in  Ex.  33.  The  moor  gate 
at  Watercombe  is  the  first  point.  Thence  the  stall  Moor  track  should 
be  followed  northward  (T.  66).  The  circle  called  the  Dancers  will  be 
seen  R.  2|  m.  from  the  gate  (Ex.  33).  The  ford  on  the  Erme 
is  about  £  m.  further  on,  and  Erme  Pound  is  just  above  it  (Ex.  32). 

S.  Ex.  121. — Pen  Beacon  and  Shell  Top  from  and  to  Cornwood 
village,  6  m.  ;  add  6  m.  if  from  Ivybridge.  The  way  lies  first  to  Heath- 
field  Down,  £  m.,  which  is  approached  by  the  road  running  N.W.  from 
the  cross  (R.  56).  On  reaching  this  little  common  take  the  road  over 
it  R.  to  the  enclosures  and  pass  up  the  lane,  branching  R.  at  the  first 


too  Routes  55,  56.    Brent  and  Ivybridge  to  Plympton. 

forks  ;  the  L.  branch  leads  to  Newpark  Waste  under  Rood  Wood. 
Passing  West  Rook  L.,  and  Middle  Rook  R.,  the  rambler  will  make 
his  way  up  to  West  Rook  Gate,  between  Broker's  Plantation  L-,  and 
Hillson's  Brake  R.,  and  here  he  will  enter  on  the  moor.  This  part  is 
usually  spoken  of  as  Rook  Tor,  but  nothing  more  than  some  scattered 
stones' are  to  be  seen  there  (cf.  Clay  Tor,  Ex.  8).  Pen  Beacon  is  i  m. 
N.  by  W.,  and  Shell  Top,  4-  m.  further  in  the  same  direction.  These  are 
described  in  Ex.  34.  On  returning  from  the  beacon  the  rambler  may 
steer  S.E.  by  S.,  that  is,  a  little  to  the  I,,  of  the  line  struck  in  ascending, 
which  will  bring  him  to  East  Rook  Gate,  with  Hillson's  Brake  R.  and 
Ford  Waste  L.  About  |  m.  down  the  hill  a  lane  branches  L.  to  Hele 
Cross  and  Wisdome  Mill,  and  another  R.  to  Wakeham's  Rook  and 
East  Rook.  He  may  return  by  way  of  the  latter,  or  keep  straight 
down  the  hill  for  another  4-  m.  and  then  turn  R.  to  the  village. 

The  district  covered  by  the  excursipns  from  Brent  and  Ivybridge 
is  deficient  in  tors,  and  is  less  wild  than  the  northern  part  of  the  moor, 
as  the  rambler  over  it  will  have  seen.  But  he  will  also  admit  that  there 
is  ample  compensation  for  this.  The  borders  are  here  particularly 
interesting,  while  the  south  quarter  of  the  forest  and  the  venville 
commons  abxttting  upon  it  are  far  more  rich  in  pre-historic  remains  than 
any  other  part  of  the  great  waste. 


Routes  from  Brent  and  Ivybrldge. 

(Retxirn  Distances  not  included.     The  rambler  is  supposed  to  be 
supplied  with  a  pocket  compass.) 

R.  55.— To  Plympton,  W.S.W.  and  W.  Brent  Bridge,  Wrangaton, 
Bittaford  Bridge,  Ivybridge,  Lee  Mill  Bridge,  Lyneham  Inn.  From 
Brent,  u£  m.  ;  from  Ivybridge,  6*  m.  Reverse,  R.  74. 

[Objects :  Ex.  32.] 

This  is  a  road  route  ;  few  directions  are  needed.  The  way  from 
Brent  to  Ivybridge  has  been  shown  in  R.  47.  Thence  the  high  road  is 
followed  past  Cadleigh  Park,  Lee  Mill  Bridge,  where  the  Yealm  is 
crossed,  Smithaleigh,  and  the  Lyneham  Inn.  Just  beyond  the  sixth 
milestone  from  Plymouth  a  road  branches  L.  to  the  town  of  Plympton  ; 
the  main  road  goes  on  to  Rid<*way,  whence  a  road  also  leads  L.  to 
Plympton,  immediately  opposite  the  George  Hotel.  If  the  visitor  is 
bound  for  Plympton  Station  he  will  not  enter  the  town,  but  will  pass 
down  through  Ridgway. 

R.  56. — Brent  to  Shaugh.  W.  by  N.  Owley  Gate,  Spurrell's 
Cross,  Harford,  Cornwood,  Piall  Bridge,  White  Hill  Corner,'  Walter, 
12  m.  Reverse,  R.  75. 

[Objects:  S.  Exs.  in,  112  ;  Exs.  32,  33,  34,  35,  36.] 

The  way  lies  by  the  hamlet  of  Aish,  and  Bulhornstone  Cross  to 
Owley  Gate,  as  in  S.  Ex.  1 1 1 .  Here  we  are  on  the  Harford  track,  already 
described  (T.  62),  and  after  following  it  for  a  short  distance  we  shall 
find  its  character  alters.  It  becomes  a  wide,  green  path,  and  will  lead 


Routes  57,  58.    Brent  and  Ivybridge  to  Shaugh.  101 

us  up  the  hill  N.  of  Ugborough  Beacon  to  Spurrell's  Cross.  Its  course 
is  nearly  due  W.,  and  is  marked  by  low  heaps  of  stones  not  far  apart. 
West  of  the  shattered  cross  [Ancient  Crosses,  Chap.  III.]  the  path  runs 
on  the  line  of  the  track  leading  from  Buckfast  to  Plympton  (T.  59), 
which  was  carried  up  the  hill  N.E.  from  Glascombe  Corner.  After 
passing  the  head  of  Butter  Brook  L.,  Harford  Gate  is  soon  reached. 
The  way  then  lies  down  the  lane  to  the  church,  where  we  turn  R.  and 
descend  to  Harford  Bridge  (Ex.  33,  S.  Ex.  117).  Thence  the  road 
passes  upward  with  the  ancient  farm  of  Hall  R.  \  m.  beyond  the  gate 
of  this  homestead,  just  after  passing  Hall  Cross,  the  road  forks.  The  L. 
branch  is  known  as  Reddapitt  Lane,  and  runs  by  Blachford  to  Corn- 
wood,  being  a  shorter  way  than  the  other.  But  it  is  not  a  public  road, 
and  therefore  the  R.  branch  must  be  followed.  In  rather  over  \  m. 
we  reach  Tor,  where  we  turn  L-,  and  passing  Wisdome  and  crossing 
the  Vicarage  Bridge,  shall  proceed  direct  to  the  village. 

(Here  the  visitor  from  Ivybridge  will  join  this  route.     See  R.  57). 

From  Cornwood  our  way  will  take  us  N.W.  over  the  side  of  Heath- 
field  Down  to  Piall  Bridge,  which  we  shall  cross,  and  still  following  the 
road  shall  in  about  \  m.  reach  Quick  Bridge.  We  pass  up  the  hill  with 
Cholwich  Town  R.,  to  Tolchmoor  Gate  (Ex.  35),  and  crossing  the  Torry 
at  Tolchmoor  Bridge  shall  speedily  find  ourselves  at  White  Hill  Corner, 
where  is  a  guide-post  (Ex.  36).  Here  we  turn  I,.,  and  passing  Boringdon 
Cottages  R.  shall  make  our  way  up  a  narrow  road  by  Shade  Cottages, 
also  R.,  which  will  bring  us  to  the  commons.  Passing  along  the  side 
of  Stewarts  Hill,  R.,  and  by  the  Wotter  Waste  Clay  Works  R.,  we 
continue  to  follow  the  road  under  Collard  Tor  Cottage  to  Beatland 
Corner  (guide-post).  Here  we  cross  the  road  from  Plympton  to  Cada- 
ford  Bridge,  and  soon  arrive  at  Shaugh  village. 

R.  57. — Ivybridge  to  Shaugh,  N.W.  by  W.  Houndle  Hill,  Moor 
Cross  [Lutton,  Heddon  Down,  Crownhill  Down,  Portworthy,  Niel  Gate, 
9  m.],  Cornwood:  thence  as  in  R.  56,  84  m  Reverse,  R.  76. 

[Objects  :  Exs.  34,  35,  36.] 

Passing  up  by  the  church  we  turn  L.  to  Pardle,  Moor  Cross,  and 
Comwood  village,  as  in  S.  Ex.  119.  From  Corn  wood  the  way  is  des- 
cribed in  R.  56. 

Another  way  is  by  Lutton,  but  the  former  is  the  better  one.  Turn 
L-  at  Moor  Cross  as  shown  in  S.  Ex.  119,  and  on  reaching  Lutton  pass 
up  to  the  common  and  strike  W.  by  N.  It  may  not  be  possible  to  keep 
a  direct  line,  as  there  are  a  number  of  clay  pits  in  this  part  of  the  moor. 
The  point  to  be  reached  is  the  northern  end  of  Hooksbury  Wood,  at 
the  western  foot  of  Crownhill  Down,  2\  m.  from  Lutton.  Here  are 
cross  roads  and  a  guide-post.  Take  the  road  running  down  westward 
to  the  Torry,  keeping  the  wood  L.  On  crossing  the  stream  the  road 
goes  up  the  hill  to  Portworthy,  about  £  m.  beyond  which  turn  R.  and 
follow  the  road  N.  to  Niel  Gate,  i  m.  Turn  L.  to  the  village  at  Beat- 
land  Corner,  |  m.  N. 

R.  58. — Brent  to  Princetown,  N.W.  Shipley,  Western  Whita- 
burrow,  Red  Lake  Ford,  Ducks'  Pool,  The  Plym,  Siward's  Cross,  12  m. 
To  Two  Bridges,  add  i4  m.  Reverse,  R.  7. 

[Objects:  Exs.  30/32,  33,  37,  3.] 

The  first  point  will  be  Shipley,  to  which  we  may  make  our  way 


102  ROUTE  58.      BRENT  TO   PRINCETOWN. 

either  by  the  hamlet  of  Aish,  or  by  Wash  Gate  and  Didworthy,  as  in 
Ex.  30.  On  passing  through  the  moor  gate  near  Zeal  we  leave  the  road, 
turning  up  L.  by  the  wall  of  the  enclosures,  with  the  deserted  naphtha 
works  ^>n  the  R.  For  the  next  3  m.  we  shall  have  the  guidance  of  the 
old  Zeal  Tor  tramroad  (T.  60),  but  as  it  here  goes  L.  around  Zeal  Hill, 
it  will  shorten  the  distance  a  little  if  we  strike  up  over  the  common  in 
a  N.W.  direction,  taking  care,  however,  not  to  keep  too  much  to  the 
R.,  when  we  shall  meet  with  it  again.  About  2  m.  from  Shipley  this 
old  tramway  passes  the  long-deserted  Brent  Moor  Clay  Works,  which 
are  seen  L.  Just  before  reaching  these  it  will  be  found  that  the  path 
has  been  encroached  upon  by  the  bog,  and  can  no  longer  be  followed. 
Here  we  must  keep  it  a  short  distance  on  our  L,.,  and  further  on  we  shall 
find  that  it  becomes  a  hard  path  again.  It  is  almost  better  to  walk 
along  its  side  here  as  the  cutting  is  encumbered  with  loose  stones. 
2%  m.  from  Shipley  Western  W7hitaburrow  is  reached  (Ex.  30),  and 
from  here  North  Hisworthy  above  Princetown  is  in  full  view  to  the 
N.W.  ;  to  the  R.  of  it  is  Great  Mis  Tor  (Ex.  6).  2  m.  away  W.N.W.  is 
Erme  Head,  marked  by  a  large  stream  work,  and  -4-  m.  R.  of  this  our 
way  lies.  Beyond  Whitaburrow  the  tramroad  descends,  and  £  m. 
from  it  we  reach  the  Crossways  (Ex.  30).  Here  we  turn  L.  into 
the  old  Abbots'  Way  (T.  i),  which  we  shall  follow  to  Red  Lake  Ford. 
On  crossing  the  stream  we  must  steer  N.W.  over  Green  Hill  to  Stony 
Hole,  a  great  stream  work  on  Dark  Lake,  or,  as  it  is  also  called,  the 
Black  Lane  Brook,  passing  Middle  Mires  on  the  way. 

[From  the  stream-work  the  rambler  may  follow  Black  Lane 
(T.  75)  to  Fox  Tor,  and  crossing  the  ford  below  it  (Ex.  3)  make  his  way 
to  White  Works,  and  thence  to  Princetown  by  Castle  Road  (T.  7). 
See  R.  7.] 

Crossing  the  stream-work,  our  course  being  W.N.W.,  and  leaving 
Ducks'  Pool  R.  (Ex.  30),  we  descend  to  the  Plym.  On  the  slope  are 
the  scattered  rocks  of  Great  Gnats'  Head,  above  which  is  a  cairn, 
(about  f  m.  below  the  pool),  and  by  keeping  these  near  us  L-  we  shall 
strike  the  river  at,  or  near,  Plym  Ford.  The  ridge  running  N.E.  from 
Eylesbarrow  now  lies  between  us  and  Siward's  Cross,  our  next  point, 
and  in  passing  over  this  we  must  keep  a  N.N.W.  course.  The  house 
near  the  cross  is  seen  as  we  make  our  way  down  the  northern  side  of 
this  ridge.  The  way  from  the  cross  to  Princetown  is  described  in  the 
extension  to  Ex.  2.  The  course  is  W.  of  N.,  and  a  branch  of  the  Abbots' 
Way  is  followed  throughout  the  distance  (T.  i).  The  walls  of  the 
enclosures  must  be  kept  R.,  care  being  taken  when  those  belonging 
to  Nun's  Cross  Farm  are  passed,  to  keep  straight  on  to  the  corner  of 
another  enclosure.  Beyond  this  is  South  Hisworthy  Tor.  Princetown 
is  entered  by  way  of  Ivybridge  Lane  (T.  6).  The  distance  to  Two 
Bridges  may  be  shortened  by  about  i  m.  by  bearing  R.  when  Nun's 
Cross  enclosures  are  passed,  and  steering  N.E.  for  4-  m.  to  Peat  Cot. 
Here  cross  the  Devonport  leat  ;  leave  it  L.,  and  strike  due  N.  towards 
the  outer  corner  of  the  Tor  Royal  enclosures,  or  follow  up  the  leat  and 
leave  it  when  near  the  wall,  See  R.  34.  From  the  corner  the  course 
is  N.E.  over  Tor  Royal  Newtake  to  the  steps  over  the  Blackabrook 
S.  of  Round  Hill  farmhouse.  See  Ex.  3,  T.B.  to  Peat  Cot. 


ROUTE  59.      IVYBRIDGE   TO   PRINCETOWN.  103 

R.  59. — Ivybridge  to  Princetown,  N.  by  W.,  with  route  from 
Cormvood,  N.  Harford  Bridge,  Valley  of  the  Erme,  Green  Bottom, 
Ernie  Head,  The  Plym,  Siward's  Cross,  12\  m.  From  Corn  wood : 
Pen  Beacon,  Shell  Top,  Shavercombe,  Hart  Tors,  Siward's  Cross,  9^  m. 
To  Two  Bridges,  add  i\  m.  Reverse,  R.  7. 

[Objects :  Exs.  32,  33,  34,  37,  3/1 

Starting  from  the  bridge  we  pass  up  the  hill  to  Stowford,  and 
make  our  way  on  by  Lukesland  to  Harford,  and  thence  to  Harford 
Bridge,  as  in  Ex.  33.  Entering  the  gate  at  the  W.  end  of  this  we  follow 
the  track  running  up  the  R.  bank  of  the  Erme  (T.  65),  and  passing 
under  Stalldon  Barrow  reach  Tom's  Plain.  Here  we  lose  the  path, 
but  continue  our  way  up  the  valley  to  Green  Bottom,  rather  over  \  m. 
below  Erme  Pound,  which  is  on  the  opposite  bank.  (The  Erme  valley 
is  described  in  Exs.  32,  33).  We  now  leave  the  river  and  strike  up  over 
the  hill  N.W.,  as  in  Ex.  33,  and  in  \\  m.  shall  pass  Erme  Head  R.,  and 
\  m.  further  on  shall  reach  Broad  Rock  on  the  Abbots'  Way  (Ex.  34, 
T.  i).  Our  next  point  is  Plym  Ford,  i  m.  N.W.  The  branch  of  the 
Abbots'  Way  leading  to  it  is  not  very  plainly  defined,  but  the  ground 
is  good,  and  by  following  a  N.W.  course  down  the  hill  by  Great  Gnats' 
Head,  which  should  be  kept  R.,  the  ford  will  be  reached.  From  this 
point  the  way  is  described  in  R.  58,  where  also  the  route  from  Nun's 
Cross  to  Two  Bridges  is  shown. 

From  Cornwood  the  route  to  Shell  Top  as  given  in  S.  Ex.  121 
must  be  followed.  The  rambler  will  then  strike  W.  of  N.  down  the 
hillside,  but  on  approaching  Hen  Tor,  i  m.,  must  leave  it  about  £  m. 
below  him.  He  will  thus  avoid  the  marshy  ground  on  the  top  of  the 
ridge.  The  course  is  now  a  little  E.  of  N.,  the  Plym  being  in  sight  in 
the  valley  L.  Very  soon  the  Shavercombe  Brook  is  crossed,  near  a 
tumulus  \  m.  above  Shavercombe  Falls,  and  i  m.  further  on  the  Plym 
at  Plym  Steps,  when  the  course  is  changed  to  due  N.,  and  the  slope 
ascended  with  Lower  Hart  Tor  R.,  and  Higher  Hart  Tor  L,.  When 
a  little  to  the  R.  of  Eylesbarrow,  a  cairn  marking  the  bounds  of  the 
forest,  the  track  coming  up  from  Siward's  Cross  should  be  struck 
(T.  6).  Should  it  not  be  seen  the  same  northerly  course  must  be 
followed  down  the  hill,  and  the  cross  will  be  reached  in  about  I  m. 
The  path  from  the  cross  to  Princetown  is  described  in  the  extension 
to  Ex.  2  and  in  R.  58. 

Another  route  from  Cornwood  is  by  way  of  Stall  Moor,  but  it  is 
longer.  The  rambler  will  cross  the  Vicarage  Bridge  and  at  Tor  turn 
I/,  and  then  R.  to  Watercombe  Waste  Gate  as  in  Ex.  34,  and  thence  to 
Stall  Moor  Gate,  from  which  he  will  follow  the  track  running  near  the 
Stall  Moor  Circle  out  to  Erme  Pound  (T.  66).  Just  before  reaching* 
the  Erme  he  will  cross  Green  Bottom,  when  he  will  leave  the  track, 
and  follow  the  directions  given  in  the  former  part  of  this  route,  i.e., 
Ivybridge  to  Princetown.  Or  he  may  take  the  L.  branch  of  the  track 
after  leaving  Stall  Moor  Gate,  and  following  this  to  the  Yealm  trace 
that  stream  nearly  to  its  source.  Thence,  keeping  a  little  to  the  R., 
to  avoid  the  mire,  he  will  strike  northward  for  \\  m.  to  Broad  Rock, 
coming  in  sight  first  of  Erme  Head.  See  ante.  The  route  from  Yealm 
Head  to  Langcombe  Bottom  given  in  Ex.  34  may  also  be  followed, 
when  the  brook  can  be  traced  downward  to  Plym  Steps. 


104         Routes  60  to  63.    Brent  and  Ivybrldge  to  Tavlstock. 

R.  60. — Brent  to  Tavistock.  For  points  and  objects  see  R.  58,  i. 
which  compose  this  route,  19^  m.  Reverse,  R.  13. 

R.  61. — Ivybridge  to  Tavistock.  This  route  is  composed  of  R. 
59,  i,  where  points  and  objects  are  named,  20  m.  Reverse,  R.  13. 

If  the  visitor  goes  by  road  the  way  will  lie  through  Cornwood, 
R.  57,  and  thence  to  White  Hill  Corner,  R.  56.  From  this  point  he  will 
follow  the  road  N.W.,  passing  Lee  Moor  House  R.,  and  shortly  after 
Blackaton  Cross  [Crosses,  Chap.  IV.],  and  descend  the  hill,  with  Saddles- 
borough  L.,  to  Cadaford  Bridge.  Thence  he  will  proceed  as  in  R.  68, 
passing  over  Marchants  Bridge,  through  Dousland  (Ex.  39),  and 
Walkhamptoa,  over  Huckworthy  Bridge  (Ex.  40),  to  Warren's  Cross 
and  Whitchurch  Down.  Reverse,  R.  13. 

[Objects  :  S.  Ex.  119,  Exs.  34  to  40.  7.] 

R.  62. — To  Lydford.  From  Brent,  N.W.  ;  from  Ivybridge, 
N.N.W.  ;  from  Cornwood,  N.N.W.  Shipley,  Western  Whitaburrow, 
Red  Lake  Ford,  Ducks'  Pool,  The  Plym  (From  Ivybridge  :  Harvard 
Bridge,  Valley  of  the  Erme,  Green  Bottom,  Erme  Head,  The  Plym), 
Siward's  Cross.  (From  Cornwood  :  Pen  Beacon,  Shell  Top,  Shaver- 
combe,  Hart  Tors,  Siward's  Cross),  Princetown,  Rundle  Stone,  Mis  Tor, 
White  Tor,  Hill  Bridge.  From  Brent,  23  m.  ;  from  Ivybridge,  23^  m.  ; 
from  Cornwood,  20^  m.  Reverse,  R.  20. 

[Objects  :  Between  Shipley  and  Red  Lake,  Ex.  30  ;  Red  Lake  to 
the  Plym,  Exs.  33,  43,  36  ;  Plym  to  Princetown,  Exs.  37,  3,  2  ;  Prince- 
.town  to  Lydford,  Exs.  6,  9,  10.  The  route  from  Ivybridge  does  not 
include  Exs.  30,  43,  but  adds  Ex.  32.  The  Cornwood  route  leaves  out 
Exs.  30,  32,  33,  43.] 

This  route  is  composed  of  R.  58,  59,  2,  q.v.  The  visitor  is  also 
referred  to  the  Reverse  (R.  20)  for  some  hints  relative  to  crossing  the 
Walkham  between  Princetown  and  Hill  Bridge. 

R.  63. — To  Okehampton.  From  Brent,  N.N.W.  ;  from  Ivybridge, 
N.  by  W.  With  branch  to  Belstone.  Shipley,  Western  Whitaburrow, 
Red  Lake  Ford,  Black  Lane  (From  Ivybridge  :  Harford  Bridge,  Valley 
of  the  Erme,  Green  Bottom,  Erme  Head,  Black  Lane),  Fox  Tor,  Prince 
Hall  Bridge,  Muddy  Lakes,  Hollow  Combe,  Broad  Down,  East  Dart 
Valley,  Cranmere,  Ockment  Hill,  New  Bridge.  From  Brent,  26  m.  ; 
from  Ivybridge,  27  m.  Reverse,  R.  27. 

[Objects:  Exs.  33,  30,  4,  3,  46,  45,  16,  and  15.] 

From  Brent  the  directions  given  in  R.  58  must  be  followed  for  the 
first  -j\  m.,  which  will  bring  the  rambler  to  the  stream  work  on  Dark 
Lake,  and  quite  close  to  Ducks'  Pool  (Ex.  30).  From  Ivybridge  the 
route  to  Erme  Head,  8  m.,  is  given  in  R.  59  ;  on  reaching  the  stream 
work  at  that  place  the  rambler  must  follow  up  Dark  Lake  for  about 
\  m.,  when  he  will  reach  the  old  workings  near  Ducks'  Pool.  Black 
Lane,  which  runs  W.  of  N.,  will  now  become  his  path  (T.  75,  Ex.  3, 
R.  7),  and  in  about  i  m.  he  will  come  in  sight  of  Fox  Tor,  below  which 
is  Child's  Tomb  (Ex.  3).  On  passing  this  L.  he  will  descend  to  Stream 
Hill  Ford  on  the  Swincombe  river,  \  m.  distant,  and  crossing  the  latter 
will  proceed  due  N.  over  Tor  Royal  Newtake  (Ex.  3,  4)  for  \\  m.,  when 
he  will  turn  R.  to  Moorlands.  Passing  this  he  will  turn  down  the  lane 
L.  to  Prince  Hall  Bridge,  and  follow  the  road  by  the  house  to  the  lodge 


Route  64.    Brent  and  Ivybridge  to  Chagford.  105 

on  the  Two  Bridges  L-,  and  Dartmeet  road  R.  Muddy  Lakes  Newtake, 
in  front  of  the  lodge,  must  then  be  crossed,  the  course  being  due  N., 
when  the  rambler  will  reach  the  Princetown  and  Moreton  road  close 
to  the  old  Powder  Mills  gate.  Entering  this  he  will  still  keep  a  course 
due  N.,  with  the  Powder  Mills  Cottages  R.,  and  in  2  m.  will  reach 
Hollow  Combe,  where  he  will  cross  the  Cherry  Brook  under  Lower 
White  Tor,  which  rises  from  the  steep  hill  L.  Another  mile,  the 
course  still  being  N.,  will  take  the  rambler  over  Broad  Down  to  Sandy 
Hole  (Ex.  45),  on  the  East  Dart.  From  this  point  the  directions  given 
in  C.R.  i  a  for  reaching  Craiimere  must  be  followed,  and  from  that 
spot  C.R.  9  and  Ex.  16  will  show  the  way  to  Okehampton. 

If  the  rambler  is  bound  for  Belstone  he  will,  on  reaching  Cranmere, 
make  his  way  down  the  Taw  as  described  in  C.R.  10.  If  he  does  not 
desire  to  include  the  pool  he  may  strike  direct  from  East  Dart  Head 
to  Taw  Head.  The  direction  is  due  N.,  and  the  distance  £  m. 

R.  64. — To  Chagford  and  Moreton.  Prom  Brent,  N.  ;  from 
Ivybridge,  N.  by  E.  ;  from  Cornwood,  N.N.E.  From  Brent  :  Gigley 
Bridge,  Cross  Furzes.  Holne,  Pound's  Gate,  Ponsworthv ,  Jordan,  Challa- 
combe,  Jurston  Gate,  C,  19  m.  ;  M.  (by  Moor  Gate)  about  i  m.  further  ; 
but  a  more  direct  way  from  Ponsworthy  would  be  through  Widecombe 
thence  by  Heytree  Cross  and  North  Bovey.  From  Ivybridge  :  Har- 
ford,  Valley  of  the  Erme  to  Red  Lake  Foot,  Aune  Head,  Hexworthy, 
Sherburton  Bridge,  Dunnabridge  Pound,  Post  Bridge,  Warren  House  Inn, 
Jurston  Gate,  C.,  23!  m.  ;  M.  (by  Moor  Gate),  25  m.  From  Cornwood  : 
Watercombe  Waste  and  Stall  Moor  Gate,  Stall  Moor,  Red  Lake  Foot  ; 
thence  as  from  Ivybridge,  vide  supra.  C.,  22  m. ;  M.  (by  Moor  Gate), 
33+  m.  Reverse,  R.  33. 

Objects  :  S.  Exs.  from  Brent,  Holne  Moor  Section,  and  Exs.  28, 
27,  22.  If  from  Ivybridge,  Exs.  32,  30,  43,  42,  44,  45,  21,  22  ;  if  from 
Cornwood  commence  with  Ex.  33. 

From  Brent :  The  way  lies  through  Scorriton,  directions  for  reach- 
ing which  are  given  in  S.  Ex.  101.  Thence  pass  up  the  hill  to  Holne, 
crossing  the  road  from  Buckfastleigh  to  the  moor  just  before  arriving 
at  the  village.  Pass  on  by  the  Church  House  Inn,  and  on  reaching  a 
road  running  E.  and  W.  cross  it  and  enter  the  field  at  the  stile  L.  Follow 
the  path  past  Home  Cot,  and  down  through  the  wood  with  the  Dart  L. 
to  the  road  close  to  Xew  Bridge  (Exs.  27,  28),  which  cross  and  ascend 
to  hill  to  Pound's  Gate  (Exs.  27,  28).  At  the  further  end  of  the  hamlet 
we  turn  R.  after  passing  the  Spitchwick  Lodge,  and  leaving  Leusdon 
Church  R.  descend  to  Ponsworthy.  When  £  m.  up  the  hill  beyond 
Ponsworthy  turn  L.  to  Jordan  Mill,  and  crossing  a  narrow  lane  keep 
N.  by  E.  to  Dunstone  Down,  where  turn  L.  Passing  a  stroll  leading 
to  Rowden  Down  L.,  and  a  short  distance  beyond  that  a  road  running 
to  Cator  L.,  we  follow  the  road  for  i  m.  to  Lower  Blackaton  (S.  Ex.  85), 
from  which  point  we  continue  northward  up  the  valley  to  Challacombe, 
i  m.  (S.  Ex.  85).  Thence  onward  between  Grim's  Pound  R.,  and 
Headland  Warren  House  in  the  valley  L.,  for  2-k  m.,  to  the  Princetown 
and  Moreton  road.  Turn  R.  for  Moreton.  Cross  the  little  valley  N. 
for  Chagford,  and  reaching  the  road  follow  it  to  Jurston  Gate.  See  R.  4. 

From  Ivybridge  :  The  first  point  is  Harford  (Ex.  33).  The  second 
is  Green  Hill,  which  may  be  reached  either  by  way  of  the  R.  bank  of 
the  Erme,  or  by  going  over  Sharp  Tor  and  Quickbeam  Hill.  In  the 


io6  Route  64.    Brent  and  Ivybridge  to  Chagford. 

former  case  the  rambler  will  follow  the  directions  given  in  R.  59  for 
reaching  Green  Bottom.  Here  he  may  cross  the  river,  or  at  the  ford 
just  above  (T.  66),  or  still  proceeding  up  the  R.  bank,  find  a  crossing- 
place  at  Red  Lake  Foot,  and  pass  upward  towards  Red  Lake  Ford, 
with  the  stream  R.  If  he  goes  by  way  of  Sharp  Tor  he  will  pass  up 
the  lane  with  the  church  L.  to  Harford  Gate,  and  bearing  L.  will  follow 
the  green  track  running  N.W.  to  Piles  Hill  (T.  63),  his  mark  being 
Sharp  Tor,  which  on  passing  he  will  keep  L.  The  way  now  lies  through 
the  shallow  dip  between  this  tor  and  Three  Barrows  to  Stony  Bottom, 
as  in  Ex.  32,  3^  m.  from  the  moor  gate.  The  course  is  now  N.  over 
Brown  Heath  to  Red  Lake  Ford,  i  m.  The  hut  enclosures  noticed  in 
the  excursion  named  are  on  the  slope  L.,  and  the  line  of  bond-stones 
between  Harford  and  Ugborough  Moors  R.  Crossing  Red  Lake  at 
the  ford  the  rambler  will  still  steer  N.,  having  Green  Hill  L.  (Ex.  30)  and 
Red  Lake  Mires  R.  By  keeping  near  to  the  latter  he  will  strike  the 
hard  path  running  through  the  marshy  ground  to  Heng  Lake  Gully 
(Ex.  29),  and  so  reach  the  Avon.  The  way  lies  up  this  stream,  the  R. 
bank  being  traced  to  its  source,  i-i-  m.  (Ex.  43).  From  Aune  Head  the 
track  running  N.  must  be  followed  to  Hexworthy  (T.  54).  This  is  not 
well  defined  near  the  mire,  but  by  proceeding  W.  of  N.  for  about  £  m. 
the  head  of  the  Wo  Brook  will  be  seen  R.  The  track  runs  down  the 
hill  near  the  L-  bank  of  this  stream,  and  when  the  latter  turns  sharply 
toward  the  E.,  still  goes  N.  over  Down  Ridge.  It  runs  to  a  gate  in 
the  wall  of  a  newtake  through  which  it  passes,  and  reaches  the  road 
below  immediately  behind  the  Forest  Inn. 

[The  part  of  this  route  just  described  forms  the  route  from  Ivy- 
bridge  to  Hexworthy  referred  to  in  R.  33.  The  way  from  Heng  Lake 
Gully  to  Brent  was  there  sketched  ;  the  reverse  is  here  given.  The 
first  point  is  Shipley  (Ex.  30),  whence  the  old  tram  road  (T.  60)  may  be 
followed  as  in  the  route  to  Princetown  as  far  as  the  Crossways  (R.  58). 
Thence  strike  N.  by  E.  over  the  old  peat  workings,  keeping  the  valley 
of  the  Avon  in  sight  R.  to  the  gully,  f  m.  Or  the  Avon  may  be  traced 
from  Shipley  upward  as  directed  in  S.  Ex.  104,  to  Lower  Huntingdon 
Corner,  and  thence  followed  to  the  gully,  i£  m.  further  up.  From 
that  point  see  directions  ante.] 

From  the  Forest  Inn  the  way  lies  over  Gobbet  Plain,  to  which  the 
road  above  the  inn  leads  westward  ;  or  it  may  be  reached  by  the  road 
running  down  in  front  of  the  inn  and  turning  L.  up  the  slope.  Descend- 
ing to  Sherburton  Bridge  on  the  Swincombe  river  the  rambler  will  pass 
up  to  the  farm,  where  he  may  obtain  permission  to  go  through  the 
enclosures  to  the  clam  on  the  West  Dart,  near  Sherburton  Firs.  Cross- 
ing this  he  will  climb  the  hill  northward  to  the  road  coming  R.  from 
Dartmeet  and  going  L.  to  Two  Bridges.  On  the  L.  is  Brownberry, 
and  opposite  to  it  Dunnabridge  Pound  (Ex.  5,  42).  Pass  the  gate  of 
this  and  turn  R.  by  the  wall,  and  follow  the  green  track  through  the 
newtakes  and  over  the  side  of  Bellaford  Tor,  to  Post  Bridge  (T.  80, 
Ex.  44).  The  way  to  Chagford  and  Moreton  from  that  place  is  given 
in  R.  4. 

(The  visitor  from  Cornwood  enters  upon  the  moor  at  Watercombe, 
and  will  follow  the  track  over  Stall  Moor  to  the  ford  on  the  Ernie  above 
Green  Bottom  (T.  66,  S.  Ex.  120),  and  may  either  cross  here  or  at  Red 
Lake  Foot,  a  little  further  up  stream.  See  ante. 


io8  Routes  65,  66.    Brent  and  Ivybridge  to  Bovey. 

R.  65. — To  Bovey  Tracey,  N.E.  For  points  and  objects  see  R.  66, 
54,  of  which  this  route  is  made  up.  From  B.,  isf  m.  ;  I.,  2o£  m.  ; 
Reverse,  R.  40.  Road  throughout. 

R.  66. — To  Ashburton,  N.E.  Bittaford  Bridge,  Wrangaton 
Station,  Brent  Bridge  (L.  for  Brent),  Palstone,  Whiteoxen,  Dean  (OtD 
ROAD  from  Brent  through  Harbournford),  Buckfastleigh,  Dart  Bridge. 
From  /.,  13  m.  ;  B.,  8£  m.  Reverse,  R.  47. 

[Objects  :  Ex.  32  ;  seen  from  near  Wrangaton  Station.] 
A  road  route.  From  Ivybridge  the  first  point  is  Bittaford  Bridge, 
2  m.  (S.  Ex.  113)  ;  i£  m.  beyond  this  is  Wrangaton  Station.  About 
i  m.  further  on,  at  the  Carew  Arms,  a  road  branches  R.  to  Totnes. 
Keep  straight  on,  crossing  the  Glaze,  and  shortly  afterwards  the  Avon 
at  Brent  Bridge.  Road  I,,  to  Brent.  Continue  on  past  the  London 
Inn.  The  cross-road  a  little  way  up  is  the  point  where  the  rambler 
from  Brent  joins  this  route,  leaving  the  village  by  the  Avonwick  road  ; 
"but  he  would  do  better  to  proceed  by  the  old  road  through  Harbourn- 
ford to  Dean,  as  in  S.  Ex.  100.  £  m.  from  the  cross-roads  is  Palstone, 
R.,  and  i£  m.  beyond  this  the  road  forks,  the  R.  branch  leading  to 
Totnes.  Keep  straight  on  down  the  hill  with  the  grounds  of  Marley 
R.,  and  the  farm  L.  Thence  pass  under  Whiteoxen  Arch,  or  Dry 
Bridge,  as  it  is  sometimes  called.  A  little  further  on  is  Dean  Church 
(S.  Ex.  100),  and  i  m.  beyond  is  Dean  village,  where  the  old  road  from 
Brent  conies  in  L.  Pass  through  Buckfastleigh,  about  i  m.  on,  and 
thence  as  in  S.  Ex.  97,  98. 


Route  from  Brent  to  Holne  Moor 
and  Hexworthy. 

Dockwell  Gate,  Water  Oke  Corner,  Pupers,  Hapstead  Ford,  Head  of 
Ringleshutts  Gert,  Combestone  Tor,  Saddle  Bridge.  [Objects:  Ex.  29, 
and  Holne  Moor  Section.] 

These  points  are  noticed  in  the  Reverse  (Dockwell  Track,  T.  55, 
Part  V.)  ;  Ivybridge  visitors  will  start  from  Brent.  Another  Route  to 
Hexworthy  and  Post  Bridge,  via  Heng  Lake  Gully  and  Aune  Head, 
from  Brent  and  Ivybridge,  will  be  found  in  R.  64  ;  Reverse,  R.  33, 
Part  III. 


Cranmere. 

The  base  for  Ashburton  visitors  is  Post  Bridge  (R.  52).  For  those 
from  Brent  the  most  convenient  will  be  Two  Bridges  (R.  58),  or  Hex- 
worthy  (via  the  Avon  to  Heng  Lake  Gully,  see  Rs.  33,  38  ;  thence  R  64  ; 
see  also  R.  63).  For  Ivybridge  and  Cornwood  visitors  the  bases  will  be 
Princetown  or  Two  Bridges  (R.  59  ;  see  also  R.  63). 

The  Routes  to  the  pool  from  these  bases  are  given  in  Part  I. 


Index. 


Abbots'  Way        46,   58,  90,  95 

Addicombe 84 

Aish  (Wid.),   16  ;  Tor       . .  16 

Aish  (Brent),  52  ;  Ridge  71 

Ashburton 2 

Aune  Head          . .        33,  76,  1 06 

Ausewell  Cross,  9  ;  Wood  9 

Avon,  The 38.  50 

B 

Bala  Brook 59 

Ball  Gate 59 

Batch  Loaves 12 

Beara  Common  . .      . .      64,  65 

Bel  Tor,  1 5  ;  Corner         . .  15 

Belt.  The 8 

Bench  Tor 39 

Birch  Wood        9 

Bittleford 10,  1 1 

Black  Pool           78 

Black  Tdr  (Avon)        ..       52,  70 

Blackadon 96 

Blackadon  Tor  (Webburn),  n 

Blackslade  Down,  7  ;   Ford,  7  ; 

Mire,  7  ;  Water,  8. 

Blackwood   Path,        74,    75,  79 

Bledge  Brook      88 

Bloody  Pool        45 

Boro  Wood  Castle     . .      . .  22 

Bourne's  Pit       42 

Brake  Corner      16 

Brent,  South       38 

Brent  Fore  Hill 64 

Brent  Hill 64 

Brent   Moor   Clay   Works,  59 ; 

House,  70,  75. 

Broad  Falls         49 

Broad  Rock        .  .      . .      93,  94 

Broad  Rushes 59 

Broadall  Mires 99 

Brock  Hill  Ford,   68  ;   Stream, 

46,  48. 


Brook  Wood       67 

Brown  Heath  . .  . .  80.  8 1 
Buckfast  Abbey  . .  29,  44 
Buckfastleigh,  30  ;  Moor,  43,  44 
Buckland-in-the-Moor,  9,  10,  25 
Buckland  Beacon,  8,  25  ;  Com- 
mon, 9;  Woods,  12,  20, 
Burford  Down  . .  . .  85,  91 

Burrow  Corner 7 

Bush  Meads        54 

Butter  Brook  . .  . .  79,  97 
Butterdon  Hill  . .  78,  79,  97 
Buzzard,  The  4 


Cantrel  Gate       96 

Chalk  Ford  . .  . .  43,  67 
Chase  Gate,  16  ;  Hill  . .  14 

Childe's  Tomb 104 

Cholwich  Town  Waste      . .     95 
Church  House  Inn  (Holne),  27, 
105. 

Clampit's  Stile 65 

Cleave  Wood  (Webburn),  1 1 
Cockingford,  7,  1 1  ;  Bridge,  10 
Cold  East  Cross  . .  3,  8 
Collins,  Edward  . .  . .  27 
Combe  Bridge  (Mardle)  . .  67 
Combe  Wood  (Buckland)  . .  9 
Combestone,  40  ;  Tor  . .  41 

Corn  Down 1 1 

Cornwood 98,  99 

Coryndon  Ball 71 

Crad  Hole  Ring         . .      . .     48 

Cranmere 108 

Cross  Furzes  . .  65,  66.  67 
Crossways,  The 56 

D 

Dancers,  The      . .      . .      88,  99 

Dark  Lake 57 

Dart,     The,     Course     of,      17  ; 
Gorge  of,  26. 


INDEX. 


Dartmeet 26 

Dead     Persons,     Discovery  of, 

63,  64. 

Deadman's  Corner     ..      ..  16 

Dean  Burn,  Valley  of       . .  65 
Dean     Cross.     65  ;     Prior,     65  ; 

Wood,  66. 

Diamond  Lane 61 

Didworthy 52,  69 

Dockwell  Gate,  45,  67  ;  Hole,  68  ; 

Ridge,  68. 

Dolmen  at  Ball  Gate        .  .  64 

Downing' s  House       . .      . .  90 

Dr.  Blackall's  Drive..       12,  13 

Dry  Bridge          8 

Ducks'   Pool        . .      . .      57,  90 

Dungeon,  The 80 

Dunstone  Down         . .      . .  3 


Erme,  The 38 

Erme  Pits,   58,  90  ;   Plains,  62, 
80  ;  Pound,  58,  82,  83,  99. 


Pardle 

Fieldfare 
Foale's  Arrishes 
Forest  Inn,  The 


98 

42 

7 
1 06 


Gibby's  Combe 43 

Gigley  Bridge  . .  . .  66,  68 
Gingaford  Cross  . .  . .  68 

Glas  Barrow        73 

Glascombe,    71  ;    Ball,    73,    79  ; 

Corner,  63. 

Glaze,  East 71 

Glaze  Meet          72 

Glaze,  Valley  of  the          . .      72 

Glazes,  The         63 

Golden  Eagle,  The  . .  . .  4 
Golf  Links  near  Wrangaton,  74, 

96. 

Great  Bridge       . .  3,   8,   9 

Great  Lot  Wood        . .      10,    1 1 

Green  Will 56,   57 

Green  Lanes  . .  . .  3,  8 
Grey  Goose  Nest  . .  .  .  7 
Gripper's  Pound  . .  . .  50 
Grymsgrove  93 


Half  Ring,  The          . .      . .     60 

Hall       85,  101 

Halshanger,  3,  23  ;  Common,  4 
Hangershell  Rock,  79  ;  Little 

Grave  at,  97. 

Hangher  Down 98 

Hangman's  Pit 41 

Hannaford  Stickles    . .      . .      16 

Hapstead  Ford 44 

Harbourn,   The,   45  ;   Head,   68 

Harbournford      65 

Harford,    85  ;    Bridge,    85,    98, 

103  ;  Gate,  80,  84,  97,  101 
Hawns  and  Dendles,  92,  98,  99 

Hayford        67 

Heap  o'  Sinners  .  .  . .  48 
Hembury  Castle  . .  . .  29 
Hemsworthy  Gate  . .  7,  24 

Hen  Tor      95 

Henchertraw        70 

Heng  Lake,  49  ;  Gully     .  .    106 

Henlake  Down 98 

Herrick         65 

Hexworthy          106 

Hickaton  Hill,  46,  68  ;  Remains 

on,  46. 

Hickley  Ridge 59 

Higher  Bottom 49 

Hillson's  Hut      88 

Hobajohn's  Cross,  62,  80,  85 
Holne,  Village  of,  '16,  27  ; 

Bridge,    12,   19;  Chase,    12, 

14,  17  ;  Cot,  14  ;  Moor,  39, 

108  ;  Gate,  28  ;  Turn,  12. 
Holy  Brook  . .  . .  43,  67 
Hook  Lake  . .  . .  62,  83 
Horn  Hill  (Wo  Brook)  . .  42 
Horn's  Cross  (Wo  Brook). .  42 
Horridge  Common  . .  . .  4 

Horse  Ford 42 

Horton's  Combe  . .  . .  89 
Horton's  Ford  Brook. .  ..  89 
Hunters'  Stone,  The  . .  70 
Huntingdon,  43,  48,  68  ;  Clapper, 

49  ;  Cross,  49. 
Hux  Lake 56 


Ivy  bridge 


76,   77 


INDEX. 


Jobbers'   Path 
Jordan 


59.   60 
ii 


K 


Kinghurst  Down  Wood     . .  12 

Kingsley,  Charles       .  .      .  .  28 

Knattaburrow,  59  ;  Hill   . .  59 

Knocking  Mill     . .      . .      58,  89 


Lake 

Lambs  Down 
Langamarsh  Pit 
Langawell    .  . 
Langcombe  Head 


12 
65,   66 

..  40 
..  40 
93 


Left  Lake,  80,  83  ;  Mires. .     62 

Leigh  Cross         65 

Leigh  Gate          74 

Leigh  Tor 1 2,  96 

Leusdon  Common,    n,    12,    15  ; 
Lodge,  1 1 . 

Lid  Gate      67 

Lizwell,  1 1  ;  Meet,  1 1  ;  Wood,  1 1 
Lock's  Gate  Cross  ..  n,  14 

Logwell  Rock 1 1 

Long-a-Traw  .  .  50,  52,  70 
Longstone,  The  . .  .  .  45 

Lower  Ford         60 

Lower  Tor 14,    15 

Lud,  The 75 

Lukesland 91 

Lurgecombe  Mill        . .          3,   8 

Lutton  (Brent) 52 

Lutton  (Cornwood)  . .  .  .  98 
Lydia  Bridge  ..  ..  51,  72 
Lyneham  Inn,  The  . .  .  .  too 


M 


Mardle,  The 
Meadow,  The 

Merrifield 

Meynell's  Bank 

Michel  Combe 

Middle  Brook 

Middle  Mires 

Mil  Tor,  15,  1 6  ;  Wood 

Moor  Cross 

Mountain  Inn  (Lutton) 


42,   43,   67 


43 
59 
56 
16 


N 

Nap       43.  44 

New     Bridge,      16  ;     Hill,      12  ; 

Marsh,  12,  14. 
Newhouse  (Rippon  Tor)    .  .        6 

Nun's  Cross         102 

Nutcracker,  The  (Rippon  Tor), 

4,  24. 


O 

Old  Hill       .  . 
Over  Brent  Farm 
Owley  Bridge 
Owley  Corner 


59 
68 
72 
72 


Paignton  Reservoir  . .  .  .  39 
Parnell's  Hill  . .  .  .  45,  67 
Pen  Beacon,  93,  99  ;  Moor.  .  92 
Petre's  Bound  Stone,  43  ;  Cross, 
55  ;  Pits'  House,  60 

Piall  Bridge         101 

Piles,    80,    84,    97  ;    Brook,    98 

Piper's  Beam      49 

Place  Wood  Camp  . .  . .  22 
Plym  Ford,  103  ;  Steps  .  .  103 

Ponsworthy         1 1 

Pound's  Gate  ..  ..  12,  14 
Pudsham,  Higher  . .  . .  10 
Pudsham  Down  . .  3,  7,  9 
Pupers  43,  67 

Q 

Quick  Bridge      101 

Quickbeam  Hill,  80  ;  Foot.  .      83 


R 
Ranny  Brook      . .      . .      92,   93 

Ravens'   Rock     .  .      .  .      . .      12 

Red   Brook,    59,   60 ;   Mires,   60 
Red  Lake,  56";  Clay  Works,  51  ; 

Peat  Works,  55. 

Redaven  Lake 91 

Rings,  The  (Brent)    ..      ..      53 
Rippon  Tor,  4,  6,  24  ;  Cross  on,  6 

Rook  Tor 100 

Rook  Gate,  West        .  .      .  .     96 

Rounders  Hole 42 

Ruddycleave      Water,      8,      9  ; 

Bridge,  8. 

Rushlade,  8  ;  Common     . .       3 
Ryders  Hill         . .      . .      42,  43 


INDEX. 


Saddle  Bridge     . . 
Sandy  Way 
Scad.  The'..      .. 
Scea  Wood 
Scobitor,  7  ;  Rocks 


42 
72 

43 
7 


Scorriton,  67  ;  Down,  43,  44,  66 
vSharp  Tor  (Dart)  . .  .  .  16 
Sharp  Tor  (Ernie)  . .  . .  80 
Shavercombe  Head  .  .  .  .  95 
Shell  Top  ..  .  .  95,  96,  99 
Sherberton  Common  n,  12 

Shipley.    66 ;    Bridge,    52,    69 ; 

Tor,  52,  68. 

Simon's  Lake      16 

Siward's  Cross 102 

Skerraton  Down  .  .  . .  66 
Slade  (Wo  Brook)  . .  . .  42 

Slade  Hall 98 

Small  Brook,  5 1  ;  Plains   . .     46 

Snowdon  Hole 43 

Soldier's  Grave,  A     . .      . .        2 

Spitchwick 12 

Splatton  Hill  ..  45,  52,  68 
Spurrell's  Cross  . .  72,  75,  79 
Stall  Moor,  86.  92  ;  Stone  Row 

on,  88. 

Stalldon  Barrow  . .  85,  86 
Stascombe  Telling-place  . .  42 

Stinger's  Hill       89 

Stittleford's  Cross  . .  . .  7 
Stone  Cross  . .  . .  7,  10 
Stony  Bottom  .  .  59,  62,  80 
Stony  Hole,  Miners'  Huts  at,  57 
Stowford,  77  ;  Cleave  . .  98 
Summer  House,  The  . .  3 
Sweaton  1 1 


T  Gert         46 

Tavistock  Inn  (Pound's  Gate). 

12,  14. 
Three     Barrows,    62,     80,     97  ; 

Reave,  61. 

Thynacombe  Wood  . .  . .  66 
Tor  Hill  (Widecombe)  .  .  7 
Tunhill  Kistvaen,  7  ;  Road.  7,  8 
Two  Hills 44 


U 

U  Stone,  The      6z 

Ugborough   Beacon,   73,   74,  7$ 

Uppacott      14 

Upper  Plantation        .  .      .  .  1 1 


W 

Warn  Bridge      65 

Wash  Gate          52 

Water  Oke  Corner,  67  ;  Plain,  46 
Water  Turn  . .  . .  8,  9 

Watercombe        91 

Weatherdon  Hill  .  .  . .  78 
Webburu,  East,  n  ;  West,  II 
Wella  Brook  Gert.  49  ;  Head,  43 
Welstor  Common,  8,  9  ;  Cross,  8 
Wennaford  Brook  . .  . .  40 
Western  Beacon,  The,  77,  78,  97 
Wheal  Emma  Leat  . .  42,  43 

Whit  Hedges       44 

Whitaburrow,      Eastern,        53  ; 

Western,  54,  55,  70. 
White  Hill  Corner     .  .      . .    101 
Whittaburrow    (Widecombe),    7 

Widecombe          24 

William's  Well 7 

Wisdpme  Mill  . .  . .  99,  100 
Wishing  Pool,  The  . .  . .  73 
Wo  Brook,  The  . .  . .  42 

Woolholes 70 

Wrangaton,    74 ;    Cross    at,    85 


Yadsworthy  Waste    . .      .  .      86 
Yealm,  The,  92  ;  Blowing  House 

on,  92  ;  Head,  93  ;   Rings, 

92,  99  ;  Rocks,  93. 

Yeo,  The 3 

Yolland  Cross     ....  68 


Zeal     Bridge,     70 ;     Hill,     52  ; 

Plains,  53. 
Zempson  (Harbourn)         . .     66 


GUIDE  TO  DARTMOOR: 

K  Topographical  Description 
of  the  Forest  and  Commons 


BY 

WILLIAM   CROSSING, 

AUTHOR    OF 

Ancient  Stone  Crosses  of  Dartmoor  and  Its  Borderland,  Amid  Devonia's  Alps 
Tales  of  the  Dartmoor  Pixies,  Gems  in  a  Granite  Setting,  A  Hundred 
Years  ott  Dartmoor,  Folk  Rhymes  of  Devon, 
From  a  Dartmoor  Cot,  S-c. 


WITH     MAPS    AND     SKETCHES. 

A  NEW  EDITION   IN  FIVE   PARTS. 


PART   V. 

Plympton,  Shaugh,  Yelverton,  and  Dousland 

Districts.    Also  Packhorse  Tracks 

and  Dictionary  of  Terms. 


"  I  ascend  the  toilsome  hill, 
And  now  upon  thy  wind-swept  ridge  I  stand  : 
The  south — the  west — with  all  their  million  fields 
In  sweet  confusion  mingled — lie  below, — 
Above  me  frowns  the  tor." 

CARRINGTON. 


Eietet : 

A.  WHEATON  &  Co.,  Ltd.,  Booksellers  and  Stationers. 
223    High   Street. 


OUT  OF  THE  LAND  OF  GORSE  AND  HEATHER 

TO 

THE   RIGHT   WORSHIPFUL 

THE   MAYOR   AND   MAYORESS   OF   PLYMOUTH, 
A.    EDMUND    SPENDER,    B.A., 

AND 

HELEN    FRANCES   SPENDER, 
GREETING. 


PREFACE  TO  THIRD  EDITION. 


THE  favourable  reception  accorded  to  the  former  editions  of  this  Guide 
has  rendered  a  further  issue  necessary.  In  this  some  considerable 
alterations  in  the  arrangement  have  been  made.  While  a  description 
of  Dartmoor  in  one  volume  had  much  to  recommend  it,  the  plan  was 
also  not  without  its  disadvantages.  The  ground  covered  being 
extensive  it  was  impossible  to  produce  such  a  book  as  the  author 
considered  the  subject  demanded  without  its  becoming  rather  bulky, 
and  this  was  inconvenient  from  the  tourist's  point  of  view.  It  is  now 
divided  into  five  parts,  but  there  has  been  no  abridgement  of  matter. 
The  few  alterations  in  the  text  are  chiefly  of  the  nature  of  additions 
which  were  needed  in  order  to  bring  the  book  up  to  date. 

The  author  is  much  gratified  at  knowing  that  the  Guide  has  been 
found  helpful  by  the  tourist  in  the  past,  and  ventures  to  believe  that 
in  its  present  form  it  will  prove  of  still  greater  value  in  the  future. 

BI.ACK  DOWN,  DARTMOOR 
July,   1914. 


DARTMOOR   GUIDE. 


POPLE'S 


NEW    LONDON    HOTEL 

(Visited  by  their  Majesties  The  King  and  Queen,  King  Edward  VII. 
and  Queen  Victoria.) 

Officially    appointed    by    the    "  Royal    Automobile     Club," 
and   the    "Automobile   Association." 


A  charming  i8th  Century  Hotel,  with  every  modern  comfort 
and  luxury.  Beautiful  covered  Courtyard  as  Lounge.  Near  the 
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SPLENDID    MOTOR    GARAGE 

Adjoining  the  Hotel,  with   Lock-up   Private   Boxes  and 
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and  House  Agent 

ROCKVALE,  YELVERTON.     'Phone  13. 


PREFACE. 


DURING  recent  years  the  claims  of  Dartmoor  as  a  holiday  and  health 
resort  have  become  widely  recognized.  Those  to  whom  an  old  world 
region  is  an  attraction  will  find  in  it  a  field  of  surpassing  interest.  No 
district  in  England  of  similiar  extent  is  so  rich  in  pre-historic  remains, 
and  in  none  does  Nature  wear  a  wilder  aspect. 

To  this  elevated  tract  of  land  no  guide  book,  in  the  true  sense  of 
the  term,  has  hitherto  appeared.  It  has,  of  course,  been  noticed  in 
county  guides,  and  there  are  also  topographical  works  and  handbooks 
descriptive  of  it,  but  in  the  former  the  accounts  are  necessarily  super- 
ficial, while  in  the  latter  the  visitor  is  not  given  any  directions  for 
finding  his  way  over  those  parts  of  the  waste  remote  from  roads.  To 
enable  him  to  learn  what  Dartmoor  really  is  he  needs  something  beyond 
notices  of  the  more  celebrated,  because  more  readily  accessible,  places 
and  objects  of  interest.  He  should  be  led  from  the  beaten  track,  and 
wander  among  the  hills  where  signs  of  man's  occupancy  are  not,  where 
silence  broods  over  the  sea  of  fen,  and  the  pasture  grounds  of  the 
cattle  that  range  at  will  are  as  they  were  when  the  Norman  herdsman 
drove  his  beasts  there  ;  or  he  should  stray  into  solitary  combes 
encumbered  with  the  ruined  huts  and  fallen  rock-pillars  of  the  people 
who  once  made  this  wild  land  their  home.  As  my  acquaintance  with 
Dartmoor  is  a  life-long  one,  and  as  it  has  been  with  me  a  subject  of 
study  and  of  systematic  investigation  during  many  years,  it  is  with 
some  degree  of  confidence  that  I  take  upon  myself  the  task  of  con- 
ducting the  visitor  over  it,  and  leading  him  into  its  remoter  parts. 

This  book  is  the  first  to  give  a  complete  topographical  description 
of  Dartmoor,  and  the  reader  may  depend  upon  its  being  correct.  Its 
aim  is  to  furnish  the  visitor  with  an  account  of  all  that  is  to  be  found 
on  the  moor  worthy  of  note,  and  to  acquaint  him  with  the  best  means 
of  reaching  the  various  objects  from  any  point.  The  districts  into 
which  the  moor  has  been  divided  are  described  in  the  excursions,  and 


viii.  PREFACE. 

at  the  end  of  these  are  given  routes  to  each  of  the  other  districts.  By 
this  arrangement  the  moor  is  crossed  in  every  conceivable  direction, 
so  that  it  is  not  possible  to  find  any  part  of  it  that  is  not  noticed  some- 
where in  the  book.  For  the  sake  of  convenience  the  terms  used  in 
connection  with  the  forest  and  commons  are  given,  with  their  mean- 
ings, in  glossarial  form,  some  archaeological  terms  being  also  included. 

I  desire  to  express  my  thanks  to  Mr.  PHILIP  GUY  STEVENS,  of 
Prince  town,  for  the  series  of  pen-and-ink  sketches  he  has  been  at  such 
pains  to  furnish,  and  which  were  executed  on  the  spot.  It  is  hoped 
they  will  be  found  useful  as  a  means  of  helping  the  visitor  to  identify 
the  principal  tors  and  hills. 

If  I  gain  the  confidence  of  the  rambler  who  uses  this  book  my 
satisfaction  will  be  complete.  There  is  some  reason  for  me  to  hope 
that  I  shall  do  so,  as  I  venture  to  believe  that  he  will  discover  ere  we 
have  gone  far  on  our  wanderings  together  that  I  am  really  and  truly  a 
Dartmoor  man. 


CONTENTS. 


PART  V. 


PAGE 
I 

.       24 
I 

.       24 


Distances  to  Plympton  and  Shaugh       

,,  Yelverton  (one  mile  from  Dousland) 

Important  Points  near  Plympton  and  Shaugh       

,,         Yelverton  and  Dousland 

•  Plympton  to  Shaugh 69 

,,            Sampford  Spiney 69 

Excursion  35.     Prom  Plympton  and  Shaugh          2 

36.                            „                 „                    4 

37-                            ,,                  n                    10 

The  Dewer  Stone  and  Cadaford  Bridge 16 

Route  67.     Plympton  and  Shaugh  to  Princetown        18 

(The  route  to  Princetown  from  Ivybridge  and  Cornwood  via 
Cadaford  Bridge  is  also  shown  from  the  bridge  onward). 

loute  68.     Plympton  and  Shaugh  to  Tavistock *  19 

69.             ,,             ,,             ,,           Lydford 19 

.,,        70.             ,,             ,,              ,,           Okehampton 20 

.,,       71.             ,,             ,,             ,,           Chagford  and  Moreton  ..  20 

,,        72.             „             ,,             ,,            Bovey  Tracey 21 

,,        73.             ,,             „             „           Ashburton         21 

,,       74.     Plympton  to  Ivybridge  and  Brent      22 

,,        75.     Shaugh  to  Cornwood  and  Brent          22 

,,        76.             ,,            Ivybridge      23 

76.     Cornwood    to  Ivybridge          23 

Yelverton         25 

Roborough  Down 25 

Yelverton  to  Dousland         35 

Dousland          29 


x.  CONTENTS.     PART    V. 

PAGE 

Excursion  38.     Prom  Yelverton  and  Dousland       29 

39-             „                 .,                 ,,                32 

-.40.             „                 „                 „                35 

To  Brisworthy        29 

„  Burrator  Lake          32 

„  Cadaford  Bridge       27,  28 

,,  Childe's  Tomb  and  Pox  Tor  (T.  2)        42 

(For  Dartmeet — down  Stream  to  Swincombe,  thence  T.  8  to 
Hexworthy.  Prom  Dartmeet  to  Widecombe — village 
Part  III.,  commons  Part  IV. — R.  5,  a.) 

,,  Crazy  Well,  via  Lether  Tor  Bridge  and  Kingsett,  T.  2,  3, 

R.  67.     (See  Part  I.) 42,  45, 

,,  Dean   Combe,   via  L,owery   and    Cross    Gate,   T.   2,   and 

Nosworthy  Bridge 33 

,,  Dean  Combe  (from  Thrushel  Combe)         30 

,,  The  Dewer  Stone,  via  Gratton  Bridge,  Greenwell  Gert,  and 

Wigford  Down        28 

,,  Ditsworthy  and  Thrushel  Combe         30 

,,  Eylesbarrow,  via  Dean  Combe  as  above 14 

,,  Eylesbarrow,  via  Sheepstor  and  Thrushel  Combe 14 

,,  Lynch  Down 28,  29 

,,  Shaugh,  via  Cadaford  Bridge  (p.  27,  28)           9,  38 

,,  Sheeps  Tor        32 

,,  Siward's  Cross,  T.  2  (see  Part  I.)       42 

,,  Ward  Bridge 35 

Sheepstor  to  Crazy  Well,  R.  67         18 

,,            Princetown,  R.  67         18 

,,            Thrushel  Combe  (by  road  from  the  village)      . .      .  .  15 

(from  the  tor)          33 

To  Cranmere  from  Plympton  and  Shaugh      23 

,,                      Yelverton  and  Dousland 38 

Moorland  Tracks 40 

Dictionary  of  Terms 75 


DARTMOOR    GUIDE. 


MAPS. 

Sketch  Map  of  the  Moor facing  page       i 

Surroundings  of  Cranmere 38 


ONE     INCH     MAPS. 

17.  Plympton  and  Shaugh  District         ..      4 

18.  Yelverton  District        30 


The  numbers  of  the  Routes  and  Excursions  as  given  in  the  first 
edition  of  the  Guide  are  retained  throughout.  T.  signifies  Track  ; 
Ex.  or  S.  Ex.,  Excursion  or  Shorter  Excursion  ;  R.,  Route ;  and  C.  R., 
Cranmere  Route.  The  entire  length  of  each  Excursion  is  given  ; 
Route  distances  are  given  one  way  only. 


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arrangements  perfect.  Large  and  com- 
modious bedrooms.  Handsome  private 
Suites  of  Apartments,  either  on  ground 
floor,  first  or  second  floors,  with  Bath- 
rooms and  Lavatories.  Corridors  carefully 
heated.  Spacious  Public  Rooms. 
Billiards.  High-class  Cuisine.  Selected 
Wines.  Moderate  and  inclusive  terms. 


Telephone  ry,     >rt.  ..  r>          • 

NO.  39.  1  anfr  on  application  to  proprietor. 


GUIDE  TO  DARTMOOR. 

IN  FIVE  PARTS. 


Part  I.     PRINCETOWN,  Two  BRIDGES,  HEXWORTHY,  AND  POST  BRIDGE: 
DISTRICTS. 

Deals  with  the  whole  of  the  central  part  of  the  Moor,  andi 
contains  notices  of  Crazy  Well  Pool,  Si  ward's  Cross,  Childe's  Tomb, 
the  Merivale  Antiquities,  Mis  Tor,  Wistman's  Wood,  Darttneet,  etc. 

Excursions  i  to  6  ;  41  to  46.  Shorter  Exs.  i  to  14.  Routes, 
i  to  8.  Cranmere  Routes  i,  2,  15,  16,  17. 

Part    II.     TAVISTOCK,    LYDFORD,    OKEHAMPTON,    AND    STICKLEPATH 
DISTRICTS. 

Describes  Northern  Dartmoor,  extending  from  Sampford, 
Spiney  on  the  West  to  Throwleigh  on  the  East :  Notices  Brent 
Tor,  Lydford  Gorge,  Hill  Bridge,  Tavy  Cleave,  Fur  Tor,  the 
Island  of  Rocks,  Yes  Tor,  the  Belstone  Range,  Cosdon,  etc. 

Excursions  7  to  18.  S.  Exs.  15  to  47.  Routes  9  to  30. 
C.R.  3  to  n. 

Part  III.    CHAGFORD,   MORETON,   LUSTLEIGH,   AND   BOVEY  TRACEY 
DISTRICTS. 

A  Description  of  Eastern  Dartmoor  :  This  part  contains  a 
notice  of  Cranmere  Pool,  and  among  other  places  and  objects 
included  in  the  Excursions  are  the  Scorhill  and  Kes  Tor  Antiquities, 
Teign  Head,  Fernworthy,  Grim's  Pound,  Drewsteignton  Dolmen,. 
Fingle  Bridge,  Lustleigh  Cleave,  Hey  Tor,  Widecombe  Village,  etc. 

Excursions  19  to  25.  S.  Exs.  48  to  87.  Routes  31  to  46*. 
C  R.  12.  13,  14. 


xiv.  DARTMOOR    GUIDE. 

Part     IV.      ASHBURTON,      BRENT,      IVYBRIDGE,      AND     CORNWOOD 
DISTRICTS. 

The  whole  of  Southern  Dartmoor,  so  rich  in  antiquities  and 
charming  border  scenery,  is  described  in  this  part.  Among  other 
places  noticed  are  Rippon  Tor,  the  Buckland  Woods,  Holne 
Chase,  Brent  Moor,  Shipley,  the  Valley  of  the  Erme,  Stowford 
Cleave,  Hawns  and  Dendles,  etc. 

Excursions  26  to  34.  S.  Exs.  88  to  121.  Routes  47  to  66. 
Prom  the  southern  part  of  the  moor  the  starting  points  of  the 
Cranmere  Routes  are  Princetown,  Two  Bridges,  and  Post  Bridge, 
C.R.  i,  2,  16,  17.  These  are  given  in  Part  I. 

Part     V.      PI<YMPTON,     SHAUGH,     YELVERTON,     AND      DOUSLAND 
DISTRICTS. 

Describes  Western  Dartmoor  from  Cornwood  to  the  Walkham  : 
Shaugh  Bridge,  the  Dewer  Stone,  the  Plym  Valley,  Heavy,  Sheeps 
Tor,  and  the  Burrator  Lake.  This  part  also  contains  a  brief 
description  of  the  old  pack-horse  tracks  on  the  Moor,  to  which 
reference  is  frequently  made  in  the  book,  as  well  as  a  Dictionary 
of  Terms  used  in  connection  with  the  Forest  and  Commons. 

Excursions  35  to  40.  Routes  67  to  76.  For  Cranmere  Routes 
see  Princetown,  Two  Bridges,  and  Post  Bridge,  C.R.  i,  2,  16,  17,  in 
Parti. 


Each  Part  contains  directions  for  reaching  Cranmere  Pool  from 
the  Districts  described  in  it. 


DARTMOOR   GUIDE.  xv. 


Where  reference  is  made  to  other  of  the  Author's 
books  the  titles  are  thus  abbreviated. 

'A  Hundred  Years  on  Dartmoor"      . .          . .          . .  100  Years. 

'Gems  in  a  Granite  Setting "  . .          . .          . .  Gems. 

'The  Ancient  Stone  Crosses  of  Dartmoor   and   Its 

Borderland "          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .  Crosses. 

'  Amid  Devonia's  Alps "  ..          ..          ..          ..  Dev.  Alps. 

'  Tales  of  the  Dartmoor  Pixies  "  Pixies 


SKETCH     MAP 


OF  DAPTMOOP^ 


GUIDE  TO  DARTMOOR. 


PLYMPTON   AND  SHAUGH 
DISTRICT. 

[The  village  of  Shaugh  is  about  5  m.  from  Plympton  Station 
(G.W.R.),  by  road  via  Niel  Gate,  and  2^  m.  from  Bickleigh  Station 
(Xaunceston  Branch,  G.W.R.),  by  road  via  Shaugh  Bridge.] 

DISTANCES:  BY  ROAD.  ASHBURTON,  via  Ivybridge,  P., 
i8|-  m.  ;  S.,  22  m.  BICKLEIGH,  P.,  5  m.  ;  S.,  3  m.  BOTTLE 
HILL  GATE,  2f  m.  from  P.  BOVEY  TRACEY,  via  Ivybridge, 
P.,  26±  m.  ;  S.,  29^  m.  BROWNEY  CROSS,  P.,  3  m.  ;  S.,  i|-  m. 
CA  DA  FORD  BRIDGE,  P.,  6  m.  ;  S.,  i£  m.  CHAGFORD,  via 
Dousland  and  Princetown,  P.,  26  m.  ;  S.,  2i£  m.  -  CORNWOOD, 
P.,  s£  m.  ;  S.,  6  m.  DOUSLAND,  P.,  9^  m.  ;  S.,  5  m.  EXETER, 
40  m.  from  P.  GEORGE  HOTEL,  Tavistock  Road,  P.,  4  m.  ;  S.,  $$ 
m.  HEXWORTHY,  via  Princetown,  20^  m.  ;  via  Ivybridge,  23  m. 
IVYBRIDGE,  P.,  si  m.  ;  S.,  9  m.  LEE  MOOR  CROSS,  via  Beatland 
Corner,  P.,  6£  m.  ;  S.,  3  m.  LUTTON,  4$  m.  from  P.  LYDFORD, 
via  Dousland,  P.,  21%  m.  ;  S.,  17  m.  MORETON,  13^  m.  beyond 
Princetown.  OKEHAMPTON,  via  Dousland,  P.,  23^  m.  ;  S.,  19  m. 
PLYM  BRIDGE,  2  m.  from  P.  PLYMOUTH,  P.,  5  m.  (or  about 
4  m.  to  the  outskirts  of  the  town) ;  S.,  via  Bickleigh,  :o  m.  POST 
BRIDGE,  s  m.  beyond  Princetown.  PRINCETOWN,  via  Dousland, 
P.,  14  m.  ;  S.,  9£  m.  SOUTH  BRENT,  P.,  12  m.  ;  S.,  14  m. 
SPARKWELL,  3  m.  from  P.  TAVISTOCK,  via  Plym  Bridge  and 
George  Hotel,  14  m.  from  P.  ;  via  Dousland,  io£  m.  from  5.  TWO 
BRIDGES,  i \  m.  beyond  Princetown.  YELVERTON,  via  Cadaford 
Bridge  and  Greenwell  Down,  P.,  9^  m.  ;  S.,  5  m. 

BY  RAII,  (G.W.R.)  PLYMOUTH,  4$.  m.  (Marsh  Mills,  on 
the  Launceston  Branch,  is  i  m.  from  Plympton  Station,  and  is  the 
station  for  Yelverton  and  the  Princetown  Railway,  Tavistock,  and 
Lydford).  For  SOUTHERN  DARTMOOR— CORNWOOD,  4$  m.  ; 
IVYBRIDGE,  6J  m.  ;  WRANGATON,  10  m.  ;  BRENT,  12^  m. 


Important  Points  and  Landmarks. 

Cadaford  Bridge — Pen  Beacon — Tolch  Moor  Gate.  Places  of  Interest. 
Cornwood — The  Dewer  Stone — Hawks'  Tor — Hawns  and  Dendles — 
Shaugh  Bridge — Trowlesworthy.  Prehistoric  Antiquities.  Cholwich 
Town  :  stone  row — Ringmoor  Down  :  stone  circle — Shaugh  Moor  :  hut 
circles — Trowlesworthy  :  hut  circles  and  stone  row. 

B5 


2  OLD-TIME   PLYIYIPTON. 

Although  Plympton  is  somewhat  removed  from  the  moor,  there 
was  an  early  connection  between  the  two.  As  stated  in  the  Terms 
Section  it  was  one  of  the  four  Stannary  towns.  The  barony  of  Plymp- 
ton was  bestowed  by  Henry  I.  upon  Richard  de  Redvers,  to  whom  has 
been  attributed  the  building  of  the  castle,  of  which  little  more  than 
fragments  of  the  keep  now  remain.  Baldwin  de  Redvers,  the  son  of 
Richard,  granted  to  the  burgesses  of  Plympton  common  of  turbary 
for  all  necessary  fuel  for  their  houses  on  his  commons  forming  part  of 
the  moor,  and  a  right  of  way  through  Lea  Wood  for  their  carts,  and  this 
was  confirmed  by  his  daughter,  Isabella  de  Fortibus  (Ex.  6). 

A  Saxon  monastery  seems  to  have  existed  at  Plympton,  but  was 
suppressed  in  1121  by  Bishop  Warelwast,  who  founded  in  its  stead  a 
priory  of  Augustine  Canons.  This  was  so  richly  endowed  that  at  the 
Dissolution  it  was  the  wealthiest  foundation  in  the  county.  A  few 
remains  of  it  exist  to  the  south  of  the  churchyard,  and  fragments  are 
also  discoverable  in  other  places  near  by. 

The  parish  church  of  Plympton  St.  Mary  stands  in  a  low  situation 
near  the  Torry  Brook,  and,  as  already  stated,  has  attached  to  it  a 
similar  legend  to  that  we  have  noticed  as  being  connected  with  the 
churches  of  Brent  Tor  and  Buckfastleigh  (Ex.  9,  S.  Ex.  98).  The  story 
says  that  Crownhay  Castle,  on  the  outskirts  of  Ridgway,  was  selected 
as  a  site  for  it,  but  this  not  being  pleasing  to  the  Evil  One,  he  removed 
the  stones  from  it  to  the  spot  where  the  building  now  stands.  The 
Stannary  town  and  the  castle  are  not,  however,  in  this  parish,  but  hi 
the  adjoining  one  of  Plympton  Maurice,  or  as  it  is  also  called,  Plympton 
Earl.  This  ancient  town  is  memorable  as  being  the  birthplace  of  Sir 
Joshua  Reynolds,  and  it  was  also  in  or  near  it  that  Sir  George  Treby. 
the  eminent  lawyer  and  judge,  was  born. 


Excursions  from  Plympton  and  Shaug-h. 

[Tracks  :  68  to  71.] 

Ex.  35. — Newnham,  Crownhill  Down,  Ridding  Down,  Tolchmoor 
Gate,  Quick  Bridge,  Heddon  Down,  Sparkwell,  12  m.  ;  this  is  from  and 
to  Plympton  Station.  Shaugh  visitors  reach  Crownhill  Down  by  way 
of  Niel  Gate,  Portbury,  and  Hooksbury  Wood,  as  in  R.  76. 

Passing  through  Colebrook  we  keep  R.  near  the  railway,  and 
follow  the  road  running  E.  for  J  m.  to  the  foot  of  West  Park  Hill, 
where  we  turn  L.  to  Loughtor  Mill.  About  £  m.  R.  is  Old  Newnham, 
which,  in  the  time  of  Edward  I.,  was  the  seat  of  Simon  de  Plympton. 
It  afterwards  came  into  the  possession  of  the  Strodes,  one  of  the  mem- 
bers of  which  family,  Richard  Strode,  we  have  referred  to  as 
having  been  confined  in  Lydford  Castle  by  order  of  the  Tinners'  Court, 
held  on  Crockern  Tor  (see  Stannaries,  in  Terms  Section).  Another  was 
William  Strode,  one  of  the  five  members  whom  Charles  I.  attempted 
to  seize.  The  sweet  tone  of  the  tenor  bell  hanging  in  Plympton  St. 
Mary  Church  tower  is  traditionally  said  to  be  owing  to  a  lapful  of 
silver  having  been  thrown  by  Marie  Strode  into  the  metal  from  which 
the  bell  was  cast.  This  was  in  1614.  Keeping  R.  on  passing  Loughtor 


EXCURSION   35.      CROWNHILL   DOWN.  3 

Mill  we  ascend  the  hill  by  Holly  Wood,  and  turn  L.  just  beyond  one  of 
the  entrances  to  Newnham  Park,  in  which  is  the  mansion  that  took 
the  place  of  Old  Newnham.  This  was  built  about  two  hundred  years 
ago.  As  we  proceed  we  have  a  view  of  the  deer  park  in  the  valley  of 
the  Torry,  L.  At  the  forks  shortly  reached  we  take  the  R.  branch, 
and  pass  upward  through  Bottle  Hill  Mine  to  the  common. 

[The  I<.  branch  goes  on  to  a  moor  gate  and  runs  down  the  side  of  a 
part  of  Crownhill  Down,  usually  referred  to  as  Pits,  to  the  cross  roads 
at  the  N.E.  corner  of  Hooksbury  Wood,  mentioned  in  R.  57.  From 
this  corner  one  road  goes  up  the  valley  to  Coleland  Bridge,  another 
straight  on  to  Fernhill,  above  which  is  Higher  L,ee  Wood,  and  a  third 
to  Portworthy.] 

On  our  R.  as  we  pass  up  through  the  mine  is  the  rounded  hill 
known  as  Hemerdon  Ball,  a  conspicuous  object  from  the  vicinity  of 
Plympton  Station.  Hemerdon,  on  the  southern  slope  of  this  hill,  is 
the  seat  of  the  Woollcombes,  and  not  far  from  this  is  the  hamlet  of  the 
same  name.  Here,  in  Henry  the  Third's  reign,  dwelt  Alexander  de 
Hemerdon,  castellan  of  Plympton  Castle,  and  one  of  the  witnesses  to 
the  charter  granted  by  Baldwin  to  the  burgesses.  At  the  time  when 
an  invasion  of  England  by  Napoleon  was  deemed  not  improbable, 
troops  were  encamped  on  Hemerdon  Ball. 

From  Bottle  Hill  Gate  we  make  our  way  along  the  verge  of  Crown- 
hill  Down  with  the  wall  R.,  and  when  this  recedes  towards  Drakeland 
Corner  shall  keep  straight  on  towards  another  corner,  where  is  a  ruined 
building,  known  as  Horniwink.  Here  we  leave  the  enclosures  and 
strike  over  the  down  a  little  E.  of  N.  By  so  doing  we  shall  avoid  the 
numerous  clay  pits  on  this  part  of  the  common,  some  of  which  belong 
to  the  Smallhanger  Clay  Works,  and  others  to  the  Heddon  and 
Broomage  Works.  There  is  little  to  interest  the  rambler  here  beyond 
the  view  of  the  moor  which  he  obtains.  We  have  already  referred  to 
the  paths  on  this  down  (T.  68) ;  these  have  been  chiefly  made  by  the 
clay  workers,  and  run  in  every  direction.  Passing  one  or  two  barrows 
we  at  length  arrive  at  the  enclosures  of  Crownhill  Down  Cottage, 
which  we  keep  R.,  and  shortly  afterwards  reach  Broomage  Farm, 
where,  besides  the  farmhouse  itself,  there  are  also  a  couple  of  cottages. 
Here,  keeping  the  wall  R.,  we  pass  Crownhill  Tor,  a  small  mass  of  rock 
of  no  great  height  above  the  turf,  I,.,  and  bearing  a  little  to  the  R. 
shall  find  ourselves  near  Broomage  farmhouse.  Here  we  strike  N.  to 
Tolch  Moor  Gate,  5  m.  from  Plympton.  (On  the  other  side  of  this  the 
road  descends  to  Tolch  Bridge,  which  is  quite  near.  Below  this  the 
Torry  flows  under  Knowle  Wood,  on  its  L.  bank,  and  enters  Torry 
Combe). 

Here  we  turn  R.,  our  next  point  being  Quick  Bridge,  nearly  i  m. 
S.E.  The  wall  I,,  bounds  the  land  belonging  to  Cholwich  Town,  the 
stone  row  to  which  we  have  referred  as  existing  there  (Ex.  34),  being 
less  than  £  in.  N.E.  from  the  gate.  The  present  farmhouse  was  formerly 
a  residence  of  the  Cholwich  family,  and  is  an  interesting  example  of 
the  old  border  dwellings.  The  kitchen  possesses  a  particularly  wide 
hearth.  An  immense  granite  trough  is  to  be  seen  here,  which  may  have 
been  used  for  brewing  purposes,  but  more  probably  for  salting  meat 
in.  A  site  very  near  the  house  is  pointed  out  as  that  on  which  the 


4  PLYMPTON    AND   SHAUGH    DISTRICT. 

chapel  stood.  The  last  member  of  the  family  who  lived  here  is  said  to 
have  died  in  prison,  but  in  what  circumstances  the  story  does  not  tell 
us,  and  whether  there  is  any  truth  in  it  I  have  not  been  able  to  discover. 
The  form  of  the  name  under  which  Polwhele  refers  to  the  family  i& 
Cholditch.  They  had  a  considerable  estate  in  the  parish  of  Chudleigh  ; 
the  last  notice  of  the  family  in  the  registers  of  that  place  is  the  burial 
in  September,  1727,  of  Thomas  Cholwich.  According  to  Lysons 
Cholwich  Town  belonged  at  the  time  he  wrote,  1822,  to  Mr.  J.  B. 
Cholwich,  of  Farringdon  House,  near  Exeter.  In  the  Additions  to 
Risdon,  1 8 1 1 ,  it  is  stated  that  Oldstone,  hi  the  parish  of  Blackawton, 
also  belonged  to  this  representative  of  the  family. 

Proceeding  down  the  road  we  shall  notice  the  lane  leading  to  the 
house  L.,  and  a  little  below  this  the  ancient  entrance,  but  this  is  not 
now  used.  Near  by  is  an  old  cross,  which  was  found  some  years  ago 
doing  duty  as  a  gate-post  [Crosses,  Chap.  IV.]  A  branch  of  the  Piall 
Brook  runs  near  the  house,  and  on  the  further  side  of  this  is  Holmbush 
Waste  and  Nelder  Wood,  and  above  these  Parkland  Plantation,  on  the 
verge  of  the  moor  below  Pen  Beacon  (Ex.  34).  Quick  Bridge  spans 
the  Piall  Brook,  called  in  the  neighbourhood  the  Pall  Brook, which  comes 
down  from  Broomage  Waste,  on  the  hill  above  Broomage  Wood,  and  on 
crossing  this  we  desert  the  road.  This  runs  on  to  Piall  Bridge,  and  past 
Heathfield  Down  to  Cornwood  (R.  75),  but  we  shall  climb  the  hill  R. 
Our  course  will  now  be  S.S.W.  over  Heddon  Down  to  the  enclosures  L. 
The  clay  works  must  be  kept  some  distance  R.,  and  the  plantation  on 
the  brow  of  the  hill  L.  In  i  m.  Heddon  Gate  will  be  reached,  where  a 
road  runs  down  to  Gorah  Cottages.  This  we  follow,  and  turning  R.  at 
the  cottages  make  our  way  to  Sparkwell,  i  m.  Here  there  is  a  small 
inn  called  the  Treby  Arms.  A  short  distance  from  the  village,  and  near 
the  verge  of  the  common,  is  Goodamoor,  the  seat  of  the  late  General 
Phillipps- Treby.  Mr.  Paul  Ourry  Treby,  once  so  well-known  in  the 
hunting-field,  and  whose  name  will  long  be  remembered  by  Devon 
sportsmen,  formerly  resided  here,  and  sixty-five  years  ago  was  one  of 
the  four  Deputy  Foresters  of  Dartmoor.  In  the  opposite  direction,  that 
is,  southward  of  the  village,  is  Beechwood,  anciently  called  Moor  ;  the 
present  residence  was  built  in  1797.  As  we  make  our  way  by  West 
Park  Hill  to  Colebrook  we  pass  Hemerdon  and  Old  Newnham. 

Ex.  36.— Shaugh  Hawks'  Tor,  Ccllard  Tor,  Stewarts  Hill,  White  Hill 
Corner  [EXTENSION  TO  White  Hill  Yeo,  add  i£  m.],  Blackaton  Cross 
[EXTENSION  To  Cadaford  Bridge,  add  i|  m.],  S  addle  sborough,  5^  m. 
from  and  to  Shaugh. 

In  the  section  dealing  with  the  ancient  tracks  on  the  moor  I 
have  described  one  that  formerly  ran  from  Plympton  to  Tavistock 
(T.  69),  on  the  line  of  which  the  present  road  is  formed.  Along  this 
we  shall  now  make  our  way  from  the  ancient  place  that,  according  to 
the  old  rhyme,  was  a  borough  town  when  Plymouth  was  non-existent, 
to  the  village  of  Shaugh,  as  the  monks  did  when  they  went  from  their 
priory  to  visit  their  church  there.  We  follow  the  road  described  in 
R.  67,  leaving  it  when  we  reach  Beatland  Corner,  \  m.  after  entering 
upon  the  moor.  Here  we  branch  L.  by  Beatland  and  Bughill  Planta- 
tions, and  skirting  the  Bowling  Green,  a  level  piece  of  turf  L.,  shall 
enter  upon  the  enclosed  lands  and  speedily  find  ourselves  in  the  village. 


~  17  PLYMPTON  frSHAUCH  DISTRICT 


;    PARTS  OF  737. 


6  PLYMPTON    AND   SHAUGH    DISTRICT. 

Shaugh  is  a  typical  border  settlement,  with  its  sturdy-looking 
granite  church,  its  unpretentious  inn,  its  ancient  cross  and  tiny  manor 
pound.  Its  full  name  is  Shaugh  Prior,  its  adjunct  being  derived  from 
its  connection  with  Plympton  Priory,  to  which  it  was  given  by  Roger 
de  Novant.  Behind  it  is  the  rock-strewn  steep  of  West  Down,  crested 
by  Shaugh  Beacon,  from  which  a  fine  view  of  the  Plym  valley  and  the 
Dewer  Stone  is  commanded,  with  Roborough  Down  to  the  N.W.  In 
the  White  Thorn  Inn  there  was  formerly  a  peat  fire,  which  was  kept 
continually  burning.  We  remember  seeing  it  in  1873,  when  it  had  not 
been  suffered  to  go  out  for  forty  years.  Near  the  door  the  upping-stock 
will  be  noticed.  Shaugh  Bridge,  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  E.  of  the  village, 
has  long  been  celebrated  as  one  of  the  beauty  spots  of  the  moorland 
borders.  It  is  associated  with  Carrington,  the'  poet  of  Dartmoor,  who 
tells  us  that  he  often  lingered  near  it.  On  the  Dewer  Stone  Hill  his  name 
with  the  month  and  year  of  his  death,  is  cut  upon  a  rock,  and  in  Shaugh 
Church  is  a  tablet  to  his  memory,  placed  there  by  his  son,  Mr.  W.  M. 
Carrington,  in  1871.  Carrington  died  at  Bath,  and  was  buried  in  the 
churchyard  at  Combe  Hay,  a  few  miles  from  that  city.  On  his  granite 
tomb  is  the  following  : 

"  Sacred  to  the  memory  of  the  Poet  N.  T.  Carrington, 
Who  died  the  2nd  of  September,  1830,  aged  53  years." 

A  little  to  the  E.  of  Shaugh  Church  is  an  old  cross  standing  in  a 
socket-stone  built  into  the  hedge  [Crosses,  Chap.  V.],  and  here  we  turn 
R.  to  the  common,  where  we  shall  desert  the  road  and  keeping  close  to 
the  enclosures  L.  be  led  to  Huxton  Corner,  or  as  the  spot  is  sometimes 
called,  Windmill  Hill.  Crossing  the  road  we  strike  up  over  Shaugh 
Moor  to  Hawks'  Tor,  which  is  not  much  more  than  J  m.  distant.  This 
is  a  small  pile,  but  a  very  curious  one.  One  end  of  a  large  slab  of  granite 
rests  on  what  is  the  main  part  of  the  tor,  its  other  end  being  supported 
on  a  boulder  standing  on  the  lesser  and  lower  part  of  the  tor,  a  kind 
of  small  chamber  thus  being  formed  beneath  it.  There  is  some  reason 
for  supposing,  this  arrangement  to  be  artificial,  though  it  is  difficult 
to  see  what  the  object  could  have  been  intended  for.  It  has  been 
suggested  that  it  was  a  dolmen.  Polwhele,  writing  in  1793,  says 
that  several  had  supposed  it  to  be  such,  though  he  was  not  of  that 
opinion.* 

Less  than  £  m.  southward  of  Hawks'  Tor  is  Collard  Tor,  near 
which  is  the  cottage  of  the  same  name,  with  its  small  enclosures  formed 
on  the  slope  of  a  rock-strewn  hill,  and  to  this  we  shall  now  make  our 
way.  Below  it  is  the  road  running  from  Shaugh  to  White  Hill  Corner, 
which  is  noticed  in  R.  75.  Near  the  foot  of  the  Collard  Tor  Cottage 
enclosures  a  narrow  strip  of  common  runs  down  towards  the  Torry, 
which  is  known  as  The  Rut.  Eastward  of  it,  under  Wotter,  is  Higher 
Lee  Wood,  which  is  probably  the  wood  referred  to  in  the  grant  made 
to  the  men  of  Plympton  by  Baldwin  de  Redvers,  already  mentioned. 
The  parish  of  Plympton  does  not  include  much  of  the  common  land 
that  goes  to  make  up  Dartmoor  (though  the  greater  part  of  Crownhill 
Down  is  situated  within  its  boundary),  so  that  the  permission  to  supply 
themselves  with  peat  from  other  commons  would  be  of  value  to  the 
people  of  Plympton.  Eastward  of  Collard  Tor  are  two  single  stone 
rows,  fourteen  stones  standing  hi  one,  and  ten  in  the  other. 

*  Historical  Views  of  Devonshire.     Vol.  i ,  Section  IV. 


EXCURSION   36.      LEE    MOOR.  7 

Passing  these  we  make  our  way  over  Wotter  Common,  to  Wotter 
Brook,  here  a  tiny  stream,  and  crossing  it  shall  reach  what  is  known 
as  the  Roman  Camp,  but  which  is  supposed  to  be  a  disused  reservoir, 
and  of  modern  date.  It  is  situated  on  the  side  of  Stewarts  Hill,  and 
close  to  the  road.  The  latter  we  now  follow  eastward,  with  Black 
Alder  Tor  R.  Below  this,  but  not  in  sight,  is  White  Hill  Tor,  some- 
times called  Torry  Combe  Tor,  from  its  situation.  The  moor  people 
often  speak  of  this  valley  as  Terracum  ;  I  have  seen  the  name  written 
Tor-y-cwm,  the  idea,  I  suppose,  being  to  give  it  a  Celtic  appearance  ; 
as  Torrycomb  it  was  known  more  than  400  years  ago,  when  there  is 
a  reference  to  the  pinfold  there.  It  is  now  the  centre  of  a  great  clay 
industry,  of  which  we  see  abundant  evidence  on  every  hand.  The 
Lee  Moor  Clay  Works  of  the  Messrs.  Martin  Bros,  are  by  far  the  largest 
of  any  in  the  district.  Quite  a  settlement  has  been  formed  here,  their 
employees  numbering  about  400.  There  is  a  church  mission  room, 
a  Wesleyan  Chapel,  and  a  reading  room.  One  of  their  large  pits  is 
about  40  acres  in  extent,  and  of  great  depth.  Following  the  road 
past  the  cottages  of  the  employees  we  shall  be  led  to  White  Hill  Corner 
(R.  75,  56,  61),  where  there  is  a  guide-post  :  Meavy,  4^  m.  ;  Sheepstor, 
4i  m.  ;  Cornwood,  3  m.  ;  Ivybridge,  5|-  in.  ;  Shaugh,  3  m.  ;  Bickleigh, 
Sim. 

Shell  Pen 

Top.  Beacon. 


Clay  Works. 
FROM   WHITE   HII.I,  CORNER.      LOOKING  E. 

PX 

[EXTENSION  TO  White  Hill  Yeo,  add  i|  m.  If  the  rambler  cares  to 
do  so  he  may  trace  the  Torry  to  its  source.  It  rises  at  a  spot  known 
as  White  Hill  Yeo,  a  little  to  the  E.  of  Pen  Beacon  (Ex.  34),  and  about 
i  m.  distant.  There  is,  however,  little  to  reward  him,  unless  he  desires 
to  see  the  great  clay  pit  we  have  referred  to,  for  the  formation  of  which 
it  was  found  necessary  to  divert  the  Torry.  Striking  E.  over  the  com- 
mon he  will  soon  reach  this,  and  will  then  cross  the  little  stream  and 
make  his  way  up  its  L.  bank  with  Cholwich  Town  Waste  R.  On  reach- 
ing Torry  Brook  Head,  near  which  are  the  vestiges  of  some  ancient 
pounds,  he  will  bear  R.  around  the  leat  where  it  makes  a  bend, 
and  then  keeping  it  close  L.  trace  it  upwards  to  the  reservoir 
or  Big  Pond,  as  it  is  called  (R.  48).  On  the  R.  as  he  proceeds  is  the 
hill  known  as  Hexton,  where  is  a  stone  called  the  Hanging  Rock.fand 
also  one  or  two  cairns.  It  is  possible  that  this  name  points  to  the 


8 


PLYMPTON    AND    SHAUGH    DISTRICT. 


former  existence  of  a  dolmen  here,  though  it  would  not  be  safe  to 
conclude  that  such  was  the  case  (cf.  Shilstone  Tor,  Ex.  14).  Turning 
L.  at  the  pond  the  rambler  will  pass  over  the  side  of  Grey  Hills  to 
Blackaton  Cross.] 

Prom  White  Hill  Corner  we  make  our  way  along  the  road  N.W. 
(R.  67),  and  passing  Sunderland  Cottages  R.  shall  soon  reach  the 
enclosures  of  Lee  Moor  House.  Beyond  these  we  enter  again  upon 
the  open  moor,  and  here,  close  beside  the  way,  shall  find  an  interesting 
object.  This  is  Blackaton  Cross,  often  called  the  Roman,  or  Roman's 
Cross,  a  name  also  sometimes  attached  to  a  similar  relic  near  Sheepstor, 
and  to  others  in  the  neighbourhood.  Only  the  head  and  the  socket- 
stone  belong  to  the  original  monument.  It  was  furnished  with  the 
present  shaft,  which  was  cut  for  a  window-sill  at  Lee  Moor  House,  and 
set  up  by  the  late  Mr.  Phillips,  who  resided  there  [Crosses,  Chap.  IV.] 


Cocks 
Tor. 


Peak   Sharp  Lether    Sheeps  Mis 
Hill.      Tor.     Tor.          Tor.    Tor. 


N.  Hisworthy 
Tor. 


Trowlsworthy  Warren.  Legis  Tor. 

FROM  BLACKATON  CROSS.   LOOKING  N. 

There  is  a  good  view  from  the  cross.  Far  away  to  the  N.W.  is 
seen  the  peak  of  Brent  Tor  (Ex.  9)  ;  to  the  R.  of  this  Cocks'  Tor  and 
Great  Mis  Tor  (Exs.  8,  6)  reveal  themselves  ;  nearer  to  us  are  Lether 
Tor,  Sharp  Tor,  and  Sheeps  Tor  (Ex.  39)  ;  while  beyond  Grey  Hills 
and  Blackaton  Slaggets,  and  only  i  m.  distant,  are  the  piles  of  Trowles- 
worthy. 

Proceeding  along  the  road  for  a  few  score  yards  we  shall  notice 
that  it  is  crossed  by  a  green  path  running  E.  and  W.  Here  we  turn 
L.  to  Emmett's  Post,  which  stands  on  a  mound  near  by.  This  serves 
as  a  bond-mark  between  the  lands  of  Lord  Morley  and  Sir  Henry 
Lopes.  The  boundary  runs  northward  to  the  road,  where  is  another 
bond-stone,  having  the  initial  L.  on  its  northern  face  and  M  on  the 
southern,  and  thence  goes  north-eastward  to  the  Blackabrook. 

[EXTENSION  To  Cadaford  Bridge,  add  i-J-  m.  From  Emmett's 
Post  the  way  lies  N.  to  the  bond-stone,  whence  the  road  is  followed  to 
the  bridge.  A  short  distance  from  the  stone,  and  L.  of  the  road  in 
descending,  is  a  small  pound  containing  hut  circles,  but  it  presents 
nothing  remarkable.  Beyond  this  the  Shaugh  Lake  Clay  Works  are 
passed  L.  Away  to  the  R.  is  Legis  Tor  (Ex.  38),  above  the  R,  bank 


EXCURSION   36.      SHADEN    DOWN.  9 

of  the  Plym,  with  Trowlesworthy  Warren  House  above  the  L.  bank, 
and  beyond  it  Hen  Tor  (Ex.  37).  Very  soon  we  draw  near  to  the  river, 
which  becomes  our  companion  till  we  reach  the  bridge.  This  is  noticed 


Legis 
Tor. 


Trowlesworthy 

Warren          Hen 
House.          Tor. 


Plym. 
FROM   NEAR   CADAFORD   BRIDGE. 

post.  In  returning  to  Shaugh  the  rambler  takes  the  R.  branch  S.  of 
the  bridge,  as  in  R.  8.  On  the  I,,  of  the  road  the  ruins  of  an  old  farm 
house  will  be  noticed.  This,  so  the  story  tells  us,  was  once  the  abode 
of  Merry  Ann  and  Merry  Andrew,  a  couple  who  always  viewed  the 
bright  side  of  things.  Just  above  this  the  rambler,  looking  up  the 
valley  of  the  Plym  N.E.,  will  see  Ditsworthy  Warren  house  with  the 
path  running  down  to  the  river,  2  m.  away  (Ex.  37).  Passing  the 
entrance  to  Dunstone  Farm  R.  he  will  soon  reach  Shaden  Plantation, 
probably  a  corruption  of  Shaugh  Down,  the  name  of  the  parish  being 
sometimes  pronounced  Sha  ;  formerly  this  was  generally  so.*  Here, 
close  to  some  hedge  steps,  whence  a  path  runs  through  Shaden  Brake 
towards  the  village,  is  the  upper  portion  of  an  old  cross.  A  socket-stone 
to  be  seen  near  Beatland  Corner  perhaps  belongs  to  it,  and  indicates  its 
original  situation,  but  of  this  we  cannot  be  certain.  Adjoining  the 
brake  is  Shaden  Moor,  which  extends  to  North  Wood  and  West  Down. 
A  short  distance  beyond  the  cross  is  Brag  Lane  End.] 

Prom  Emmett's  Post  we  shall  direct  our  steps  westward  over  that 
part  of  Shaugh  Moor  known  as  Saddlesborough,  probably  the 
Chechilburgh  of  an  earlier  time  (R.  48).  Here  the  ground  drops 
considerably  from  what  is  the  highest  part  of  the  common,  996  feet, 

*  Old  forms  of  the  name  are  Schagh  (1291);  Shawe  (1505),  at 
which  time  the  venville  rent  was  7d.  ;  and  Shagh  and  Shaye  about  the 
middle  of  the  sixteenth  century.  In  our  younger  days  we  invariably 
heard  the  natives  speak  of  the  village  as  Sha  Town.  A  story  used 
to  be  told  of  a  tourist  who  met  a  countryman  near  the  Dewer  Stone 
and  asked  him  the  way  to  Shaugh.  The  man  replied  that  he  did  not 
know  of  such  a  place,  but  on  the  stranger  remarking  that  it  was  a 
village  with  an  inn  called  the  White  Thorn,  he  exclaimed  :  "  Aw,  you 
main  Sha  Town  ;  way,  that's  where  I  live  to." 


PLYMPTON    AND   SHAUGH    DISTRICT. 


towards  the  N.,  and  the  brow  of  the  hill  is  covered  with  scattered 
rocks.  On  the  slope  below  is  a  small  pound,  with  two  or  three  hut 
circles  near  it.  Still  maintaining  a  westerly  course,  we  shall  pass  down 
the  hill  to  Brag  Lane  End,  and  follow  the  road  to  the  village. 


Trowlesworthy 

Tors.  Shell  Top. 


Pen 

Beacon. 


Plym. 


S.E. 


FROM   CADAFORD   BRIDGE. 


Ex.  37. — Trowlesworthy,  Hen  Tor,  Shavercombe,  Plym  Steps,  Calves 
Lake  Tor  [EXTENSION  To  Plym  Head,  add  2|-  m.]  Evil  Combe,  Thrushel 
Combe,  Ditsworthy  Warren,  Cadaford  Bridge,  13  m.  from  and  to  Shaugh. 
(With  direct  route  to  Thrushel  Combe  via  Trowlesworthy  Warren.  4  m. 
from  Shaugh). 

Turning  L.  at  the  cross  E.  of  the  church  we  speedily  reach  the 
common  at  Brag  I/ane  End,  whence  we  strike  eastward  over  Shaugh 
Moor,  our  way  being  the  reverse  of  that  described  at  the  end  of  Ex.  36. 
On  reaching  the  highest  point  of  Saddlesborough  we  shall  bear  L.  and 
descend  the  side  of  Whit  Hills  to  the  road,  reaching  it  about  £  m. 
below  Blackaton  Cross.  Still  following  the  same  course  we  strike 
across  Grey  Hills  to  the  Blackabrook,  meeting  on  the  way  with  abun- 
dant evidence  of  the  tin-seeker's  former  presence  here.  His  deep  open 
workings,  in  which  dwarf  trees  are  growing,  cover  the  ground  for 
some  distance,  extending  down  the  banks  of  the  little  tributary  to  the 
Plym.  On  the  slope  on  the  further  side  of  this  stream,  and  between 
it  and  the  Trowlesworthy  Tors,  is  a  fine  group  of  antiquities,  consisting 
of  examples  of  dwellings  and  burial  monuments,  and  these  we  shall 
now  briefly  examine  on  our  way  up  the  valley  of  the  Plym.  Prom 
Blackabrook  Head  we  strike  E.N.E.,  and  in  less  than  £  m.  shall  come 
upon  a  double  stone  row  intersected  by  the  Clay  Works  leat.  It  runs 
about  N.  and  S.,  and  is  142  yards  in  length.  At  its  northern  end  is  a 
stone  circle,  known  locally  as  the  Pulpit,  and  consisting  of  eight  stones  ; 
this  is  23  feet  in  diameter.  W.  of  this  circle,  but  on  the  other  side  of 
the  leat,  that  is  to  say,  on  the  lower  side  of  it,  are  the  remains  of  another, 
and  from  this  also  a  row  extends.  This,  however,  is  a  single  one,  and 
is  not  more  than  about  85  yards  long.  Its  direction  is  E.  and  W. 
Crossing  the  leat  by  one  of  the  numerous  footbridges  here  we  make 
our  way  along  its  bank  north-westward,  and  soon  reach  a  couple  of 
pounds  containing  hut  circles.  The  entrances  to  these  enclosures 


EXCURSION   37.     TROWLESWORTHY   WARREN.  11 

have  each  been  partitioned  into  two  by  walls  built  in  the  form  of  the 
letter  X,  the  point  where  the  arms  cross  being  in  the  centre  of  the 
opening.  It  has  been  thought  that  this  masking  and  narrowing  of  the 
entrances  was  designed  for  protection.  But  if  these  walls  had  been 
carried  to  a  sufficient  height  to  render  such  an  arrangement  effective, 
they  would  have  fallen  in  a  confused  heap,  and  would  not  have  pre- 
served the  form  of  a  cross,  or  letter  X.  It  is  probable  that  they  are 
later  additions  to  the  pounds,  and  were  never  more  than  about  half 
the  height  of  a  man.  The  hill  on  which  these  remains  are  found  has 
been  a  warren  for  centuries,  and  it  may  well  be  that  the  pounds  have 
been  utilized  at  some  period  either  as  traps,  or  for  other  purpose  not 
now  understood.  At  all  events,  no  such  arrangement  is  seen  in  any 
other  pound  on  Dartmoor.  According  to  the  Additions  to  Risdon 
(1811)  Trowlesworthy  Warren  was  granted  by  Baldwin  de  Redvers  to 
Sampson  de  Traylesworthy  before  1272.  A  Simon  de  Travailesworth 
was  one  of  the  witnesses  in  1291  to  the  deed  of  Isabella  de  Fortibus, 
Countess  of  Devon,  to  which  we  have  more  than  once  referred  (Ex.  6). 
In  1560  the  warren  came  into  the  possession  of  the  Woollcombes.  For 
a  long  period  only  one  name  has  been  associated  with  it  as  tenant.  The 
late  occupant,  Mr.  Richard  I/avers,  who  succeeded  his  father  here,  died 
in  March,  1914,  at  the  age  of  94,  and  in  turn  was  followed  by 
his  son  as  tenant.  The  ruined  building  near  the  pounds  appears 
to  be  of  comparatively  modern  date.  On  the  common  are  a  number 
of  hut  circles,  and  others  are  seen  lower  down  near  the  warren  house. 
A  small  tor  close  by  is  locally  known  as  Shadyback  Tor  ;  this  there  can 
be  no  doubt  is  the  Shearaback  Tor  referred  to  in  1828  by  H.  E.  Carring- 
ton,  son  of  the  poet,  as  being  situated  two  miles  E.  of  Shaugh  village. 

[To  reach  Trowlesworthy  Warren  house  direct  from  Brag  Lane 
End,  and  also  Ditsworthy  Warren,  near  which  are  the  Thrushel  Combe 
antiquities,  the  visitor  will  follow  the  road  N.  to  Shaden  Plantation, 
where  he  will  leave  it  and  strike  N.E.  over  the  common.  The  way 
lies  across  Whit  Hills  and  through  the  Shaugh  Lake  Clay  Works  to 
the  road  coming  down  R.  from  Lee  Moor  House  (Ex.  36),  the  distance 
being  about  i  m.  Care  must  be  taken  not  to  keep  too  much  to  the  L.  ; 
but  the  visitor  will  hardly  do  this,  as  the  house  soon  comes  into  view. 
Near  the  bottom  of  the  hill  a  rough  track  branches  from  the  road,  and 
this,  which  is  carried  over  the  Blackabrook  by  a  single  stone  clapper, 
leads  direct  to  the  house.  Pounds  and  hut  circles  will  be  noticed  L. 
when  drawing  near  to  it.  Leaving  it  R.,  and  ascending  towards  the 
tors,  the  antiquities  just  noticed  will  be  met  with  on  crossing  the  leat. 
If  the  rambler  is  bound  for  Ditsworthy  he  must  not  keep  quite  so 
much  to  the  R.  on  passing  the  house.  He  should  strike  the  leat  a 
little  further  N.  than  in  the  former  case,  and  follow  it  where  it  is  carried 
along  the  side  of  Round  Hill  to  Spanish  Lake,  which  stream  it  crosses 
in  a  delightful  little  dell.  The  view  of  the  valley  from  Round  Hill  is 
very  fine  ;  Legis  Tor  is  seen  on  the  further  side  of  the  Plym  (Ex.  38). 
On  crossing  Spanish  Lake  keep  on  the  higher  side  of  the  leat  and  along 
the  side  of  Willings  Hill  direct  to  Ditsworthy,  which  is  in  full  view. 
The  leat  will  be  met  again  where  it  passes  Hen  Tor  Brook,  and  just 
below  this,  L.,  and  close  to  it,  are  some  pounds  with  hut  circles.  The 
way  now  lies  to  the  clam  spanning  the  Plym  below  the  house,  just 
before  reaching  which  the  leat  is  crossed.  From  the  clam  a  track 
leads  up  to  the*  house,  from  the  grassy  hill  behind  which  one  of  the 


12  PLYMPTON    AND   SHAUGH    DISTRICT. 

Thrushel  Combe  menhirs  can  be  seen.  The  combe  is  about  £  m.  dis- 
tant, and  the  way  to  it  lies  over  the  side  of  Eastern  Tor  (see  post  and 
Ex.  38). 

We  shall  now  make  our  way  from  the  Trowlesworthy  antiquities 
to  the  tors  that  rise  above  them.  The  lower  one  is  Little  Trowlesworthy 
Tor,  and  from  this  an  old  wall,  broken  down  in  many  places,  extends 
northward  towards  the  Plym.  Great  Trowlesworthy  Tor,  which  is 
rather  higher,  1,141  feet,  is  close  by  (R.  71).  Here  a  moorman  of  my 
acquaintance  once  found  some  coins  which  he  described  to  me  as 
"  base  guineas."  Naturally  deeming  them  to  be  of  no  value  he  took 
no  care  of  them,  and  they  were  unfortunately  lost.  The  disused 
quarry  that  will  be  seen  here  was  once  worked  for  red  granite.  The 
huge  cylindrical  block  lying  on  the  ground  was  intended  for  the  base 
of  a  monument. 

From  Great  Trowlesworthy  Tor  we  shall  strike  north-eastward  to 
the  head  of  Spanish  Lake,  and  over  Willings  Hill  to  Hen  Tor,  i  m. 
This  tract  forms  Willings  Walls  Warren,  and  the  stream  that  bounds 
it  on  the  E.  is  sometimes  called  Wall  Brook,  or  Walla  Brook,  though 
it  is  more  generally  known  as  Hen  Tor  Brook,  from  the  proximity  of 
its  source  to  that  pile.  The  latter  thrusts  itself  from  the  side  of 
Hen  Tor  Kill,  and  a  clatter  streams  from  its  foot.  Some  rocks  north- 
ward of  the  pile  bear  the  name  of  Little  Hen  Tor.  As  the  ground  rises 
behind  Hen  Tor  the  ascent  to  its  summit  is  easy,  and  from  here  a  good 
view  of  the  valley  is  commanded.  The  most  conspicuous  object  is 
Ditsworthy  Warren  house,  with  the  clam  spanning  the  river,  less  than 
i  m.  distant.  Below  the  tor  are  the  ruined  walls  of  the  enclosures  of 
Hen  Tor  Farm,  mixed  up  with  those  of  pounds  of  an  early  date.  A 
number  of  hut  circles  will  also  be  seen,  some  being  fairly  good  examples 
In  the  second  half  of  the  eighteenth  century  this  farm  was  in  the 
occupation  of  a  man  named  Nicholls.  When  he  relinquished  it  Nature 
resumed  her  sway,  and  the  fields  in  which  it  is  said  as  many  as  ten 
oxen  were  employed  in  ploughing,  soon  became  a  part  of  the  moor 
again.  As  the  years  went  by  the  dwelling,  still  known  as  Hen  Tor 
House,  also  fell  into  decay,  but  enough  remains  to  show  the  passer-by 
who  may  not  know  its  history  that  the  man  who  erected  it  was  certainly 
not  a  jerry-builder. 

Leaving  Hen  Tor  we  shall  cross  the  side  of  the  hill  to  the  Shaver- 
combe  Brook,  our  course  being  N.N.E.,  or  from  Hen  Tor  House,  N.E. 
by  N.  J  ust  before  the  stream  is  reached  we  shall  come  upon  a  kistvaen 
within  a  small  circle,  not,  however,  in  a  very  good  state  of  preservation, 
though  none  of  the  stones  have  been  removed.  Shavercombe  Head 
is  |  m.  distant.  Between  this  and  Broadall  Head  a  bronze  dagger 
was  found,  about  four  feet  below  the  surface,  by  a  man  employed  at 
Ditsworthy  Warren  whilst  cutting  peat  in  the  summer  of  1892.  It 
was  shortly  afterwards  secured  by  Mr.  H.  P.  Hearder,  of  Plymouth, 
who  still  has  it  in  his  possession.  Broadall  Head  is  i  m.  S.S.E.  ; 
Yealm  Head  J  m.  E.S.E.,  and  Langcombe  Head  i  m.  N.E.  by  E. 
(Ex.  34).  Shavercombe  is  one  of  those  delightful  little  valleys  which 
the  rambler  on  Dartmoor  meets  with  occasionally,  where  a  mountain 
ash  or  an  oak  find  shelter,  and  where  ferns  grow  abundantly.  As  we 
make  our  way  downward  its  beauties  speedily  begin  to  reveal  them- 
selves. Ere  we  have  gone  far  the  stream  falls  over  a  high'rock  forming 


EXCURSION   37.      PLYM    HEAD.  13 

a  charming  cascade  when  rains  have  swollen  its  volume.  Below  this 
and  quite  close  to  the  deep  combe,  is  the  tiny  Shavercombe  Tor,  and 
near  it  a  small  pound  with  hut  circles.  Having  gained  the  R.  bank 
of  the  brawling  little  stream  we  strike  northward  over  Giant's  Hill, 
to  Plym  Steps,  where  the  Abbots'  Way  crosses  the  river  at  a  ford,  as 
already  stated  (T.  i).  Although  its  name  would  lead  the  visitor  to 
suppose  that  stepping-stones  existed  here  none  are  to  be  seen. 

[At  this  point  the  Langcombe  Brook  falls  into  the  Plym,  and  of 
this  we  have  already  spoken  (Ex.  34).  At  its  foot  is  an  old  leat  and 
other  mining  remains.  A  little  way  up,  and  not  far  from  the  L.  bank 
is  a  kistvaen.  Still  further  up  the  feeder  from  Deadman's  Bottom 
comes  in  on  the  other  side,  and  above  that  is  another  kistvaen.  This 
has  been  noticed  in  Ex.  34.  From  Plym  Steps  to  Broad  Rock  the 
Abbots'  Way  is  a  well-defined  track.] 

Passing  upward  we  emerge  from  the  gorge  through  which  the 
Plym  runs  between  the  ford  and  Shavercombe  Foot,  and  gradually 
leaving  the  stream  L.  shall  make  our  way  to  Calves  Lake  Tor,  a  small 
pile  I  m.  distant.  Very  near  to  this  on  the  S.E.  is  a  kistvaen,  the 
covering  slab  of  which  has  been  raised,  and  now  hangs  partly  over  the 
open  grave.  If  the  visitor  does  not  care  to  extend  his  ramble  to  Plym 
Head  he  will  now  make  his  way  to  the  river  and  cross  it  near  where  the 
little  Calves  Lake  falls  into  it. 

[EXTENSION  TO  Plym  Head,  add  2-\  m.  The  rambler  will  strike 
N.E.  by  E.,  and  when  about  £  m.  from  the  tor  will  cross  the  Tavistock 
branch  of  the  Abbots'  WTay  between  Broad  Rock  R.  and  Plym  Ford  L., 
but  it  is  not  here  very  plainly  denned.  £  m.  further  on  Great  Gnats' 
Head  is  passed  L.  (Ex.  34),  and  soon  after  the  broken  ground  in  which, 
the  river  has  its  source  will  be  reached.  The  stream  issues  from  a 
fissure  in  the  peat,  and  does  not  rise  in  a  swamp  as  is  often  the  case. 
Northward  of  Plym  Head  is  Crane  Hill,  which  we  have  already  men- 
tioned in  connection  with  Ducks'  Pool,  £  m.  S.E.  (Ex.  30)  ;  N.W.  of 
Crane  Hill  is  Hand  Hill,  on  the  N.  slope  of  which  is  Wheal  Anne  Bot- 
tom (Ex.  3)  ;  N.  of  it  is  Stream  Hill,  which  descends  to  the  edge  of 
Fox  Tor  Mire  ;  and  E.  of  it  is  Black  Lane  (T.  75).  Beyond  that  is 
Cater's  Beam,  which  extends  nearly  to  the  Avon.  Not  far  below  its 
source  the  Plym  receives  the  little  Crane  Lake.  Calves  Lake  is  ij  m. 
below  the  source  of  the  Plym  if  the  stream  be  followed,  and  this  the 
rambler  will  probably  prefer  to  do  in  returning.] 

Having  crossed  the  Plym  at  Calves  Lake  Foot  we  find  ourselves 
close  to  another  little  tributary,  which  comes  down  from  Evil  Combe. 
In  this  combe  is  a  hut  of  the  sort  usually  called  beehive  huts  (cf.  Ex.  33), 
but  it  is  partly  in  ruins.  This  stream  is  probably  identical  with  the 
Plymcrundla  mentioned  in  the  charter  of  Isabella  de  Fortibus,  referred 
to  in  Ex.  6.  This,  which  is  of  the  date  1291,  sets  forth  the  boundaries 
of  the  lands  given  by  the  Lady  Amicia,  mother  of  Isabella,  to  found 
the  abbey  of  Buckland,  and  the  boundary  is  conterminous  with  that 
of  the  forest  from  the  Walkham  below  Mis  Tor  to  the  Plym.  It  is 
set  forth  as  running  from  Siward's  Cross  (Ex.  2)  to  "  Gyllesburgh 
[i.e.,  Eylesbarrow]  et  Plymcrundla  ad  Plymma."  Crundle  is  a  word 
signifying  a  spring,  or  well.  That  the  forest  boundary  (which  is  usually 
drawn  in  the  opposite  direction)  ran  from  Erme  Head,  that  is,  Gryms- 
grove,  to  the  head  or  foot  of  Calves  Lake,  and  thence  up  Evil  Combe 


14  PLYMPTON    AND    SHAUGH    DISTRICT. 

to  the  two  cairns  on  the  summit  of  Eylesbarrow,  1,491  feet,  can  hardly 
be  doubted.  Ivel  is  a  name  implying  little  water,  i.e.  a  rivulet.  Some 
bounds  in  this  part  of  the  moor  were  described  by  one  Anthony  Torr,  of 
Bishop's  Tawton,  in  1702,  but  incorrectly.  He  mentions  among  others 
Woodlake  (Wollake),  Pox  Tor  Head  (R.  7),  Reddicliffe  Head,  Stevon 
Head  (Strane),  and  Harborlake  Head  under  South  Hisworthy. 

As  we  make  our  way  down  by  the  Plym  through  the  great  stream- 
work  we  pass  under  Lower  Harter  Tor.  This  is  not  a  very  large  pile, 
but  is,  nevertheless,  striking  on  account  of  the  massive  blocks  of  which 
it  is  composed.  The  ground  around  it  is  strewn  with  granite.  Higher 
Harter  Tor  is  about  £  m.  N.W.  of  this,  and  like  it  is  not  large.  Its 
elevation  is  only  1,349  feet,  but  a  very  fine  view  is  gained  from  it. 
Among  other  eminences  in  the  vicinity  that  are  seen  are  Sheeps  Tor, 
Down  Tor,  and  Combe  Tor,  while  peeping  over  a  ridge  of  moorland  is 
the  distant  summit  of  Brent  Tor.  The  tumuli  on  Eylesbarrow  are 
about  \  m.  N.,  midway  between  being  the  disused  Eylesbarrow  Tin 
Mine,  with  the  ruins  of  a  house  built  here  many  years  ago  by  Mr. 
Deacon,  well  known  in  his  day  as  an  enthusiastic  follower  of  hounds. 
On  the  hillside  westward  of  the  mine  are  several  fine  examples  of  hut 
circles. 

About  4-  m.  below  Evil  Combe  we  reach  Plym  Steps,  very  near  to 
which,  on  the  slope  R.,  is  a  pound  containing  three  hut  circles,  and 
outside  it  a  small  cairn.  Here  we  meet  a  little  stream  which  falls 
into  the  Plym  just  opposite  to  where  the  I/angcombe  Brook  joins 
that  river,  and  is  crossed  by  the  Abbots'  Way  as  that  old  path  descends 
to  the  ford.  I  have  found  this  rivulet  to  be  usually  dry  during 
summer. 

(Eylesbarrow  is  passed  in  R.  59,  where  the  line  is  drawn  from 
Plym  Steps  to  Siward's  Cross.  From  its  summit  that  ancient  monu- 
ment is  i  m.  N.N.E.  ;  Plym  Ford  J  m.  E.  by  S.  ;  Evil  Combe  £  m. 
S.E.  ;  Plym  Steps  i  m.  S.  by  E. ;  Head  of  Thrushel  Combe  £  m.  S.W. 
by  S.  ;  Head  of  Dean  Combe  J  m.  W.  by  S. ;  Down  Tor  i  £  m.  W.N.W. ; 
and  the  springs  of  the  Newleycombe  I/ake  over  i  m.  N.N.W.) 

Climbing  the  western  bank  we  leave  the  old  monks  path,  which 
was  utilized  in  later  times  by  the  tinners,  and  continue  on  our  way 
down  stream,  keeping  above  the  gorge  L.,  with  Giant's  Hill,  and  Shaver- 
combe  Down  on  the  further  side.  In  about  f-  m.  we  reach  the 
little  lateral  valley  of  Thrushel  Combe.  Here,  near  its  head  R.  is  a 
blowing-house,  which  although  of  modern  date,  is  interesting  as  being 
the  last  place  in  which  tin  was  smelted  on  Dartmoor.  Mr.  William 
Burt,  in  his  preface  to  Carrington's  poem,  states  that  100  blocks  were 
coined  here  during  the  Michaelmas  quarter,  1824.  I^ower  down,  at 
Mill  Corner,  on  the  Plym,  is  a  more  ancient  blowing-house.  Thrushel 
Combe  is  locally  called  Drizzle  Combe,  and  this  name  has  been  generally 
adopted,  and  figures  on  the  Ordnance  map.  But  on  the  copy  of  an 
old  unpublished  map  in  my  possession,  which  I  have  sound  reasons  for 
believing  to  be  authoritative,  the  valley  is  shown  as  Thrushel  Combe, 
and  doubtless  this  is  the  correct  name.  It  is  easy  to  understand  how 
it  would  become  Drizzle  Combe  in  the  Dartmoor  vernacular. 

The  group  of  antiquities  in  this  combe  was  first  described  by  Mr.  R. 
Hansford  Worth  in  a  paper  read  before  the  members  of  the  Plymouth 
Institution,  in  1889.  But  it  was  mentioned  some  years  before  that  date 
by  the  late  Mr.  C.  Spence  Bate  in  a  discussion  at  a  meeting  of  the 


EXCURSION    37.      THRUSHEL    COMBE.  15 

Devonshire  Association.     When  Mr.  Worth  noticed  these  remains  the 
menhirs  lay  upon  the*  ground,  but  his  paper  had  the  effect  of  calling 
attention  to  them,  with  the  result  that  in  the  summer  of  1893  they 
were  set  up.     The  group  is  situated  to  the  E.  of  the  stream  that  runs 
through  the  combe,  and  in  approaching  it  from  Plym  Steps  we  first 
come  upon  a  small  pound,  close  to  which  is  a  cairn.     Below  this  are 
other  cairns,  and  three  stone  rows  and  menhirs,  the  whole  extending 
for  about  £  m.     As  these  cairns  may  more  properly  be  regarded  as  the 
termination  of  the  group,  it  will  be  fitting  that  we  commence  our 
examination  of  it  at  the  lower  end  of  the  combe.     Here  is  a  menhir, 
from  which  a  row  of  stones,  not  of  great  height,  extends  for  a  distance 
of  over  1 60  yards,  its  direction  being  a  little  N.  of  E.     By  the  side  of 
this  is  another  line  of  similar  stones,  but  incomplete.     At  its  eastern 
end  is  a  kistvaen,  the  mound  of  which  was  once  covered,  being  nearly 
20  yards  in  circumference.     Between  50  and  60  yards  eastward  of  this 
kistvaen  is  another  menhir,  certainly  the  finest  on  Dartmoor,  and  from 
this  also  a  single  row  of  stones  extends.     This  line,  which  is  not  very 
complete,  terminates  in  a  barrow  about  30  yards  in  circumference, 
and  surrounded  by  a  circle  of  twelve  slabs.     Running  roughly  parallel 
to  this  last  row,  and  northward  of  it,  is  another,  which,  like  its  com- 
panions, also  starts  from  a  menhir  and  terminates  in  a  barrow.     It  is 
about  the  same  length  as  the  one  first  noticed.     The  circumference  of 
the  barrow  is  about  30  yards,  and  it  is  surrounded  by  slabs,  as  also  is 
another  barrow  near  to  it.     This  latter  with  the  two  other  terminal 
tumuli  forms  a  line  running  W.  of  N.,  and  pointing  to  a  tumulus  at 
some  distance  off,  on  which  is  a  kistvaen,  and  about  100  yards  south- 
eastward of  this  is  a  stone  circle.     E.  of  the  three  barrows  is  the  small 
pound  already  mentioned.     Not  very  far  from  the  barrow  at  which 
the  first  row  ends  is  the  fine  cairn  known  as  the  Giant's  Basin.     Like 
many  of  these  great  stone  heaps  on  the  moor,  there  is  a  depression  in 
its  centre,  and  in  this  is  probably  seen  the  resemblance  to  the  article 
the  name  of  which  it  bears.     Mr.  Worth  took  the  measurements  of  the 
three   menhirs   while   they   lay   prostrate.     The   tallest   of   these   was 
17  feet  10  inches  ;  the  one  at  the  lower  end  of  the  group  12  feet  6  inches  ; 
and  the  third  9  feet  5  inches. 

(Carriages  can  approach  very  near  to  these  remains  by  the  road 
from  Sheepstor  ;  if  from  Cadaford  Bridge  or  Meavy  it  is  not  necessary 
to  go  into  that  village  ;  the  green  track  running  from  Ringmoor  Cot 
to  Ditsworthy  (T.  7 1 )  is  suitable  for  driving,  or  the  road  branching 
from  near  the  Cot  may  be  chosen.  This  joins  the  road  from  Sheepstor 
about  f  m.  eastward  of  that  place.  From  Cadaford  Bridge  the  route 
sketched  ante  is  a  good  one  for  the  pedestrian,  or  he  may  go  by  the  R. 
bank  of  the  Plym.  While  here  he  should  not  omit  to  visit  Shaver- 
combe.  From  Princetown  the  route  to  Newleycombe  Lake  below 
Kingsett  has  been  described  (Ex.  2).  From  that  point  the  rambler 
will  climb  the  side  of  Down  Tor,  leaving  it  R.,  and  strike  S.E.  to 
Combeshead  Tor.  This  he  will  leave  L.  and  descend  to  the  lower  end 
of  the  gorge  just  below,  where  the  Narrator  Brook  makes  a  bend 
towards  the  W.  From  this  point  the  blowing- house  near  the  head  of 
Thrushel  Combe  is  £  m.  distant  S.  by  E.  Or  he  may  pass  close  to 
Down  Tor  and  strike  S.  to  the  moor  road  between  the  enclosures.  This 
will  lead  him  to  Deancombe  Farm,  below  which  he  will  cross  the  stream 


16  THE   DEWER   STONE    AND   CADAFORD    BRIDGE. 

and  follow  the  path  up  the  valley  to  the  foot  of  the  gorge  below  Combes- 
head  Tor). 

West  of  Thrushel  Combe  are  two  rock  piles,  the  northern  one  being 
known  as  Whittenknowles  Rocks,  and  the  other  as  Eastern  Tor.  On 
the  former  among  the  masses  of  stone  there  are  a  number  of  hut  circles, 
and  also  the  remains  of  rectangular  buildings,  while  on  the  latter  is  a 
small  enclosure.  Below  this  tor  is  Ditsworthy  Warren  house.  This 
warren  was  always  referred  to  in  our  childhood's  days  as  Ware's 
Warren,  being  occupied,  as  it  still  is,  by  a  family  of  that  name.  This 
extends  a  considerable  distance  up  the  valley,  and  includes  Willings 
Walls  and  Hen  Tor  on  the  other  side  of  the  Plym  within  its  boundaries. 
A  road  leads  from  the  house  down  to  the  clam,  which  is  raised  high 
above  the  river  on  stone  buttresses,  and  another  runs  up  the  side  of 
the  hill  to  Ringmoor  Down  (Ex.  38).  We  descend  the  slope  between 
these,  and  reaching  Heavy  Pool,  where  a  little  feeder  falls  into  the  river, 
shall  find  a  path  on  the  R.  bank  of  the  latter,  which  we  shall  follow 
down  the  valley.  This  will  lead  us  below  L,egis  Tor  R.,  where  are  some 
hut  circles  (Ex.  38),  past  Trowlesworthy  L.,  and  across  Brisworthy 
Burrows  to  the  road  close  to  Cadaford  Bridge.  It  may  interest  the 
rambler  by  the  Plym  to  know  that  an  authority  has  stated  that  gold 
has  been  found  on  its  banks.  But — and  this  is  the  unfortunate  part 
of  it — "  in  too  small  quantities  to  justify  mining  researches." 

Crossing  the  bridge  we  strike  into  the  R.  branch  where  the  road 
forks,  and  make  our  way  to  Shaugh  as  in  Ex.  36.  For  Yelverton  see 
the  Dewer  Stone  Section  which  follows. 


The  Dewer  Stone  and  Cadaford  Bridge. 

A  road  runs  from  the  village  of  Shaugh  down  the  hill  to  Shaugh 
Bridge,  whence  it  goes  on  to  Bickleigh.  The  present  bridge  replaces 
an  old  structure  which  was  so  much  damaged  by  a  flood  in  1823  that 
it  was  found  necessary  to  demolish  it.  Immediately  above  it  is  the 
confluence  of  the  Mew  (Ex.  2)  and  the  Plym,  the  latter  a  Celtic  name 
derived  by  Baxter  from  pilim,  to  roll.  This  stream  comes  down  through 
the  wooded  valley  on  the  E.  side  of  the  Dewer  Stone  Hill,  which  is 
peninsulated  by  the  two,  and  this  part  of  it  is  sometimes  erroneously 
called  the  Cad.  There  is  no  authority  for  such  a  name  whatever,  and 
it  would  probably  never  be  heard  now  had  it  not  been  adopted  by  the 
fishing  association  having  control  of  this  part  of  the  river  as  a  means  of 
distinguishing  it  from  the  part  below  the  bridge.  It  first  appears  in 
1804  in  Howard's  poem  on  Bickleigh  Vale.  Cadaford  Bridge  further 
up  the  stream  is  locally  spoken  of  as  Cadover  ;  this  was  thought  to 
mean  a  bridge  over  the  Cad,  although  existing  records  showed  that  the 
river  had  been  known  as  the  Plym  for  more  than  five  centuries  before 
that  date.  In  the  charter  of  Isabella  de  Portibus,  1291,  the  river  is 
called  Plymma  from  its  source  downward,  and  the  confluence  is  thus 
referred  to,  "  locum  ubi  Mewy  cadit  in  Plymma."  The  bridge,  pro- 
bably then  a  clapper,  is  called  in  the  same  charter  "  ponte  de  Cada 
worth."  This  name  is  doubtless  taken  from  the  Saxon  worthig  close  by 


THE    DEWER   STONE    AND   CADAFORD   BRIDGE.  17 

now  called  Cadworthy,  and  which  was  apparently  formed  on  the  site 
of  a  British  battle — cad  being  a  Celtic  word  meaning  a  conflict,  or 
strife.  Just  before  reaching  Shaugh  Bridge  the  Plym  flows  past  the 
Dewer  Stone,  a  fine  mass  of  rock  rising  almost  perpendicularly,  from 
its  brink.  In  its  name  we  probably  see  the  Celtic  dwr,  water,  and  this 
its  situation  amply  justifies  [Gems,  Chap.  XIX.]  A  fine  view  of  the 
rock  is  obtained  from  West  Down,  on  the  R.  of  the  road  in  descending 
from  the  village.  Below  the  bridge  the  Plym  sweeps  onward  to  the 
wooded  Bickleigh  Vale,  where  it  encounters  fresh  beauties,  and  finally 
meets  the  tidal  waters  at  the  head  of  the  I,aira  estuary. 

Above  the  confluence  the  Plym  is  spanned  by  a  clam,  and  from 
this  a  path  leads  upwards  to  the  summit  of  the  hill  which  forms  the 
southern  extremity  of  Wigford  Down,  an  extensive  common  in  the 
parish  of  Meavy.  Here  there  is  a  good  view  of  the  valley  ;  the  northern 
side  is  covered  with  oak  coppice,  and  from  this  grey  crags  thrust  them- 
selves. One  part  of  this  leafy  covering  forms  the  Dewer  Stone 
Wood  ;  up  stream  is  Common  Wood  ;  and  still  further  up  Cadworthy 
Wood,  between  each  being  a  depression  on  the  hillside.  Pacing  the 
higher  one  on  the  S.  side  of  the  river  is  North  Wood,  which  stretches 
from  the  bank  upward  to  Shaden  Moor ;  opposite  to  the  two  others  is  the 
bare  slope  of  West  Down.  About  sixty-five  years  ago  there  was  a  strike 
of  wool- combers  in  Plymouth,  and  many  of  the  men  found  work  in 
these  woods  at  rinding,  or  "  ripping,"  as  it  is  often  called,  that  is,  felling 
the  young  trees  and  stripping  them  of  their  bark.  Among  them  were 
two,  a  father  and  son,  who,  unable  to  procure  lodgings,  walked  from 
and  to  their  home  in  Plymouth  every  day  for  a  week.  On  the  northern 
side  of  the  Dewer  Stone  Hill  is  Blacklands.  Some  years  ago  a  quarry 
was  opened  here,  but  operations  were  not  continued  very  long.  A 
reave  which  seems  to  have  encircled  the  summit  of  this  peninsulated 
hill,  and  the  remains  of  two  others  that  run  across  it,  point  to  its 
having  once  been  fortified. 

The  ramble  from  the  summit  of  the  Dewer  Stone  Hill  to  Cadaford 
Bridge  and  down  the  valley  of  the  Plym  is  a  good  one,  though  the 
latter  part  of  it  may  necessitate  some  scrambling  over  rocks  and 
through  undergrowth.  The  visitor  will  proceed  N.E.  along  the  brow 
of  the  hill  till  he  arrives  at  the  enclosures  of  Cadworthy  Farm,  and  if 
he  does  not  keep  too  near  to  these  he  will  come  upon  a  kistvaen  stand- 
ing in  a  circle  of  stones.  Further  on  there  is  another,  and  not  far  from 
it,  on  the  highest  part  of  the  down,  a  small  pound.  Below  these,  to 
the  N.,  are  the  hedges  of  some  old  enclosures  that  the  down  has  claimed 
again  for  its  own. 

Keeping  the  Cadworthy  enclosures  R.  the  rambler  will  descend 
to  Cadaford  Bridge,  noticing  the  upper  part  of  an  old  cross  set  upon  a 
mound  as  he  proceeds  [Crosses,  Chap.  V.]  When  the  moorman  calls 
the  bridge  Cadover  he  is  nearer  to  the  old  form  of  the  name  than  are 
those  who  accept  the  modern  one  of  Cadaford. 

[R.  8,  Part  I,  shows  the  way  from  Cadaford  Bridge  to  Corn 
wood,  Ivybridge,  Shaugh  and  Plympton.  In  Ex.  36  the  road  to 
Shaugh  is  more  fully  described.  For  Yelverton  pass  up  the  road 
northward  and  turn  L.  at  the  top  ;  thence  the  way  lies  above  Durance 
R.  along  the  side  of  Wigford  Down  ;  on  crossing  Greenwell  Gert, 
about  i  m.  on,  the  down  of  that  name  is  entered  upon,  with  Catstor 

c5 


1 8  Route  67.     Plympton  and  Shaugh  to  Princetown. 

Down  on  the  other  side  of  the  wall  R.  ;  leave  the  road  and  keep  the 
hedge  R.  to  the  moor  gate  ;  thence  by  the  lane  down  the  side  of  Callis- 
ham  Down  R.  to  Gratton  Bridge  ;  up  the  hill  to  Yelverton.] 

From  Cadaford  Bridge  the  rambler  will  make  his  way  down  the 
It.  bank  of  the  river,  and  passing  below  Dunstone  Farm  will  cross  the 
tiny  Dunstone  Brook  and  enter  North  Wood.  In  this  is  a  fine  cascade, 
and  below  it  a  deep  pool.  On  emerging  from  the  wood  the  rambler 
will  find  himself  at  the  foot  of  West  Down.  He  will  continue  to  follow 
the  river  until  he  is  nearly  abreast  of  the  Dewer  Stone,  when  he  will 
leave  it  and  make  his  way  up  the  side  of  the  down  to  Shaugh  Hill  and 
follow  the  road  leading  upward  to  the  village.  If  bound  for  Shaugh 
Bridge  he  will  keep  nearer  to  the  stream  when  approaching  the  Dewer 
Stone. 


Routes  from  Plympton  and  Shaugh. 

R.  67. —To  Princetown,  N.N.E.  Niel  Gate,  Cadaford  Bridge, 
Ringmoor  Cot,  Sheepstor,  Narrator  Farm,  Nosworthy  Bridge,  Roundy 
Farm,  Crazy  Well  Pool,  Cramber  Tor,  Hart  Tor,  P.,  12  m.  ;  5.,  8£  in. 
To  Two  Bridges,  add  i£  m.  Reverse,  R.  8. 

[Objects  :  Ex.  36  between  Niel  Gate  and  Cadaford  Bridge  ;  thence 
Exs.  38,  39,  2.] 

Passing  through  Colebrook  we  turn  L.,  and  when  the  lane  forks 
take  the  R.  branch.  This  will  lead  us  over  the  hill,  on  the  further  side 
of  which  we  cross  the  Lee  Moor  tramroad,  and  shortly  afterwards 
arrive  at  Browney  Cross  [Crosses,  Chap.  V.]  Here  is  a  guide-post,  and 
a  road  branching  L.  to  Bickleigh.  (Shaugh,  if  m.  ;  Cadaford  Bridge, 
2|  ;  Plympton,  3^  ;  Ridgway,  3^  ;  Bickleigh,  2  ;  Roborough,  3).  We 
keep  straight  on  as  in  Ex.  36,  to  Niel  Gate,  where  we  enter  upon  the 
common,  and  turning  neither  R.  nor  L.,  shall  reach  Brag  Lane  End 
in  £•  m.,  where  the  visitor  setting  out  from  Shaugh  will  join  this  route. 
A  short  distance  further  on  we  pass  Shaden  Plantation  L.,  and  soon 
arrive  at  Cadaford  Bridge.  Crossing  this  we  ascend  the  hill  with  the 
Wigford  Down  Clay  Works  L.,  and  at  the  top  bear  round  to  the  R. 
(The  road  L.  leads  to  Hooe  Heavy  and  Yelverton).  Then  we  speedily 
turn  L.  to  Lynch  Down,  and  leaving  the  road  strike  into  a  footpath 
running  northward  over  the  common  to  Ringmoor  Cot,  £  m.  Bris- 
worthy  Plantation  is  first  on  our  R.  and  then  Ringmoor  Down,  Lynch 
Down  being  L.  Immediately  beyond  the  cot  a  road  runs  R.  (T.  71)  ; 
we  follow  the  main  one  L.,  which  will  lead  us  down  the  hill  between 
some  enclosures  to  the  Sheepstor  Brook.  Soon  after  crossing  this  we 
turn  L.,  in  the  village,  and  about  200  yards  on  shall  turn  R.,  or  north- 
ward, to  Park  Cottage,  where  a  way  leads  R.  up  to  the  common.  On 
reaching  this  we  bear  L.,  and  skirt  it  to  its  northern  verge,  having  the 
walls  of  the  enclosures  close  to  us  L.  There  is  a  footpath  over  this  part 
of  the  common,  and  in  one  place  it  will  lead  us  between  the  enclosures 


Route  68.    Plympton  and  Shaugh  to  Tavistock.  19 

and  a  detached  newtake.  About  £  m.  from  the  point  at  which  we 
entered  upon  the  down  is  Narrator  Farm,  and  this  we  pass  through 
and  follow  the  road  to  the  Dean  Combe  Brook  (Ex.  39).  This  we  cross 
at  a  ford,  and  reaching  another  road  turn  L.  to  the  clapper  over  Newley- 
combe  Lake.  Crossing  this  we  leave  Nosworthy  Bridge  L.,  and  turn 
R.  to  the  ruined  Nosworthy  farmhouse,  and  make  our  way  by  a  rough 
road  running  up  between  the  enclosures  for  rather  over  \  m.  to  another 
coming  up  L.  from  Lether  Tor  Bridge  (T.  2).  This  we  follow  eastward 
with  Kingset  Farm  R.,  and  speedily  reach  the  common  near  the  ruins 
of  Roundy  Farm  (Ex.  2).  About  £  m.  beyond  this  is  a  gully  on  the  L. 
of  the  track,  which  we  trace  upward  to  Crazy  Well  Pool  (Ex.  2). 
Northward  of  the  pool,  and  at  a  much  greater  elevation,  is  the  Devon- 
port  leat,  and  just  here  there  is  a  bridge  over  it  (T.  3).  From  this  our 
course  is  N.  to  Cramber  Tor,  beyond  which  we  descend  to  the  Hart 
Tor  Brook,  where  is  a  ford.  Hart  Tor  we  leave  a  little  to  the  L.  Our 
course  is  about  N.  from  the  brook,  and  £  m.  from  it,  we  reach  the  road 
above  Devil's  Bridge  Hill.  Princetown  is  close  by. 

Visitors  from  Ivybridge  and  Cornwood  choosing  this  route  to 
Princetown  will  join  it  at  Cadaford  Bridge.  (See  R.  57  for  road  from 
Ivybridge  to  Cornwood  ;  R.  56  Cornwood  to  White  Hill  Corner  ;  and 
R.  6 1  from  the  corner  to  Cadaford). 

R.  68. — To  Tavistock,  N.N.W.  Niel  Gate,  Cadaford  Bridge, 
Marchants  Bridge,  Dousland,  Walkhampton,  Huckworthy  Bridge, 
Warren's  Cross,  Whitchurch  Down.  P.,  15  m.  ;  S.,  io|  m.  Reverse, 
R.  14. 

[Objects  :  Exs.  36  to  40,  7.] 

This  is  a  road  route  throughout,  and  few  directions  are  needed. 
R.  67  shows  the  way  to  Lynch  Down  via  Cadaford  Bridge.  On  reach- 
ing this  down  the  rambler  will  continue  to  follow  the  road  with  the 
enclosures  L. ,  and  £  m.  on  will  descend  Lynch  Hill,  at  the  foot  of  which 
he  will  cross  the  Mew  at  Marchants  Bridge.  Leaving  the  village  of 
Meavy  L.  he  will  pass  up  to  Yennadon  Down  and  follow  the  road  to 
Dousland  (Ex.  39).  Here  he  will  cross  the  Plymouth  and  Princetown 
road,  and  make  his  way  down  the  lane  to  Walkhampton.  Passing 
through  the  village  he  will  take  the  road  N.  to  Huckworthy  Bridge, 
•J  m.  (Ex.  40),  where  he  will  cross  the  Walkham.  A  little  way  up  the 
steep  lane  he  will  branch  R.  to  Huckworthy  Common  (T.  69),  and 
keeping  the  hedge  L.  will  be  led  to  an  old  stone  cross  placed  where  the 
road  forks  [Crosses,  Chap.  VIII.]  The  R.  branch  runs  to  Sampford 
Spiney  and  Ward  Bridge  (Exs.  i,  7).  The  rambler  will  take  the  L.  one, 
and  i  £  m.  on  will  pass  over  the  N.E.  corner  of  Plaster  Down,  and  after 
again  entering  upon  the  enclosed  land  will  emerge  once  more  on  the 
commons  at  Warren's  Cross  (Ex.  7).  Here  the  way  to  Tavistock  lies 
over  Whitchurch  Down  L.  Directions  are  given  in  R.  i. 

R.  69. — To  Lydford,  N.  by  W.  Niel  Gate,  Cadaford  Bridge, 
Marchants  Bridge,  Dousland,  Huckworthy  Bridge,  Warren's  Cross, 
Moor  Shop,  Harford  Bridge,  Black  Down,  Skit.  P.,  i\\  m.  ;  S.,  17  m.  ; 
from  Cornwood,  20^  m.  Reverse,  R.  21. 

[Objects  :  Exs.  36,  38,  39,  40,  7,  8,  9,  10.] 

The  rambler  from  Cornwood  will  join  this  route  at  Cadaford  Bridge. 
The  first  part  of  it,  i.e.,  as  far  as  the  road  to  Lynch  Down,  is  the  same 


20        Routes  70,  71.    Plympton  and  Shaugh  to  Okehampton. 

as  R.  67  ;  thence  it  is  identical  with  R.  68  as  far  as  Warren's  Cross. 
From  that  point  the  road  must  be  followed  N.  to  Pennycomequick, 
where  a  little  stream  crosses  the  road,  and  thence  to  Moor  Shop  (Ex.  8). 
The  rambler  keeps  straight  on,  and  in  i£  m.  reaches  Harford  Bridge, 
on  the  Tavy  (Exs.  8,  9),  and  crossing  it  soon  finds  himself  on  the  Tavis- 
tock  and  Okehampton  high  road.  Turn  R.  up  Wringworthy  Hill  to 
Black  Down,  2^  m.  (Ex.  9).  Soon  after  entering  on  the  common  four 
granite  posts  will  be  seen  R.  of  the  road.  Here  the  track  branches  Iy. 
to  Lydford  Station,  and  the  Manor  Hotel  (T.  23),  whence  a  road  runs 
to  Lydford  village.  This  may  also  be  reached  by  following  the  highway 
past  Beardon,  2|-  m.  further  on.  There,  close  to  the  seventh  milestone 
from  Tavistock,  is  a  gate  from  which  a  path  leads  by  Skit  Steps  to  the 
village  (Ex.  10).  The  Dartmoor  Inn  is  £  m.  beyond  this  gate  on  the 
main  road. 

R.  70. — To  Okehampton,  a  little  E.  of  N.  Cadaford  Bridge, 
Sheepstor,  Nosworthy  Bridge,  Princetown,  Rundle  Stone,  Walkham 
Head,  Tavy  Hole,  Broad  Amicombe  Hole,  Dinger  Plain,  Moor  Gate. 
P.,  27  m.  ;  S.,  24  m.  ;  from  Cornwood,  a  little  W.  of  N.,  27  m.  Reverse, 
R.  28. 

This  route  is  made  up  of  R.  67  and  R.  3,  q.v. 

R.  71. — To  Chagford  and  Moreton,  N.E.  by  N.  With  route  from 
Cornwood,  N.N.E.  Niel  Gate,  Brag  Lane  End,  Shaugh  Moor,  Blacka- 
brook  Head,  Great  Trowlesworthy  Tor,  Hen  Tor  (FROM  CORNWOOD  : 
Rook  Gate,  Pen  Beacon,  Shell  Top,  Hen  Tor),  Plym  Steps,  Siward's 
Cross,  Peat  Cot,  Prince  Hall  Bridge,  Cherry  Brook,  Post  Bridge,  Warren 
House  Inn,  Jurston  Gate,  P.,  26  m.  ;  S.,  21  m.  ;  from  Cornwood, 
2i£  m.  To  Moreton,  i£  m.  further.  Reverse,  R.  34. 

[Objects  :  Exs.  36,  37,  3,  4,  46,  44,  45,  22.  If  from  Cornwood 
prefix  Exs.  34,  35,  and  S.  Ex.  121.] 

The  visitor  starting  from  Cornwood  should  follow  the  directions 
given  in  R.  59  for  reaching  Hen  Tor,  where  he  will  join  the  present 
route.  If  from  Plympton  those  for  reaching  Brag  Lane  End,  as  given 
in  R.  67  should  be  followed,  and  here  the  rambler  from  Shaugh  will 
join.  The  course  is  then  E.  by  N.  over  Shaugh  Moor,  and  across  the 
Cornwood  road,  to  Blackabrook  Head,  as  in  Ex.  37.  (The  visitor 
from  Plympton  may  shorten  the  distance  a  little  by  striking  up  over 
the  common  N.E.  by  E.  from  Niel  Gate  to  Hawks'  Tor,  which  he  will 
leave  I,.,  and  still  following  the  same  course  make  his  way  to  Emmett's 
Post,  i  m.  further  on.  Blackabrook  Head  is  then  £  m.  N.E.)  From 
the  source  of  the  tributary  the  rambler  will  ascend  the  hill  to  Great 
Trowlesworthy  Tor,  £  m.  N.E.,  crossing  the  Clay  Works  leat  by  one  of 
the  footbridges  here,  "and  will  thence  strike  across  Willings  Hill  to  Hen 
Tor  House,  a  little  below  the  pile  of  that  name,  keeping  very  nearly 
on  the  line  of  route  sketched  in  Ex.  37.  [From  this  point  the  way 
onward  to  Siward's  Cross  is  described  in  R.  59).  About  |  m.  N.  of 
Siward'9»Cross  the  rambler  will  bear  R.,  his  course  being  north-easterly, 
and  in  i  m.  he  will  reach  Peat  Cot  (Ex.  3).  He  will  here  cross  the 
Devonpo'rt  leat,  and  leaving  it  L.  will  strike  about  N.  towards  the 
enclosures  of  the  estate  of  Tor  Royal.  By  so  doing  he  will  avoid  some 
rather  bad  ground  near  the  springs  of  the  Strane,  R.  34.  [This  stream 
joins  the  Swincombe  below  the  White  Works  (Ex.  3).  Above  its  L. 


Routes  72,  73.    Plympton  and  Shaugh  to  Bovey  Tracey.       21 

bank  is  a  small  pile  known  as  Strane  Tor.]  When  nearing  the  outer 
corner  of  the  enclosures  the  course  must  be  altered  to  N.E.  by  E. 
The  summit  of  Royal  Hill  must  be  kept  a  little  to  the  R.  (end  of  Ex.  3), 
and  Cholake  Head,  which  is  due  N.  of  this,  L.  About  £  m.  further  on 
the  gate  at  Moorlands  will  be  reached.  Pass  through  this  and  turn  L- 
down  to  Prince  Hall  Bridge,  thence  up  by  the  house  to  the  lodge,  and 
across  Muddy  Lakes  Newtake  to  the  Moreton  road  as  in  R.  63.  Turn 
R.  and  follow  the  directions  given  in  R.  4. 

R.  72. — To  Bovey  Tracey,  N.E.  by  E.  For  points  and  objects 
from  Plympton,  27  m.,  see  R.  74,  66,  54.  E.N.E.  from  Shaugh,  29  m., 
via  Cornwood  and  Ivybridge,  R.  75,  76,  66,  54.  Reverse,  R.  41. 

R.  73. — To  Ashburton,  N.E.  by  E.  For  points  from  Plympton, 
19^  m.,  see  R.  74,  66.  E.  by  N.  from  Shaugh,  17^  m.  ;  points  :  Shaugh 
Moor,  Emmett's  Post,  Pen  Beacon,  High-house  Waste,  Stall  Moor, 
Three  Barrows,  Hickley  Plain,  Zeal  Bridge,  Shipley  Bridge,  Yolland, 
Gigley  Bridge,  Warn  Bridge,  Dean  ;  thence  as  in  R.  66.  Reverse, 
R.  48. 

[Objects :  Exs.  36,  34  to  29.] 

The  route  from  Plympton  consists  of  R.  74,  66. 

From  Shaugh  :  to  Ivybridge  by  R.  76,  or  to  Brent  by  R.  75,  and 
thence  as  in  R.  66,  the  latter  being  the  better  way  ;  or  the  moor  route 
may  be  taken  as  here  described,  provided  the  state  of  the  weather  does 
not  render  the  crossing  of  the  rivers  doubtful  (see  R.  48). 

From  Shaugh  village  to  the  common  by  Brag  Lane.  Strike  E.  to 
Emmett's  Post,  i  m.,  and  cross  the  Cornwood  road  to  the  Clay  Works 
reservoir.  Cross  the  leat  at  the  northern  end  of  this  and  follow  it 
eastward  for  about  \  m.  Pen  Beacon  (Ex.  34)  now  bears  E.  by  S., 
and  is  i  m.  distant,  and  directly  in  our  line  of  route.  If  the  rambler 
cares  to  go  over  it  he  will  descend  its  eastern  side  (the  course  there 
being  due  E.)  to  the  north-western  corner  of  High-house  Waste,  close 
to  the  source  of  Ford  Brook.  Should  he  not  desire  to  make  the  ascent 
he  will  pass  about  J  m.  S.  of  the  summit,  and  then  strike  north-eastward 
to  the  corner.  Keep  the  wall  R.  Cross  Broadall  Lake  where  it  comes 
from  Broadall  Gulf,  and  so  down  to  Yealm  Steps.  Here  leave  the  wall, 
and  pass  up  to  the  source  of  Ranny  Brook,  nearly  £  m.  E.  From  this 
point  steer  E.  by  S.  for  about  i  m.  over  Stall  Moor,  crossing  on  the 
way  the  track  to  Erme  Pound  (T.  66).  This  will  bring  the  rambler  to 
Downing' s  House  Brook. 

(Another  way  from  below  Pen  Beacon  to  Downing' s  House,  of 
which  the  reverse  is  given  in  R.  48,  is  by  steering  a  little  N.  of  E.  and 
passing  over  High-house  and  Dendles  Waste  to  the  Yealm,  which  is 
crossed  about  -i-  m.  below  Yealm  Steps.  Keep  the  same  N.  of  E.  course 
across  Stall  Moor  to  the  brook.  In  either  of  these  routes  Stalldon 
Barrow  must  be  kept  well  to  the  R.) 

Three  Barrows,  S.  of  E.,  is  the  next  point,  but  a  direct  route  should 
not  be  struck.  Follow  the  brook  to  the  Erme,  which  can  Usually  be 
crossed  without  much  difficulty  where  the  tributary  falls  into  it.  The 
summit  of  Three  Barrows  is  not  now  in  sight,  and  care  must  be  taken 
not  to  keep  too  much  to  the  R.  in  ascending.  Steer  E.  by  S.  The 
climb  is  a  stiff  one,  and  the  distance  not  much  short  of  a  mile.  The 
Blackwood  Path  (T.  63)  is  crossed  shortly  before  the  three  cainis  are 


22  Routes  74,  75.    Plympton  to  Ivybridge  and  Brent. 

reached  (Ex.  31).  From  this  lofty  hill  the  course  is  nearly  due  E.  for 
i£  m.,  the  bend  of  Red  Brook,  on  Hickley  Plain,  being  passed  close  I,. 
The  point  to  be  reached  is  a  small  plantation  at  the  foot  of  Hickley 
Ridge,  and  close  to  Bala  Brook.  Here  is  a  hunting-gate  whence  a 
path  leads  across  two  fields  to  a  lane  (Ex.  30).  The  rambler  turns  L. 
over  Zeal  Bridge,  and  passing  Zeal  Farm  again  reaches  the  moor  at 
Shipley.  Here  he  will  cross  the  Avon,  and  keeping  the  wall  L,.  enter 
a  lane.  About  £  m.  on  is  Yolland  Cross,  where  it  makes  a  sharp  bend 
R.,  and  here  he  will  enter  the  gate  L.  to  Yolland  Farm,  as  in  S.  Ex.  105. 
Passing  this  he  will  follow  the  green  track  across  the  level  with  the 
hedge  R.  (this  is  part  of  T.  59).  Reaching  a  stroll,  with  Dockwell 
Gate  L.  (Ex.  29),  he  will  turn  R.  and  make  his  way  to  the  head  of  it, 
and  passing  through  the  gate  there  will  turn  down  the  lane  L.  to 
Gigley  Bridge,  just  beyond  which  he  will  again  turn  L.  Almost 
immediately  a  lane  branching  R.  is  reached,  and  into  this  he  will  strike, 
and  passing  down  the  hill  E.  by  N.,  will,  in  \\  m.,  reach  Warn  Bridge, 
near  the  gate  where  a  track  runs  up  the  Valley  of  Dean  Burn  (S.  Ex. 
100).  The  hamlet  of  Dean  Combe  is  passed  just  before  reaching  this  ; 
it  lies  a  little  in  on  the  R.  A  short  distance  beyond  the  bridge  he  will 
turn  R.,  and  speedily  reach  the  village  of  Dean,  from  which  place  he 
will  proceed  as  directed  in  R.  66. 

R.  74. — Plympton  to  Ivybridge  and  Brent.  The  Lyneham  Inn, 
Lee  Mill  Bridge,  Ivybridge,  Bittaford  Bridge,  Wrangaton  Station,  Brent 
Bridge.  I.,  6£  m.  ;  B.,  n\  m.  Reverse,  R.  55. 

[Objects  :  Ex.  32,  seen  from  near  Wrangaton.] 

From  the  George  Hotel  the  main  road  is  followed  eastward,  the 
Lyneham  Inn  and  Smithaleigh  being  passed  between  that  starting- 
point  and  I,ee  Mill  Bridge,  on  the  Yealm,  3^  m.  Thence  the  road  goes 
by  Cadleigh  Park  to  Ivybridge,  2  m.,  from  which  place  the  Brent  road 
is  described  in  R.  66. 

R.  75.— Shaugh  to  Brent,  E.  by  S.  Walter,  White  Hill  Corner, 
Piall  Bridge,  Cornwood,  Harford,  Spurrell's  Cross,  Owley  Gate,  12  m. 
Reverse,  R.  56. 

[Objects:  Exs.  36,  35,  37,  33,  32,  S.  Ex.  112,  in.] 
To  the  common  by  the  road  R.  at  the  stone  cross.  Follow  the  road 
past  Beatland  Corner,  where  the  Plympton  and  Cadaford  road  is  crossed. 
Beyond  Collard  Tor  is  Wotter,  and  less  than  a  mile  from  this  the  road 
turns  down  by  Shade  Cottages,  and  then  passing  Boringdon  Cottages 
I/,  goes  on  to  White  Hill  Corner.  Here  the  rambler  will  turn  R.  to 
Tolchmoor  Bridge,  and  soon  after  descend  the  hill,  with  Ridding 
Down  R.  and  Cholwich  Town  I,.,  to  Quick  Bridge  (Ex.  35).  From 
here  the  road  runs  to  Piall  Bridge,  Heathfield  Down,  and  Cornwood 
village,  whence  the  way  to  Ivybridge  is  shown  in  R.  76.  For  Brent 
turn  L.  to  the  Vicarage  Bridge  and  Tor,  where  turn  R.  to  Harford 
Bridge,  2|  m.  Thence  up  to  the  church,  and  L.  to  Harford  Gate, 
whence  the  green  track  running  east  over  the  common  is  followed 
(T.  62).  In  tracing  this  keep  Butter  Brook  R.  ;  |  m.  a  little  N.  of  E. 
from  the  head  of  this  is  the  shattered  Spurrell's  Cross  [Crosses,  Chap. 
III.]  near  which  the  Buckfast  track  branched  off  (T.  59)  ;  from  this 
the  source  of  the  Scad,  200  feet  below,  bears  S.  of  E.,  £  m.  ;  rather 
less  than  ^  m.  due  E.  of  this  source  is  Owley  Gate  (S.  Ex.  no).  From. 


ROUTE    76.      SHAUGH    TO    IVYBRIDGE.  23 

this  the  way  lies  through  the  lane  between  the  enclosure  walls  to 
Owley,  and  L.  to  the  Glaze  ;  thence  up  the  hill  to  Bulhornstone  Cross, 
about  £  m.  beyond  which  Aish  is  reached.  Turn  down  the  hill  R.  and 
cross  Lydia  Bridge  to  the  village. 

R.  76. — Shaugh  to  Ivybridge,  S.E.  by  E.  The  points  are  the  same 
as  in  the  preceding  route  as  far  as  Cornwood  ;  thence  the  way  lies  by 
Moor  Cross  and  up  Houndle  Hill.  If  the  way  over  Crownhill  Down 
be  chosen  the  points  are  as  follows  :  Niel  Gate,  Port-worthy,  Hooksbury 
Wood,  Crownhill  Down,  Heddon  Down,  Lutton,  Moor  Cross.  Via 
Cornwood,  8|  m.  ;  via  Crownhill  Down,  9  m.  Reverse,  R.  57. 

[Objects:  Exs.  36,  35,  34.] 

To  Cornwood  as  in  R.  75.  Keeping  the  inn  R.  follow  the  road  to 
Moor  Cross  and  Houndle  Hill,  and  past  Fardle  to  Dame  Hannah 
Rogers'  School,  as  in  S.  Ex.  119.  Down  by  the  church  to  the  village. 
If  by  way  of  Crownhill  Down  and  Lutton  (see  R.  57)  take  the  road  to 
Beatland  Corner  and  Niel  Gate.*  At  the  forks  £  m.  down  take  the  L- 
branch.  Over  ^  m.  on  cross  the  Lee  Moor  Railway,  and  £  m.  beyond 
that  turn  L.  to  Portworthy.  Cross  the  Torry,  and  keeping  Hooksbury 
Wood  R.  go  on  to  the  guide-post  on  the  verge  of  the  common.  From 
this  point  the  way  lies  E.  by  S.  over  Crownhill  Down  and  Heddon 
Down  to  Lutton,  2|  m.  (see  R.  57).  The  Underwood  Memorial 
Congregational  Church  in  this  picturesque  little  village  was  opened  in 
1911.  So  generously  was  the  scheme  supported  that  subscriptions 
were  received  from  all  parts  of  the  kingdom,  and  even  from  Canada. 
The  builder  was  Mr.  Ambrose  Andrews,  of  Plymouth.  From  Lutton 
descend  the  hill  southward  towards  Slade  Hall,  but  before  this  is 
reached  turn  L.  to  the  Piall  Brook.  Thence  over  the  ridge,  keeping 
straight  on  at  the  cross  road,  and  down  to  the  bridge  over  the  Yealm. 
Just  beyond  this  is  Moor  Cross,  where  the  road  runs  R.  to  Ivybridge 
(see  ante). 

CRANMERE.  Visitors  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Plympton  and 
Shaugh  may  best  reach  Cranmere  by  way  of  Princetown,  which,  of 
course,  they  may  readily  do  by  rail.  The  way  over  the  moor  direct 
from  either  of  these  places  is  shown  in  R.  67,  which  will  take  the  rambler 
to  Princetown;  and  in  R.  71,  which  gives  directions  for  reaching 
Siward's  Cross,  whence  Princetown  is  rather  less  than  2^  m.  distant, 
and  the  way  is  shown  in  Ex.  2,  Part  I.  From  Princetown  or  Two 
Bridges  onward  see  Cranmere  Routes  i,  2,  in  Part  I.  For  Map  of  the 
Cranmere  surroundings  see  end  of  Yelverton  and  Dousland  District. 


*  On  the  way  to  Plympton,  where  the  Lee  Moor  tramroad  is 
crossed,  is  Brixton  Farm,  R.  Here  are  the  remains  of  an  ancient 
entrenchment  known  as  Boringdon  Camp.  It  is  sometimes  referred 
to  as  Castle  Ring,  though  this  name  is  more  often  applied  to  the  ruined 
keep  at  Plympton. 


24  DISTANCES   TO   YELVERTON. 


YELVERTON   AND   DOUSLAND 
DISTRICT. 

DISTANCES  (from  Yelverton).  By  ROAD:  ASHBURTON, 
via  Two  Bridges,  20^  m.  ;  via  Cornwood,  24  m.  BICKLEIGH,  4  m. 
BOVEY  TRACEY,  via  Two  Bridges,  25  m.  BUCKLAND  MONA- 
CHORUM,  2|  m.  CA DA  FORD  BRIDGE,  via  Greenwell  Down, 
3£  m.  CHAGFORD,  via  Two  Bridges,  18  m.  CORNWOOD,  via 
Greenwell  Down,  8£  m.  DARTMEET,  12^  m.  EXETER,  31*  m. 
HEXWORTHY,  I2|  m.  IVYBRIDGE,  via  Cornwood,  q.v.,  ii£  m. 
WHITE  HILL  CORNER,  via  Greenwell  Down,  5|-  m.  LYDFORD 
(Dartmoor  Inn),  8  m.  snort  of  Okehampton,  q.v.  MERIVALE 
BRIDGE,  via  Moor  Shop,  7  m.  ;  via  Princetown,  9  m.  MORETON, 
19^  m.  NIEL  GATE,  5*  m.  NOSWORTHY  BRIDGE,  3^  m.  ; 
OKEHAMPTON,  via  Huckworthy  Bridge  and  Moor  Shop,  2o|  m.  ; 
via  Tavistock,  21  m.  PLYMOUTH,  g  m.  PLYMPTON,  via  Niel 
Gate,  9!  m.  ;  via  Roborough  and  Plym  Bridge,  9  m.  POST  BRIDGE. 
II  m.  PRINCETOWN,  6m.  ROBOROUGH,  3$  m.  SAMPFORD 
SPINEY,  3|  m.  S£L4  C/G-ff,  via  Cadaford  Bridge,  5  m.  ;  via  Bick- 
leigh  and  Shaugh  Bridge,  7  m.  SHEEPSTOR  VILLAGE,  4  m. 
SOUTH  BRENT,  via  Cornwood,  i6J  m.  T^4  VI STOCK,  5  m.  TWO 
BRIDGES,  7|  m. 

BY  RAII,:  (G.W.R.)  BICKLEIGH,  3^  m.  EXETER,  via 
Plymouth,  63^  m.  ;  M'«  Tavistock  (L.S.W.  from  T.),  47^  m.  HORRA- 
BRIDGE,  I  m.  MARSH  MILLS.  7  m.  PLYMOUTH,  n  m. 
PRINCETOWN,  io£  m.  TA  VISTOCK,  5 £  m. 


Important  Points  and  Landmarks. 

Cadaford  Bridge — Marchants  Cross — Nosworthy  Bridge — Plym 
Steps — Sheeps  Tor.  Places  of  Interest.  The  Abbots'  Way — Burrator 
Lake — Crazy  Well  Pool — Dean  Combe — The  Dewer  Stone — Down  Tor 
— Lether  Tor — Pixies'  Cave — Valley  of  the  Walkham — Ward  Bridge. 
Prehistoric  Antiquities.  Brisworthy  :  stone  circle — Down  Tor:  row, 
menhir,  and  circle  on  Kingston  Hill — Kingsett :  hut  circles — Plym 
Valley  :  hut  circles  and  other  remains — Peak  Hill  :  stone  row — Thrushel 
Combe  (on  the  Plym)  :  rows,  cairns,  and  menhirs — Wigford  Down  : 
hut  circles  and  kists.  Mining  Remains.  Dean  Combe  Head  :  tinners' 
excavations — Plym  Valley  :  stream  works — Shady  Combe  :  deep 
cuttings  on  Greenwell  Down. 

Excellent  examples  of  moorland  churches  will  be  found  at  Buckland, 
Sampford  Spiney,  Walkhampton,  Sheepstor,  Meavy,  and  Shaugh. 
The  small  border  commons,  Short's  Down,  Huckworthy  Down,  Knowle 
Down,  and  Calisham  Down,  are  also  of  interest.  The  old  Plymouth 


YELVERTON.      THE    ELFORDS.  25 

and  Dartmoor  Railway,  parts  of  which  may  still  be  seen  on  Roborough 
Down,  is  worth  examination  as  an  example  of  the  engineering  skill  of 
a  century  ago. 

From  the  latter  part  of  the  fifteenth  century  till  the  middle  of  the 
eighteenth  the  ancient  family  of  Elford  was  seated  at  I/ongstone,  near 
Sheepstor  village.  One  of  their  possessions,  on  the  verge  of  Roborough 
Down,  was  called  Elford  Town,  and  is  mentioned  in  the  thirteenth 
century  as  Elleford.  In  the  speech  of  the  country  people  this  became 
Yelver  Town,  or  Yelverton,  and  when  some  years  ago  houses  sprang 
up  on  the  verge  of  the  common,  and  a  name  was  required  by  which  to 
distinguish  the  locality,  it  was  decided  that  no  better  one  could  be 
given  to  it  than  Yelverton.  When  we  first  knew  Roborough  Down 
the  only  houses  in  this  part  of  it  were  the  Rock  Hotel,  the  cottage 
which  stands  by  the  roadside  some  200  or  300  yards  in  its  rear,  and  the 
Buller's  Arms,  at  I,eg  o'  Mutton  Corner  ;  the  latter  stood  opposite  to 
the  present  Yelverton  Hotel.  One  of  my  earliest  recollections  is  a 
walk  from  the  cottage  referred  to  past  Roborough  Rock  to  that  part 
of  the  down  between  the  entrances  to  Bickham  and  Maristowe,  to 
which  I  was  taken  by  my  father,  to  see  some  military  manoeuvres. 
This  was  in  1854,  and  among  the  troops  was  a  Highland  regiment, 
•which  shortly  after  left  England  for  the  Crimea.  For  several  years 
Roborough  Down  remained  as  I  first  knew  it  ;  then  a  few  houses  were 
built  on  the  Horrabridge  road,  and  at  length  with  the  opening  of  the 
Princetown  railway  came  the  development  of  the  present  residential 
neighbourhood.  Another  possession  of  the  Elfords  was  Crapstone,  near 
the  village  of  Buckland  Monachorum.  This  they  obtained  by  purchase 
from  the  Crymes,  the  family  to  which  we  have  referred  as  probably 
having  been  the  possessors  of  Roundy  Farm,  on  Walkhampton  Common 
(Ex.  2).  The  last  of  the  Elfords  of  Longstone  died  in  1748.  Bickham, 
which  had  been  bought  by  a  branch  of  the  family,  was  later  the 
residence  of  Sir  William  Elford,  who  represented  Plymouth  in  Parlia- 
ment. He  died  in  1837.  In  the  early  part  of  the  nineteenth  century 
Elford  Town  was  in  the  occupation  of  Mr.  G.  Leach,  and  subsequently 
in  that  of  Mrs.  Davy. 

Roborough  Down,  on  the  verge  of  which  the  residences  forming 
Yelverton  are  situated,  extends  from  the  sixth  milestone  from  Ply- 
mouth to  about  the  tenth,  the  continuation  of  the  common,  which 
makes  a  north-westerly  sweep  to  the  Tavy  forming  Buckland  Down. 
Its  name  is  supposed  to  be  derived  from  an  earthwork,  or  "  borough," 
and  appears  in  the  thirteenth  century  as  Roburg  and  Rugheburgh, 
and  in  later  times  as  Rowborrough.  The  hundred  is  also  named  from 
this  earthwork.  Among  the  possessions  of  Buckland  Abbey  at  the 
time  of  the  Dissolution  were  certain  perquisites  of  the  Hundred  Court, 
and  the  rent  of  the  down,  which  amounted  to  twenty  shillings.  On 
the  slope  between  the  eighth  and  ninth  milestones  is  Roborough  Rock. 
It  is  shown  on  an  eighteenth  century  map  of  Devon  as  T'llestor  Rock, 
but  early  in  the  nineteenth  had  ceased  to  be  called  by  that  name.  It 
consists  of  two  bosses,  with  a  connecting  portion  of  some  length  and 
of  much  less  elevation,  the  whole  forming  one  mass.  On  the  northern 
side  of  the  eastern  boss  a  rude  resemblance  to  the  human  face  in  profile 
may  be  traced  when  seen  from  the  road.  In  my  early  days  this  was 
always  called  the  Duke  of  Wellington's  Nose.  The  view  from  near 
the  eight  milestone,  a  little  southward  of  the  rock  is  particularly  fine. 


26 


ROBOROUGH    DOWN. 


The  grouping  of  the  tors  above  the  Walkham  valley  at  once  strikes  the 
observer  as  its  chief  feature.  On  the  extreme  I,,  is  the  bold  Cocks' 
Tor  Hill,  and  next  to  it  the  fantastically-shaped  rocks  of  Staple  Tor. 
To  the  R.  of  these  the  Walkham  comes  down  from  the  recesses  of  the 


Cocks  Tor. 


White    Pu  Staple        Merivale 
Tor.     Tor.  Tors.          Quarry. 


Mis 
Tor. 


N.    Koborough  Rock. 


Vixen  Tor. 


FROM   NEAR   ROBOROUGH   ROCK. 

moor,  and  above  the  cleft  is  seen  the  granite  crown  of  Mis  Tor.  R.  of 
it  is  North  Hisworthy,  from  which  the  dusky  Yennadon  sweeps  towards 
the  giant  form  of  Sheeps  Tor,  which  rises  grandly  beyond  the  vale 
where  the  little  village  of  Meavy,  with  its  ancient  church,  nestles  among 
the  trees. 

Though   no   part   of   Roborough   Down   is   without   interevSt,    for 
delightful  views  are  commanded  from  every  point,  its  northern  end  is 


Slope  of 
Mis  Tor. 


Hollow 
Tor. 

Inga       N.  Hisworthy 
Tor.  Tor.          Dousland. 


Peak 
Hill. 


Lether 
Tor. 


FROM  NEAR  ROBOROUGH  ROCK. 


the  most  charming  and  romantic.  Here,  near  where  the  Tavy  and  the 
Walkham  mingle  their  waters,  are  precipitous  slopes,  clothed  in  places 
with  coppice,  and  in  others  with  tall  bracken,  through  which  wind 
green  paths.  The  confluence  of  the  two  streams  is  known  as  Double 
Waters,  and  just  above  it  is  a  clam  over  the  Walkham,  whence  a  path 


GREENWELL    DOWN. 


27 


leads  up  to  a  rugged  pile  of  rocks,  and  over  West  Down.  From  the 
down  a  road  runs  to  Tavistock,  2  m.,  passing  Walreddon,  the  ancient 
mansion  of  the  Courtenays,  which  is  quite  close  to  the  verge  of  the 
common.  It  is  of  mid-sixteenth  century  date,  though  some  parts 


Eylesbarrow. 


Yennadon  Down. 
FROM  NEAR   ROBOROUGH   ROCK. 

are  said  to  be  earlier.  The  road  goes  on  to  Rix  Hill  and  Brook  Lane, 
and  joins  the  Tavistock  main  road  opposite  to  the  entrance  to  the 
cemetery.  Overlooking  the  Walkham  above  the  confluence  are  Buck 
Tor,  and  the  crag  known  as  the  Raven  Rock.  Below  the  confluence 
is  the  Virtuous  I/ady  Mine,  which  name  is  supposed  to  have  reference 
to  Queen  Elizabeth.